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Article

Catharine M. Curran and Jef I. Richards

Over the past 30 years the United States has grappled with the regulation of children's advertising in various media. The same debate that occurred in the 1970's in the US…

Abstract

Over the past 30 years the United States has grappled with the regulation of children's advertising in various media. The same debate that occurred in the 1970's in the US over banning children's advertising is heating up in the EU today. As with other regulatory issues the regulation of children's advertising involves trade‐offs. In the US, the First Amendment rights of the advertisers must be balanced with the government interest in protecting children. The regulation of children's advertising also involves balancing the competing interests of advocacy groups, legislators, broadcasters and advertisers. Advocacy groups have been very effective in focusing public attention on the issues of children's advertising. One of the most vocal and impactful groups was Action for Children's Television (ACT), whose efforts culminated in the passage of the 1990 Children's Television Act. Once that was accomplished, ACT was disbanded. In more recent years, however, the Centre for Media Education (CME) has replaced ACT in calling for regulation of children's advertising. CME was instrumental in pushing the 1996 FTC investigation related to 900 telephone numbers directed at children, and is now behind the Child Online Protection Act (COPA). The same questions raised nearly 30 years ago by ACT are now being cast in the US in terms of the Internet, otherwise little has changed. Each new innovation in media and technology ushers similar questions to the table, and the same balancing act must again be employed to answer the basic question: how far do we go to protect our children? The US's answer to this question offers insights for other countries seeking answers to similar questions.

Details

International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6676

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Article

Catharine M. Curran

Addresses the question of advertising to children whilst they are in school. Debates the ethical issues surrounding this new marketing strategy. Claims there is an…

Abstract

Addresses the question of advertising to children whilst they are in school. Debates the ethical issues surrounding this new marketing strategy. Claims there is an information asymmetry in the market, as corporations are well informed of the schools’ need for revenue, yet school administrators are ill informed about the value of exclusive access to the children.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Catharine M. Curran and Jef I. Richards

Invasion of privacy is a serious, and sometimes frightening, concept for many people. It can evoke images of big brother, in the form of big business, knowing your most…

Abstract

Invasion of privacy is a serious, and sometimes frightening, concept for many people. It can evoke images of big brother, in the form of big business, knowing your most intimate secrets and even selling those secrets to others. Laws to guard against these personal violations have been slow in coming from the US government. A combination of consumer fears and sluggish federal response is nothing particularly new, but as with other such situations it has provided state and local officials a lever with which to pry public attention out of the hands of their federal counterparts.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Catharine M. Curran and Jef I. Richards

Questions the US Government’s (Office of National Drug Control Policy) legislation which encouraged broadcasters to run anti‐drug story lines in their programmes. By doing…

Abstract

Questions the US Government’s (Office of National Drug Control Policy) legislation which encouraged broadcasters to run anti‐drug story lines in their programmes. By doing so, the broadcasters were allowed to reduce the number of legally required obligations to run anti‐drug commercials. The decision was made in response to the unpopular 1997 legislation which provided $1 billion to purchase anti‐drug commercials on the stipulation that broadcasters donate one time slot for every one bought. Asserts that messages supplied in story lines have not been measured in terms of their effectiveness in persuading the audience whereas targeted commercials have. Questions the motivations of the White House.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Elizabeth Jane Wilson, Anders Bengtsson and Catharine Curran

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, propositions in an existing conceptual framework are empirically explored to note whether and how brand meaning gaps exist for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, propositions in an existing conceptual framework are empirically explored to note whether and how brand meaning gaps exist for internal and external stakeholders of a focal brand. Second, a typology of brand meaning gaps, characterised by meaning assonance and valence, offers new insight for brand management strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use case study methods to explore the research propositions about brand meaning gaps among stakeholder groups. The focal firm is The Black Dog Company of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts in the USA. Data from brand owners (internal stakeholders) and consumers (external stakeholders) are collected using in-depth interviews, observation, document analysis, and an online survey that includes a picture association task. Further inductive analysis of secondary data helps develop the typology of brand meaning gaps and dynamics.

