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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Rajneesh Kumar and Pradeep Kumar Jha

The purpose of this article is to numerically investigate the effect of casting speed on the fluid flow, solidification and inclusion motion under the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to numerically investigate the effect of casting speed on the fluid flow, solidification and inclusion motion under the influence of electromagnetic stirring (EMS) in the bloom caster mold with bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN).

Design/methodology/approach

The electromagnetic field obtained by solving Maxwell’s equation is coupled with the fluid flow, solidification and discrete phase model using the in-house user-defined functions. An enthalpy porosity approach and Lagrangian approach are applied for the solidification analysis and non-metallic inclusions motion tracking, respectively.

Findings

Investigation shows that the casting speed and EMS significantly affect the steel flow, solidification and inclusion behavior inside the mold. Investigations are being conducted into the complex interplay between the induced flow and the SEN’s inertial impinging jet. In low and medium casting speeds, the application of EMS significantly increases the inclusion removal rate. Inclusion removal is studied for its different size and density and further effect of EMS is also reported on cluster formation and distribution of inclusion in the domain.

Practical implications

The model may be used to optimize the process parameter (casting speed and EMS) to improve the casting quality of steel by removing the impurities.

Originality/value

The effect of casting speed on the solidification and inclusion behavior under the influence of time-varying EMS in bloom caster mold with bifurcated nozzle has not been investigated yet. The findings may assist the steelmakers in improving the casting quality.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Xin Jiang, Xiaodong Hu, Hai Liu, Dongying Ju, Yoshio Fukushima and Zhenglai Zhenglai

This research establishes a suitable casting model for magnesium alloy wheel. The casting of the wheel is an element that must be considered in the design of the wheel…

Abstract

Purpose

This research establishes a suitable casting model for magnesium alloy wheel. The casting of the wheel is an element that must be considered in the design of the wheel. Casting is an important basic process and technology in the field of machinery which is widely used in production, transportation, national defense, social life and other aspects. Computer numerical simulation of the casting process can shorten the product manufacturing cycle, reduce product costs, reduce casting defects and ensure product quality. The casting material in this study is AZ91 magnesium alloy used for wheel lightweight.

Design/methodology/approach

Lightweight research of automobile is a significant trend, and people are paying attention to the lightweight design of automobiles. Higher requirement was proposed on design and casting performance of the wheel which is an important part of lightweighting vehicle. In order to achieve better quality, the parametric studies of alloy wheel and casting are necessary. This research designs a new model of automobile wheel, to ensure energy efficiency, the wheels must be as lightweight as possible, using magnesium alloy material for lightweight.

Findings

Analysis of casting process is a very complex issue. This research based on finite element theory and actual production, designed reasonable casting model, instant filling and solidification data were obtained. Aiming at reducing casting defects, process improvement of casting riser structure was designed. On the basis of the foundation, it has important guiding significance for actual foundry production.

Originality/value

This research establish a suitable casting model for magnesium alloy wheel. Aiming at reducing casting defects, process improvement of casting riser structure were designed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2021

Janak Suthar, Jinil Persis and Ruchita Gupta

Casting is one of the well-known manufacturing processes to make durable parts of goods and machinery. However, the quality of the casting parts depends on the proper…

Abstract

Purpose

Casting is one of the well-known manufacturing processes to make durable parts of goods and machinery. However, the quality of the casting parts depends on the proper choice of process variables related to properties of the materials used in making a mold and the product itself; hence, variables related to product/process designs are taken into consideration. Understanding casting techniques considering significant process variables is critical to achieving better quality castings and helps to improve the productivity of the casting processes. This study aims to understand the computational models developed for achieving better quality castings using various casting techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review is conducted in the field of casting considering the period 2000–2020. The keyword co-occurrence network and word cloud from the bibliometric analysis and text mining of the articles reveal that optimization and simulation models are extensively developed for various casting techniques, including sand casting, investment casting, die casting and squeeze casting, to improve quality aspects of the casting's product. This study further investigates the optimization and simulation models and has identified various process variables involved in each casting technique that are significantly affecting the outcomes of the processes in terms of defects, mechanical properties, yield, dimensional accuracy and emissions.

