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Article

Allyson Carlyle

This paper examines a user categorisation of documents related to a particular literary work. Fifty study participants completed an unconstrained sorting task of documents…

Abstract

This paper examines a user categorisation of documents related to a particular literary work. Fifty study participants completed an unconstrained sorting task of documents related to Charles Dickens’ A Christmas carol. After they had finished the sorting task, participants wrote descriptions of the attributes they used to create each group. Content analysis of these descriptions revealed categories of attributes used for grouping. Participants used physical format, audience, content description, pictorial elements, usage, and language most frequently for grouping. Many of the attributes participants used for grouping already exist in bibliographic records and may be used to cluster records related to works automatically in online catalogue displays. The attributes used by people in classifying or grouping documents related to a work may be used to guide the design of summary online catalogue work displays.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

John G. St Quinton

Identifying the fundamental characteristics of meaning and deriving an automated meaning‐analysis procedure for machine intelligence.

Abstract

Purpose

Identifying the fundamental characteristics of meaning and deriving an automated meaning‐analysis procedure for machine intelligence.

Design/methodology/approach

Semantic category theory (SCT) is an original testable scientific theory, based on readily available data: not assumptions or axioms. SCT can therefore be refuted by irreconcilable data: not opinion.

Findings

Human language involves four totally independent semantic categories (SC), each of which has its own distinctive form of “Truth”. Any sentence that assigns the characteristics of one SC to another SC involves what is termed here “Semantic Intertwine”. Semantic intertwine often lies at the core of semantic ambiguity, sophistry and paradox: problems that have plagued human reason since antiquity.

Research limitations/implications

SCT is applicable to any endeavour involving human language. Research applications are therefore somewhat extensive. For example, identifying metaphors posing as science, or natural language processing/translation, or solving disparate paradox types, as illustrated by worked examples from: The Liar Group, Sorites Inductive, Russell's Set Theoretic and Zeno's Paradoxes.

Practical implications

To interact successfully with human language, behaviour, and belief systems, as well as their own environment, intelligent machines will need to resolve the semantic component/intertwines of any sentence. Semantic category analysis (SCA), derived from SCT, and also described here, can be used to analyse any sentence or argument, however complex.

Originality/value

Both SCT and SCA are original. Whilst “category error” is an intuitive notion, the observably precise nature, number and modes of interaction of such categories have never previously been presented. With SCT/SCA the rigorous analysis of any argument, whether foisted, valid, or obfuscating, is now possible: by man or machine.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 34 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Allen C Benson

– The purpose of this paper is to survey the treatment of relationships, relationship expressions and the ways in which they manifest themselves in image descriptions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to survey the treatment of relationships, relationship expressions and the ways in which they manifest themselves in image descriptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The term “relationship” is construed in the broadest possible way to include spatial relationships (“to the right of”), temporal (“in 1936,” “at noon”), meronymic (“part of”), and attributive (“has color,” “has dimension”). The intentions of these vaguely delimited categories with image information, image creation, and description in libraries and archives is complex and in need of explanation.

Findings

The review brings into question many generally held beliefs about the relationship problem such as the belief that the semantics of relationships are somehow embedded in the relationship term itself and that image search and retrieval solutions can be found through refinement of word-matching systems.

Originality/value

This review has no hope of systematically examining all evidence in all disciplines pertaining to this topic. It instead focusses on a general description of a theoretical treatment in Library and Information Science.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 71 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Achour Fatma, Anis Jedidi and Faiez Gargouri

One of the open questions is how to ensure the conceptual adaptation in the pervasive system. To answer this question, the authors needed to propose a generic model and a…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the open questions is how to ensure the conceptual adaptation in the pervasive system. To answer this question, the authors needed to propose a generic model and a mechanism to describe this system and also need generic and semantic rules to ensure the adaptation. This paper aims to propose a model to describe the pervasive information system. Second, the authors suggest an approach to divide this model so as to describe each category of contextual information separately and ensure the adaptation in the pervasive system. Finally, the authors present examples of semantic rules executed in the pervasive system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes an approach to ensure the conceptual adaptation in the pervasive system. To do it, the authors proposed a model to design the pervasive system and used semantic Web services. They proposed to divide the model to six descriptions related to the pervasive system categories information.

Findings

Pervasive information system, conceptual adaptation, semantic Web services and OWL-S are presented in this paper.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is presented in the purpose of the pervasive information system conceptual adaption in the pervasive system. In this, later, semantic Web services were used to ensure the adaptation by the adding of contextual information in the semantic Web service description.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Sirje Virkus and Alice A. Bamigbola

This paper aims to present the results of a study that investigated the Erasmus Mundus Digital Library Learning (DILL) Master programme students' conceptions and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the results of a study that investigated the Erasmus Mundus Digital Library Learning (DILL) Master programme students' conceptions and experiences of the use of Web 2.0 tools.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted phenomenography as a research approach to identify DILL students' conceptions and experiences of Web 2.0 tools. Semi‐structured interviews with open‐ended questions were conducted with 12 students from Africa and Asia within the DILL Master programme.

Findings

The data analysis revealed four categories of descriptions of Web 2.0 tools: communication, educational, professional and multi‐purpose. For each category of descriptions preferred Web 2.0 tools were identified.