Findings

The research propositions are supported. Brand meaning gaps exist between internal and external stakeholders, and they exist among two external stakeholder groups. Brand meaning for owners, primarily defined as family heritage, is largely unknown to consumers. Among consumers, brand meaning for stakeholder group 1 is “coastal New England”; brand meaning for group 2 is “dog lovers.” Although multiple brand meanings exist for stakeholders, the meanings are relatively assonant (harmonious) and positively valenced. The findings regarding the polysemic nature of brand meaning are useful to brand managers seeking to leverage offerings to multiple target markets. These findings, along with additional secondary data, serve as the basis for a typology of brand gaps and dynamics characterized by assonance and valence. Four types of meaning gaps may lead to situations where brands are beloved, on-the-cusp, hijacked, or facing disaster.

Originality/value

This work addresses calls from the literature to empirically explore brand meaning among multiple stakeholder groups.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article

Isabelle Giroux

The purpose of this research is to present the results of a recent interpretive study of 11 small Central Vancouver Island firms in British Columbia, Canada, which yield…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to present the results of a recent interpretive study of 11 small Central Vancouver Island firms in British Columbia, Canada, which yield new interpretations of the nature of problem‐solving processes within the wider context of managerial capability as a critical contributor to small business survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach taken is positioned within an emergent body of research in the field of small business and entrepreneurship that applies an interpretive paradigm to uncover the complex facets of how individuals develop their capabilities and management practices with a particular emphasis on the small business owner‐manager. More specifically, the critical incident technique method, along with an approach to data analysis and coding that draws from grounded theory, is combined and applied as a qualitative research strategy to yield new understandings of problem solving in small firms.

Findings

Research findings reveal the intuitive, improvised and non‐linear nature of how problems are actually solved in the sample of small firms studied, in contrast with a number of well‐known theoretical research frameworks that propose well‐defined and delineated steps in the problem‐solving process.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size and the methods chosen to conduct the research do not allow for the generalization of findings to all firms, yet do allow for the emergence of themes among the businesses that participated in the study. Research could be expanded by applying a similar research design to small firms in other regions of Canada to determine whether significant differences or similarities exist and to identify the implications for research in the area of problem solving in small firms.

Originality/value

The identification of problems as critical incidents represents a primary focus of the research and provides a more explanatory account of problem solving from the perspective of small firm owner‐managers involved in the process. The analysis of these highly subjective interpretations represents valuable research findings that provide a basis for the development of theory on problem solving in small firms.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Erum Ishaq, Usman Raja, Dave Bouckenooghe and Sajid Bashir

Using signaling theory and the literature on psychological contracts, the authors investigate how leaders' personalities shape their followers' perceptions of the type of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using signaling theory and the literature on psychological contracts, the authors investigate how leaders' personalities shape their followers' perceptions of the type of psychological contract formed. They also suggest that leaders' personalities impact their followers' perceived contract breach. Furthermore, the authors propose that power distance orientation in organizations acts as an important boundary condition that enhances or exacerbates the relationships between personality and contract type and personality and perceived breach.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through multiple sources in Pakistan from 456 employees employed in 102 bank branches. Multilevel moderated path analyses provided reasonably good support for our hypotheses.

Findings

The leaders' personalities impacted the relational contracts of their followers in the cases of extraversion and agreeableness, whereas neuroticism had a significant relationship with the followers' formation of transactional contracts. Similarly, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness had significant relationships with perceived breach. Finally, the power distance of the followers aggregated at a group level moderated the personality-contract type and personality-perceived breach relationships.

Research limitations/implications

This research advances understanding of psychological contracts in organizations. More specifically, it shows that the personality of leader would have profound impact on the type of contract their employees form and the likelihood that would perceive the breach of contract.

Originality/value

This research extends existing personality-psychological contract literature by examining the role of leaders' personalities in signaling to employees the type of contract that is formed and the perception of its breach. The role of power distance organizational culture as a signaling environment is also considered.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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