Findings

This study has drawn out the need for developing smart casting environments with data-driven modeling that will enable dynamic fine-tuning of the casting processes and help in achieving desired outcomes in today's competitive markets. This study highlights the possible technology interventions across the metal casting processes, which can further enhance the quality of the metal casting products and productivity of the casting processes, which show the future scope of this field.

Research limitations/implications

This paper investigates the body of literature on the contributions of various researchers in producing high-quality casting parts and performs bibliometric analysis on the articles. However, research articles from high-quality journals are considered for the literature analysis in identifying the critical parameters influencing quality of metal castings.

Originality/value

The systematic literature review reveals the analytical models developed using simulation and optimization techniques and the important quality characteristics of the casting products. Further, the study also explores critical influencing parameters involved in every casting process that significantly affects the quality characteristics of the metal castings.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Roberto Raffaeli, Claudio Favi and Ferruccio Mandorli

High pressure die casting is a widely used industrial process to manufacture complex-shaped products in light alloys. Virtual prototyping techniques, especially…

Abstract

Purpose

High pressure die casting is a widely used industrial process to manufacture complex-shaped products in light alloys. Virtual prototyping techniques, especially numeric-based simulations of the casting process, allow the die filling process to be evaluated and help faster optimization of the gating system, which is the most critical element of the mould. The purpose of this paper is to present a four step approach to design optimal moulds taking advantage of the simulation tools.

Design/methodology/approach

No formalized method to design an optimal gating system is available yet and the majority of the studies aim to optimize existing geometries or to choose from alternative solutions. Rather than optimizing the geometries of predefined designs by running attempt trials, the proposed approach defines a procedure to position cavities, gating systems and, finally, to determine the whole mould geometry.

Findings

The approach is demonstrated through three different industrial applications. The design of a six-cavity mould for gas cooking burners is reported at first. Then, two test cases, a cup and a radiator, are reported for showing different arrangements of the gating system. The reached quality of the mould design has been assessed using metallographic analyses of the casts.

Originality/value

The design of a mould is strictly correlated to its product and mainly based on a trial-and-error approach. Numerical simulations offer a powerful and not expensive way to study the effectiveness of different die designs and filling processes. The paper proposes a structured approach for the definition of the gating system. It ultimately leads to improvements in both product quality and process productivity, including more effective control of the die filling and die thermal performance.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Munish Chhabra and Rupinder Singh

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of…

3730

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state‐of‐the‐art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with RC directly by using different approaches are presented and evaluated. Relevant case studies and examples explaining the suitability and problems of using RC solutions by various manufacturers and researchers are also presented.

Findings

Latest research to optimize the current RC solutions, and new inventions in processing techniques and materials in RC performed by researchers worldwide are also discussed. The discussion regarding the benefits of RC solutions to foundrymen, and challenges to produce accurate and cost‐effective RC amongst AM manufacturers concludes this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The research related to this survey is limited to the applicability of RC solutions to sand casting and investment casting processes. There is practically no implication in industrial application of RC technology.

Originality/value

This review presents the information regarding potential AM application – RC, which facilitates the fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds directly using the computer‐aided design data. The information available in this paper serves the purpose of researchers and academicians to explore the new options in the field of RC and especially users, manufacturers and service industries to produce casting in relatively much shorter time and at low cost and even to cast complex design components which otherwise was impossible by using traditional casting processes and CNC technology.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…

4055

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Sushil Kumar, P.S. Satsangi and D.R. Prajapati

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influencing factors which cause casting defects and determination of optimum value of factors to minimize these defects in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influencing factors which cause casting defects and determination of optimum value of factors to minimize these defects in a melt shop industry, situated in north India. Percentage contribution of these factors is also estimated to develop an empirical expression between process performance and independent input variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimization technique for melt shop process parameters of a cast iron differential housing cover based on the Taguchi method is proposed. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the sand casting process and the case study is based upon a leading automobile foundry industry, located in north India. Taguchi's experimental design and regression analysis techniques are used to optimize the control factors, resulting in improvement of the product quality and stability. The various confirmation tests are also carried out in the range of process parameters.

