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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Henrique Guilherme da Silva, João Carlos Espíndola Ferreira, Vikas Kumar and Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes

The purpose of this research was to develop new sustainability indicators consistent with the sand mould casting industry, through benchmarking of cleaner production (CP)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to develop new sustainability indicators consistent with the sand mould casting industry, through benchmarking of cleaner production (CP), in order to identify the levels of practice and performance of companies of the casting sector. In addition, a lean manufacturing checklist was specified in order to verify the presence of lean manufacturing techniques employed to eliminate waste towards CP. No previous work was found in the literature that attempts to assess practices and performance of companies performing sand mould casting (a significantly polluting manufacturing process) in the context of CP and lean manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

For the application of this benchmarking, nine companies from the sand mould casting sector were studied, where the profile of each company was analysed through eight variables and 47 indicators. Data was obtained through face-to-face visits and questionnaire application in the companies, and the data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Findings

The results obtained were the diagnosis of companies' practices and performance resulting from their position in the benchmarking charts, as well as the identification of the areas in which companies should implement improvements aiming at achieving CP.

Research limitations/implications

This research was developed specifically for sand mould casting companies, and each process has its own characteristics

Practical implications

14 companies were invited to participate in this survey, but nine companies agreed to participate. Unfortunately, there were companies that declined to participate in the survey.

Originality/value

It is important to diagnose casting companies regarding CP practices, performance and deployment potential. Thus, important negative issues in the company can be identified, and with this information, they can develop actions focussed on cases that need more attention. In addition, this work contributes to evaluate the relationship and efficiency of improvement actions developed by companies in the context of both lean manufacturing and CP, aiming to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact. The improvement of practices and performance of a company regarding CP is considered to be beneficial to supply chain management in the context of sustainability, as the other participating companies are likely to seek ways to reduce environmental impact, and the diagnostics provided by this work may also be used by those companies.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Sushil Kumar, P.S. Satsangi and D.R. Prajapati

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influencing factors which cause casting defects and determination of optimum value of factors to minimize these defects in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influencing factors which cause casting defects and determination of optimum value of factors to minimize these defects in a melt shop industry, situated in north India. Percentage contribution of these factors is also estimated to develop an empirical expression between process performance and independent input variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimization technique for melt shop process parameters of a cast iron differential housing cover based on the Taguchi method is proposed. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the sand casting process and the case study is based upon a leading automobile foundry industry, located in north India. Taguchi's experimental design and regression analysis techniques are used to optimize the control factors, resulting in improvement of the product quality and stability. The various confirmation tests are also carried out in the range of process parameters.

Findings

The outcome of this case study is to optimize the process parameters of the melt shop process, which leads to minimizing the casting defects. The process parameters considered are: mild steel, pig iron, cast iron, ferrosilicon, lime stone, ferromanganese, cock and ferrochrome. Best proportions of charge constituents that are contributing to casting defects in melt shop are identified in the first stage. These identified factors are analyzed using “Design of Experiments” approach in the second stage. ANOVA analysis is also performed for robust design of factor values and an appropriate empirical model is formulated.

Research limitations/implications

A lot of effort has been put into developing the appropriate empirical model for the automobile foundry industry but additional work may also be done for gating design of the casting industry.

Practical implications

The paper shows that the process parameters of any casting industry can be optimized and casting defects in the melt shop can be identified in the first stage.

Originality/value

The research findings could be applied to various manufacturing industries, especially the casting industries.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Munish Chhabra and Rupinder Singh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the effect of volume of casting, pouring temperature of different materials and shell mould wall thickness on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the effect of volume of casting, pouring temperature of different materials and shell mould wall thickness on the surface roughness of the castings obtained by using ZCast direct metal casting process.

Design/methodology/approach

Taguchi's design of experiment approach was used for this investigation. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) of Taguchi design which involves nine experiments for three factors with three levels was used. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then performed on S/N (signal‐to‐noise) ratios to determine the statistical significance and contribution of each factor on the surface roughness of the castings. The castings were obtained using the shell moulds fabricated with the ZCast process and the surface roughness of castings was measured by using the surface roughness tester.

