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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2005

Srinivas Nippani and Kenneth M. Washer

The enactment of Riegle‐Neal IBBEA in 1994 encouraged bank mergers and acquisitions. Empirical evidence indicates that large banks benefited from IBBEA enactment. However…

Abstract

The enactment of Riegle‐Neal IBBEA in 1994 encouraged bank mergers and acquisitions. Empirical evidence indicates that large banks benefited from IBBEA enactment. However, there is little, if any, evidence of the impact of the act on small banks’ profitability relative to large banks. This study examines the impact of IBBEA on the performance of small banks in the period preceding and following IBBEA implementation. Evidence is presented that indicates the return on assets of small banks was significantly less than that of larger banks in the post‐IBBEA period. This is contrary to the results of the pre‐IBBEA period when small banks’ profitability was competitive with and in some cases even better than large banks’ profitability. It is concluded that the enactment of IBBEA has placed small banks at a competitive disadvantage which could eventually lead to their demise.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Abdifatah Ahmed Haji and Sanni Mubaraq

This paper longitudinally examines the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices of Nigerian banks following the restructuring exercise and the subsequent policy…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper longitudinally examines the intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices of Nigerian banks following the restructuring exercise and the subsequent policy changes in the Banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis of annual reports of the banks was carried out over a period of four years (2006‐2009), a period following the consolidation exercise and the subsequent introduction of the mandatory code of corporate governance. A self‐constructed IC disclosure checklist was used to measure the extent of IC information disclosed in the annual reports. A number of statistical techniques were performed to assess the trend of IC disclosures and compare the IC disclosure categories.

Findings

The results show that the overall IC disclosures of the Nigerian banks increased moderately over the four year period. Human and internal capital disclosures dominated the banks' IC disclosures, with only internal capital disclosures showing a significant increasing trend over time.

Research limitations/implications

The increasing trend of IC disclosures of the banks suggests that the introduction of the mandatory code of corporate governance had positive implications on IC reporting practices. Hence, the findings of this study give support to previous research that established a strong positive association between IC disclosures and corporate governance development. However, this study only examines the IC disclosures of Nigerian banks following the reformation of the banking sector. Future research should incorporate other countries experiencing similar regulatory changes.

Practical implications

The introduction of the corporate governance code might have positively influenced the IC disclosure practices of the banks. However, the results had shown that the IC disclosures were mainly inconsistent and discursive in nature. Hence, the regulatory authorities, accounting setters and other relevant government agencies may wish to devise a detailed IC reporting framework for the banking sector.

Originality/value

Despite the significance of the banking sector to any economy, the IC disclosure practices of the banks largely remained unexplored. This study provides a much needed longitudinal assessment of the IC disclosures in the case of Nigerian banks following a major consolidation exercise and the introduction of a mandatory code of corporate governance specifically designed for the banks. The study also represents the first empirical investigation of IC reporting practices in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Nitin Arora, Nidhi Grover Arora and Kritika Kanwar

The issue of mounting non-performing assets (NPAs) in Indian banking industry is serious and attracting attention of academia and policy planners. Thus, the purpose of

Abstract

Purpose

The issue of mounting non-performing assets (NPAs) in Indian banking industry is serious and attracting attention of academia and policy planners. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis whether NPAs in Indian commercial banking have reached at alarming state where they start affecting the technical efficiency levels adversely or not.

Design/methodology/approach

The efficiency score have been computed using case model (model with NPAs as bad/undesirable output) vs control model (model without NPAs as bad/undesirable output) methodology under meta-frontier data envelopment analysis framework.

Findings

It has been noticed that the effect of NPAs on overall technical efficiency and its various components is insignificant. The comparison of the case models (i.e. model with NPAs as bad output) with the control models (i.e. model without NPAs) reveals insignificant difference in average efficiency scores and rank distribution of commercial banks. The major source of inefficiency is technology gap (i.e. structure, setup and objectives of banking) among public, domestic private and foreign private categories of banks.

Practical implications

Though NPAs are increasing in Indian banking industry and specifically in Indian public sector banks because of their compulsory lending to priority sector yet the banks have huge scope to extend credit to priority sector as the NPAs have not reached at alarming stage where they start affecting adversely the efficiency performance.