Findings

The outcome of this case study is to optimize the process parameters of the melt shop process, which leads to minimizing the casting defects. The process parameters considered are: mild steel, pig iron, cast iron, ferrosilicon, lime stone, ferromanganese, cock and ferrochrome. Best proportions of charge constituents that are contributing to casting defects in melt shop are identified in the first stage. These identified factors are analyzed using “Design of Experiments” approach in the second stage. ANOVA analysis is also performed for robust design of factor values and an appropriate empirical model is formulated.

Research limitations/implications

A lot of effort has been put into developing the appropriate empirical model for the automobile foundry industry but additional work may also be done for gating design of the casting industry.

Practical implications

The paper shows that the process parameters of any casting industry can be optimized and casting defects in the melt shop can be identified in the first stage.

Originality/value

The research findings could be applied to various manufacturing industries, especially the casting industries.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

N. Brännberg and J. Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE)applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metalforming, non‐metal forming and powder…

1405

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming and powder metallurgy are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on the subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for the last five years, and more than 1100 references are listed.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Amit Kumar, Mangey Ram and Rohit Singh Rawat

The quality of production is an essential factor for the performance measure of a system; a casting process is the same section. It is a type of metal-forming practice in…

Abstract

Purpose

The quality of production is an essential factor for the performance measure of a system; a casting process is the same section. It is a type of metal-forming practice in which the required shape of metal is acquired by pouring molten metal into the mold cavity and allowing it to solidify. Casting is done to provide strength and rigidity to the parts of a system for bearing mechanical impacts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the various aspects which affect the casting process in the foundry industry, in order to optimize the quality of casting, with the assumption that sufficient repair facility is always available.

Design/methodology/approach

The considered casting system can have many defects such as the mold shift defect, blowhole defect, defect of shrinkage and porosity, defect of inclusion, defect of cold shut and much more. The studied system can be in three states during the process, namely, good state, failed state and degraded state. The system can repair after minor failures as well as a major failure. The average failure rates of various defects of the system considered as constant and repairs follow the general time distribution. The system is analyzed with the help of the supplementary variable technique and the Laplace transformation for evaluating its various performance measures in order to improve its performance/production.

Findings

This work provides a strong understanding of the casting industry, that which failure affects the production of casting and how much. For better understanding, the results have been demonstrated with the help of graphs.

Originality/value

In the present paper, a mathematical model based on the casting process in manufacturing industry has been developed.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Nandkumar Mishra and Santosh B. Rane

The purpose of this technical paper is to explore the application of analytics and Six Sigma in the manufacturing processes for iron foundries. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this technical paper is to explore the application of analytics and Six Sigma in the manufacturing processes for iron foundries. This study aims to establish a causal relationship between chemical composition and the quality of the iron casting to achieve the global benchmark quality level.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study-based exploratory research design is used in this study. The problem discovery is done through the literature survey and Delphi method-based expert opinions. The prediction model is built and deployed in 11 cases to validate the research hypothesis. The analytics helps in achieving the statistically significant business goals. The design includes Six Sigma DMAIC (Define – Measure – Analyze – Improve and Control) approach, benchmarking, historical data analysis, literature survey and experiments for the data collection. The data analysis is done through stratification and process capability analysis. The logistic regression-based analytics helps in prediction model building and simulations.

Findings

The application of prediction model helped in quick root cause analysis and reduction of rejection by over 99 per cent saving over INR6.6m per year. This has also enhanced the reliability of the production line and supply chain with on-time delivery of 99.78 per cent, which earlier was 80 per cent. The analytics with Six Sigma DMAIC approach can quickly and easily be applied in manufacturing domain as well.

Research limitations implications

The limitation of the present analytics model is that it provides the point estimates. The model can further be enhanced incorporating range estimates through Monte Carlo simulation.

Practical implications

The increasing use of prediction model in the near future is likely to enhance predictability and efficiencies of the various manufacturing process with sensors and Internet of Things.

Originality/value

The researchers have used design of experiments, artificial neural network and the technical simulations to optimise either chemical composition or mould properties or melt shop parameters. However, this work is based on comprehensive historical data-based analytics. It considers multiple human and temporal factors, sand and mould properties and melt shop parameters along with their relative weight, which is unique. The prediction model is useful to the practitioners for parameter simulation and quality enhancements. The researchers can use similar analytics models with structured Six Sigma DMAIC approach in other manufacturing processes for the simulation and optimisations.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

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