Findings

Taguchi's analysis results showed that pouring temperature of materials was the most significant factor in deciding the surface roughness of the castings and the shell mould wall thickness was the next most significant factor, whereas volume of casting was found insignificant. Confirmation test was also carried out using the optimal values of factor levels to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. The predicted optimal value of surface roughness of castings produced by ZCast process was 6.47 microns.

Originality/value

The paper presents experimentally investigated data regarding the influence of various control factors on the surface roughness of castings produced by using ZCast process. The data may help to enhance the application of ZCast process in traditional foundry practice.

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Sushil Kumar, P.S. Satsangi and D.R. Prajapati

The purpose of this paper is to explore Six Sigma practices in a casting industry, that could improve the green sand casting process in a foundry by reducing the casting

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore Six Sigma practices in a casting industry, that could improve the green sand casting process in a foundry by reducing the casting defects. The goal was to determine which variables influenced this evolution and the relative weight of critical success factors as the methodology developed.

Design/methodology/approach

The DMAIC (Define, Measurement, Analyze, Improve, and Control)‐based Six Sigma approach is implemented to improve the green sand casting process and has made the process more robust to quality variations. Analysis of various critical process parameters of the melt shop is also carried out with the help of Taguchi's method of experimental design.

Findings

The proposed techniques optimized control factors, resulting in superior quality and stability of the green sand castings process, which contributes to minimizing the casting defects and improving the Sigma level of the industry.

Research limitations/implications

This study was carried out with some boundaries such as the number of castings of differential housings, available resources, time constraints, etc.

Practical implications

This paper is most valuable for the foundry industry, which can avail the direct benefit of Six Sigma results from the reduction in the number of defects due to improved casting processes and dispels the myths concerning the hardly ever use of Six Sigma in the casting industry.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper lies in conducting a comparative study on the performance of a Six Sigma project. The paper will be valuable for quality professionals and management personnel in the casting industry.

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Munish Chhabra and Rupinder Singh

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with RC directly by using different approaches are presented and evaluated. Relevant case studies and examples explaining the suitability and problems of using RC solutions by various manufacturers and researchers are also presented.

Findings

Latest research to optimize the current RC solutions, and new inventions in processing techniques and materials in RC performed by researchers worldwide are also discussed. The discussion regarding the benefits of RC solutions to foundrymen, and challenges to produce accurate and cost‐effective RC amongst AM manufacturers concludes this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The research related to this survey is limited to the applicability of RC solutions to sand casting and investment casting processes. There is practically no implication in industrial application of RC technology.

Originality/value

This review presents the information regarding potential AM application – RC, which facilitates the fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds directly using the computer‐aided design data. The information available in this paper serves the purpose of researchers and academicians to explore the new options in the field of RC and especially users, manufacturers and service industries to produce casting in relatively much shorter time and at low cost and even to cast complex design components which otherwise was impossible by using traditional casting processes and CNC technology.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Amit Kumar, Mangey Ram and Rohit Singh Rawat

The quality of production is an essential factor for the performance measure of a system; a casting process is the same section. It is a type of metal-forming practice in…

Abstract

Purpose

The quality of production is an essential factor for the performance measure of a system; a casting process is the same section. It is a type of metal-forming practice in which the required shape of metal is acquired by pouring molten metal into the mold cavity and allowing it to solidify. Casting is done to provide strength and rigidity to the parts of a system for bearing mechanical impacts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the various aspects which affect the casting process in the foundry industry, in order to optimize the quality of casting, with the assumption that sufficient repair facility is always available.

Design/methodology/approach

The considered casting system can have many defects such as the mold shift defect, blowhole defect, defect of shrinkage and porosity, defect of inclusion, defect of cold shut and much more. The studied system can be in three states during the process, namely, good state, failed state and degraded state. The system can repair after minor failures as well as a major failure. The average failure rates of various defects of the system considered as constant and repairs follow the general time distribution. The system is analyzed with the help of the supplementary variable technique and the Laplace transformation for evaluating its various performance measures in order to improve its performance/production.

Findings

This work provides a strong understanding of the casting industry, that which failure affects the production of casting and how much. For better understanding, the results have been demonstrated with the help of graphs.