Originality/value

Given the fact that the banking penetrations, structure and objectives differ significantly across ownership, separate frontiers for each ownership (public, private and foreign banks) category has been used to evaluate the technical efficiency levels of 81 commercial banks operating in India over the period 2005 to 2013.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

James C. Brau, Drew Dahl, Hongjing Zhang and Mingming Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of regulatory reform on the asset allocation and capitalization of Chinese banks from 2002 to 2007, a period following…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of regulatory reform on the asset allocation and capitalization of Chinese banks from 2002 to 2007, a period following China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Design/methodology/approach

The evidence rejects a hypothesis that the four categories of banks operating in China – the Big Four, Majority State, Majority Private, and Majority Foreign banks have converged toward common targets. Supplemental analysis indicates that domestic banks, but not foreign banks, adjust equally to their targets.

Findings

The paper concludes that, although Chinese banking remained segmented during this unique transitional period, a more uniform pattern has emerged for those Chinese banks that are domestically owned.

Originality/value

The authors employ a methodology that is explicitly designed to determine if banks have converged toward common approaches to asset allocation and capitalization, which has not been studies previously.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Sunil Khandelwal and Khaled Aljifri

This study aims to compare the use of risk-sharing and risk-shifting contracts (RSFCs) in Islamic banks using a triple grouping of conservative, moderate and liberal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the use of risk-sharing and risk-shifting contracts (RSFCs) in Islamic banks using a triple grouping of conservative, moderate and liberal Islamic banks based on the Khaled Khandelwal (KK) model. Six fundamental Islamic contracts are used in this study, namely, Mushãrakah, Mudãrabah, Murãbaha, Salam, Ijãrah, Istisnã. Mushãrakah and Mudãrabah represent profit and loss sharing contracts (i.e., risk-sharing contracts – RSHCs), whereas Murãbaha, Salam, Ijãrah and Istisnã represent RSFCs. This study extends the previous studies by addressing an issue that has been neglected in the literature. The extent to which the two groups of contracts are used is extremely important because of its effect on the valuation of Islamic banks and on their earning quality.

Design/methodology/approach

This study aims to analyze, using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, the use of RSHCs and RSFCs made by 72 fully Islamic banks, using a sample that includes banks in most of the countries where Islamic banks are present. Only fully Islamic Banks were considered, that is, banks that are essentially mainstream banks; therefore, banks that include only a specific line of Islamic products, often called the Islamic Window, were excluded. The total number of the sample was 118, but the study was restricted to 72 banks due to the availability of time series data covering the period of study, 2007 to 2015.

Findings

The study documents that over the period 2007 to 2015 the moderate banks have better distribution and balance of RSHCs and RSFCs than the conservative and liberal banks. The conservative banks are found to depend greatly on RSFCs, whereas the liberal banks are found to depend almost completely on RSFCs. Unexpectedly, the conservative banks have not shown a noticeable improvement over the period of analysis on their level of reliance on RSHCs. The results show that there is a significant difference in the percentage income distribution of the two contracts between the moderate banks and the conservative banks and between the moderate banks and the liberal banks. However, no significant difference was found between the conservative banks and the liberal banks.

Originality/value

The study uses an alternate rating model for Islamic financial institutions. The study examined the issue of risk sharing and risk shifting contracts usage in banks for a long period of nine years and at a global level and with an additional dimension of three categories of Islamic Banks based on the KK model.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2007

Gary Richardson

During the contraction from 1929 to 1933, the Federal Reserve System tracked changes in the status of all banks operating in the United States and determined the cause of

Abstract

During the contraction from 1929 to 1933, the Federal Reserve System tracked changes in the status of all banks operating in the United States and determined the cause of each bank suspension. This chapter introduces that hitherto dormant data and presents aggregate series constructed from it. The new data series will supplement, and in some cases, supplant the data currently used to study banking panics during the period, which were published by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1937.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-459-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Thomas L. Hogan, Neil R. Meredith and Xuhao (Harry) Pan

The purpose of this study is to replicate Avery and Berger’s (1991) analysis using data from 2001 through 2011. Although risk-based capital (RBC) regulation is a key…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to replicate Avery and Berger’s (1991) analysis using data from 2001 through 2011. Although risk-based capital (RBC) regulation is a key component of US banking regulation, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of these regulations has been mixed. Among the first studies of RBC regulation, Avery and Berger (1991) provide evidence from data on US banks that new RBC regulations outperformed old capital regulations from 1982 through 1989.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the Federal Reserve’s Call Reports, the authors compare banks’ capital ratios and RBC ratios to five measures of bank performance: income, standard deviation of income, non-performing loans, loan charge-offs and probability of failure.