Research limitations/implications

The study analyses only conceptions and experiences of the use of Web 2.0 tools of 12 DILL students. This small group of students was from Africa and Asia and, therefore, the results should not be generalized to describe all DILL students' conceptions and experiences of the use of Web 2.0 tools.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be taken into consideration when designing and delivering a DILL programme. In order to use technologies to support learning there is a need to understand and know what students do with these new technological tools.

Originality/value

This paper supports the idea of integration of information and communication technologies into education and highlights the potential of Web 2.0 tools to support teaching and learning in the higher education setting.

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Article

Sivakumari Supramaniam, Sanjaya S. Gaur, Izian Idris and Boon Liat Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential business opportunities for Middle Eastern entrepreneurs by understanding the Malaysian Muslim’s ways of experiencing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential business opportunities for Middle Eastern entrepreneurs by understanding the Malaysian Muslim’s ways of experiencing and realising value of products originating from Middle Eastern countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Phenomenography approach has been used to identify the variations among the Muslim consumers’ ways of experiencing Middle Eastern products.

Findings

The authors reported that Muslim consumers considered the country of origin as an important cue that affects their knowing, understanding, judging and acting on products originating from Middle Eastern countries.

Originality/value

Understanding developed from the Malaysian Muslim consumers enabled authors to suggest business opportunities for Middle Eastern entrepreneurs to enter and expand their operations in other leading Islamic countries.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part

Brandon Collier-Reed and Åke Ingerman

In this description of phenomenography, we take a functional view of the theoretical underpinnings that have traditionally been used to support its trustworthiness as a…

Abstract

In this description of phenomenography, we take a functional view of the theoretical underpinnings that have traditionally been used to support its trustworthiness as a qualitative research approach. The chapter has two objectives, first to serve as an introduction for those considering embarking on research with a phenomenographic framing, and second to enable the recognition of the quality and scope of the knowledge claim inherent in phenomenographic outcomes.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-682-8

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Article

Diana K. Wakimoto

The purpose of this paper is to describe different collective ways that archivists, librarians and those with dual-roles experience archives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe different collective ways that archivists, librarians and those with dual-roles experience archives.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a phenomenographic approach, a total of 24 librarians, archivists and dual-role individuals were interviewed, and interview transcripts were analyzed to create categories that described the varying ways in which archives are experienced.

Findings

Librarians experienced archives in four ways: historical resources, preserving history, preserved access and political. Archivists experienced archives in four ways: accessible collections, connection, collaboration and stewardship. Dual-role individuals experienced archives in five ways: collections, preserved access, progress, connection and knowledge creators. There are variations among and within each group on how archives are experienced. However, there is a significant overlap in many categories in terms of access, preservation, use and collections.

Practical implications

Understanding each other’s different perspectives could lead to stronger partnerships among librarians, archivists and dual-role individuals. These partnerships have the potential to increase the visibility of archives, providing greater access and engagement for community members.

Originality/value

The study supports previous phenomenographic research on experiences of archives and provides a more nuanced understanding of information professionals’ varying collective experiences of archives.

Details

Library Review, vol. 66 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article

Brett Leslie Shipton

This paper outlines some of the key results of a PhD study of the teaching and teaching development experiences of police educators practising in Australian police…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper outlines some of the key results of a PhD study of the teaching and teaching development experiences of police educators practising in Australian police academies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the variation in police educators’ teaching and teaching development experiences, with these results being used to inform a developmental pathway for these practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research specialisation called phenomenography was used for the data collection and analysis process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 police educators from across five police academies. The transcribed interviews were analysed using comparative analysis to constitute a limited number of qualitatively different categories representing variation from less to more complete experiences.

Findings

The results were represented via two sets of categories that were discussed in relation to the broader domains teacher- and learner-centeredness, and potential staff development pathways for police educators.

Practical implications

Discussion of the results highlighted ideal approaches to teaching and teaching development and examined the limitations on staff development in relation to the less sophisticated experiences. Finally, the implications of these results were discussed in terms of potential staff development strategies within police academies.

Originality/value

This research is unique in terms of police educators’ experiences of their teaching and teaching development.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article

Diana K. Wakimoto and Christine Susan Bruce

This paper aims to explore the varying ways in which academic archivists in the USA experience archives, how these experiences compare to those of academic librarians and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the varying ways in which academic archivists in the USA experience archives, how these experiences compare to those of academic librarians and how we can use these findings to improve communication and collaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a phenomenographic research approach, academic archivists were interviewed and the transcripts were examined to develop categories reflecting varying experiences.

Findings

There are three different ways of experiencing archives: as organizational records, as archival enterprise and as connection. The connection category is a more complex way of experiencing archives as it incorporates the aspects of the other two categories as well as the awareness of archives connecting people to their histories.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to academic archivists in the USA.

Practical implications

Understanding that there are different ways of experiencing archives means that information professionals should clarify their definitions of before beginning collaborative projects. Also, by understanding these varying experiences, information professions should be able to communicate and engage more fully with each other and their users in projects and programs that leverage archival collections.

Originality/value

This is the first study to use phenomenography to investigate archivists’ experiences of archives. This understanding of the lived experience of archivists, combined with understanding how librarians experience archives, should enable better communication and ultimately collaboration between the two professions.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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