Originality/value

In the present paper, a mathematical model based on the casting process in manufacturing industry has been developed.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Roberto Raffaeli, Claudio Favi and Ferruccio Mandorli

High pressure die casting is a widely used industrial process to manufacture complex-shaped products in light alloys. Virtual prototyping techniques, especially…

Abstract

Purpose

High pressure die casting is a widely used industrial process to manufacture complex-shaped products in light alloys. Virtual prototyping techniques, especially numeric-based simulations of the casting process, allow the die filling process to be evaluated and help faster optimization of the gating system, which is the most critical element of the mould. The purpose of this paper is to present a four step approach to design optimal moulds taking advantage of the simulation tools.

Design/methodology/approach

No formalized method to design an optimal gating system is available yet and the majority of the studies aim to optimize existing geometries or to choose from alternative solutions. Rather than optimizing the geometries of predefined designs by running attempt trials, the proposed approach defines a procedure to position cavities, gating systems and, finally, to determine the whole mould geometry.

Findings

The approach is demonstrated through three different industrial applications. The design of a six-cavity mould for gas cooking burners is reported at first. Then, two test cases, a cup and a radiator, are reported for showing different arrangements of the gating system. The reached quality of the mould design has been assessed using metallographic analyses of the casts.

Originality/value

The design of a mould is strictly correlated to its product and mainly based on a trial-and-error approach. Numerical simulations offer a powerful and not expensive way to study the effectiveness of different die designs and filling processes. The paper proposes a structured approach for the definition of the gating system. It ultimately leads to improvements in both product quality and process productivity, including more effective control of the die filling and die thermal performance.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Chris Ainsley and HaiQing Gong

This paper presents results from the testing and benchmarking of a slip cast 316 stainless steel injection moulding tool. A brief out line of the slip casting process and…

Abstract

This paper presents results from the testing and benchmarking of a slip cast 316 stainless steel injection moulding tool. A brief out line of the slip casting process and the test cavity geometry is given as well as a discussion of some of the commercial alternative methods of forming injection moulding cavities. The calculations for the slip cast test cavity cost and lead time are given and comparisons between slip casting tool formation and alternative methods are made. The paper concludes that the slip casting method has potential in replacing some of the other tooling methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Nandkumar Mishra and Santosh B. Rane

The purpose of this technical paper is to explore the application of analytics and Six Sigma in the manufacturing processes for iron foundries. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this technical paper is to explore the application of analytics and Six Sigma in the manufacturing processes for iron foundries. This study aims to establish a causal relationship between chemical composition and the quality of the iron casting to achieve the global benchmark quality level.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study-based exploratory research design is used in this study. The problem discovery is done through the literature survey and Delphi method-based expert opinions. The prediction model is built and deployed in 11 cases to validate the research hypothesis. The analytics helps in achieving the statistically significant business goals. The design includes Six Sigma DMAIC (Define – Measure – Analyze – Improve and Control) approach, benchmarking, historical data analysis, literature survey and experiments for the data collection. The data analysis is done through stratification and process capability analysis. The logistic regression-based analytics helps in prediction model building and simulations.

Findings

The application of prediction model helped in quick root cause analysis and reduction of rejection by over 99 per cent saving over INR6.6m per year. This has also enhanced the reliability of the production line and supply chain with on-time delivery of 99.78 per cent, which earlier was 80 per cent. The analytics with Six Sigma DMAIC approach can quickly and easily be applied in manufacturing domain as well.

Research limitations implications

The limitation of the present analytics model is that it provides the point estimates. The model can further be enhanced incorporating range estimates through Monte Carlo simulation.

Practical implications

The increasing use of prediction model in the near future is likely to enhance predictability and efficiencies of the various manufacturing process with sensors and Internet of Things.

Originality/value

The researchers have used design of experiments, artificial neural network and the technical simulations to optimise either chemical composition or mould properties or melt shop parameters. However, this work is based on comprehensive historical data-based analytics. It considers multiple human and temporal factors, sand and mould properties and melt shop parameters along with their relative weight, which is unique. The prediction model is useful to the practitioners for parameter simulation and quality enhancements. The researchers can use similar analytics models with structured Six Sigma DMAIC approach in other manufacturing processes for the simulation and optimisations.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

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