Findings

Consistent with Avery and Berger (1991), the authors find banks’ risk-weighted assets to be significant predictors of their future performance and that RBC ratios outperform regular capital ratios as predictors of risk.

Originality/value

The study improves on Avery and Berger (1991) by using an updated data set from 2001 through 2011. The authors also discuss some potential limitations of this method of analysis.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Amit Ghosh

Using state-level data, the purpose of this paper is to examine state banking-industry specific as well as region economic determinants of real estate lending of

Abstract

Purpose

Using state-level data, the purpose of this paper is to examine state banking-industry specific as well as region economic determinants of real estate lending of commercial banks across all 51 states spanning the period 1966-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Using both fixed-effects and dynamic-generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation techniques the study compares the sensitivity of different categories of real estate loans to regional banking and economic conditions. Finally, it provides a comparative perspective by comparing the results for real estate loans with other categories of loans given out by banks.

Findings

Greater capitalization, liquidity and overhead costs reduce real estate lending, while banks diversification and the size of the banking industry in each state increase such lending. Moreover, real estate loans are found to be procyclical to state economic cycles with a rise in state real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, increase in state housing price index (HPI) and decline in both inflation and unemployment rates, increasing real estate loans. Within disaggregated loan types, construction and land development and single-family residential loans are most responsive to state banking and economic conditions.

Originality/value

The recent financial turmoil is to a large extent attributable to excessive risk-taking by banks, particularly in terms of real estate lending. Hence, it is of paramount importance to empirically address the various determinants of real estate lending. With most banks restricting their operations in either one or a few states only, real estate lending in any given state may be more sensitive to regional banking and economic conditions than national aggregates. The present study is the first of its type to perform such an analysis.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

John S. Jahera and David A. Whidbee

The global banking environment is experiencing significant change as regulatory and geographical barriers to competition are reduced. As these barriers are removed…

Abstract

The global banking environment is experiencing significant change as regulatory and geographical barriers to competition are reduced. As these barriers are removed, greater integration of banking services is developing throughout the world affecting the performance and structure of banking institutions. This research examines the stock returns and volatility of stock returns for a sample of banks in the United States, Europe, Canada and Japan. The general focus is to identify factors influencing the return and risk and to examine cross‐country differences in these factors. The results suggest that while size does not affect return volatility for any of the categories of banks, it does affect returns for banks in Japan, the U.S. and other non‐universal banking systems. Likewise, the investment in fixed assets appears consistently to adversely affect returns. A number of differences are found across country borders and across type of institutions (i.e. universal versus non‐universal banks).

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 23 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Syed Abdulla Al Mamun and Alima Aktar

The purpose of this study is to investigate the intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) practices of financial institutions in an emerging economy of Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) practices of financial institutions in an emerging economy of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 93 items of intellectual capital categorized into internal capital, external capital and human capital, ICD index is developed for 53 financial institutions listed in Dhaka Stock Exchange. This study uses descriptive statistics to analyze ICD practices, and parametric and non-parametric tests to analyze the variation of ICD practices in terms of different categories as well as in terms of different sectors.

Findings

Results indicate that more than 70% of ICD items are generally not disclosed by financial institutions in Bangladesh. The highest of 36% of external capital disclosure items are disclosed, whereas the lowest of 18% of human resource capital elements are disclosed. Furthermore, results find the significant variability of ICD practices in terms of different intellectual capital categories and in between banking companies and non-banking financial institutions.

Practical implications

Findings have critical implications for managers, policymakers and regulators for setting appropriate strategies and regulations for improving the level of ICD, which, in turn, may reduce the information asymmetry problems of financial institutions as well.

Originality/value

In-depth analysis about variability of ICD practices creates value in the ICD literature by highlighting strategic priority of financial institutions to disclose information about the strategic resources in unique emerging economic settings such as Bangladesh.

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