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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Wojciech D. Piotrowicz

The purpose of this paper is to investigate humanitarian supply chains in the context of the Ukrainian crisis as example of complex emergency. The paper focuses on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate humanitarian supply chains in the context of the Ukrainian crisis as example of complex emergency. The paper focuses on a selection of support modes: in-kind donations, cash-based assistance and local procurement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a case-study approach and interpretive paradigm. Findings are based on the analysis of primary sources including interviews with three Polish humanitarian organizations, internal documents, and secondary sources such as published reports.

Findings

Findings indicate that in a middle-income urbanized country such as Ukraine non-standard modes such as cash transfer programs and local procurement can be employed, since the necessary infrastructure and market are operational. However, each mode has limitations, so they should match the local context and the needs of diverse social groups.

Research limitations/implications

The findings and recommendations are specific to the case analyzed, Ukraine, and its socio-economic context. The research contributes to discussions about mode selection, stressing the links between mode, stage of the disaster response and local context.

Practical implications

Applying cash transfers and local procurement can reduce supply chain costs, such as transport and warehousing. Shortened supply chains enable faster responses and increased agility.

Social implications

Cash transfers and procurement involve the local community and beneficiaries, and can better fulfill needs maintaining people’s dignity. However, for vulnerable groups and those in conflict zones, in-kind goods are a better option.

Originality/value

The author argues that the much-discussed dichotomy of cash or goods does not reflect reality; local and regional procurement should be added as important support modes in middle-income countries in crisis.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Luis J. Gonzalez and Carlos Lopes

The purpose of the current study is to analyze how the assistance that one's siblings provide to their parents impacts one's own contributions. Siblings' assistance is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to analyze how the assistance that one's siblings provide to their parents impacts one's own contributions. Siblings' assistance is measured as the total combined number of hours and the total combined cash that one's siblings provide, excluding one's own level of contributions.

Design/methodology/approach

We use first differences and instrumental variables approaches to address unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity of assistance provided to one's parents.

Findings

A 10 percent increase in siblings' time and cash assistance is associated with an increase in the individual levels of adult children's time contributions by about 6.72 percent and cash contributions by 7.43 percent.

Practical implications

Crowd-in is meaningful from a policy perspective as it suggests that upstream transfers are unlikely to crowd-out similar transfers from siblings. Private transfers are unlikely to decrease in response to public transfers.

Social implications

Policy that incentivizes private transfers from one individual may lead to increased levels of transfers from their siblings. Policies such as tax incentives that encourage contributions from adult children are likely to have a magnified effect.

Originality/value

Our approach is novel in that we utilize data on full sibling sets using the children of the Health and Retirement Study respondents. This allows the consideration of crowding effects that transfers from siblings have. Other authors perform tests to determine whether or not altruistic transfer motives are present. With altruistic motives, public transfers are expected to crowd-out private transfers. Our approach focuses on crowding behavior regardless of the underlying motives.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2006

Manos Matsaganis, Cathal O’Donoghue, Horacio Levy, Manuela Coromaldi, Magda Mercader-Prats, Carlos Farinha Rodrigues, Stefano Toso and Panos Tsakloglou

The paper examines the effect of family transfers on child poverty in Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Family transfers are defined as to include non-contributory child…

Abstract

The paper examines the effect of family transfers on child poverty in Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Family transfers are defined as to include non-contributory child benefits, contributory family allowances and tax credits or allowances. The drive to reduce child poverty is of particular interest in southern Europe, where public support to poor families with children is often meagre or not available at all. The paper uses the European cross-country microsimulation model, EUROMOD, to assess the distributional impact of existing family transfers and to explore the scope for policy reforms, before it concludes with a discussion of key findings and policy implications.

Details

Micro-Simulation in Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-442-3

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Lucas Duarte, Enlinson Mattos and Juliana Serillo

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize that the marginal social cost of public funds and to estimate the response of labor supply to these publicly provided goods, and simulate the marginal social cost of cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers (MSCKT) for Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a theoretical model based on Wildasin to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds. Next it estimates using instrumental variables approach the variables necessary to calibrate our theoretical model.

Findings

The marginal social cost of public funds depends on the relation between labor supply and the cash‐cum‐in‐kind transfers. Last, the simulations suggest that MSCKT can increase up to 12.4 percent if compared with cases in which is assumed ordinary independence between labor and the bundle of goods provided by the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Further panel data experiments based on municipal public finance data should be conducted in order to circumvent the agents' heterogeneity problem inherent in cross section analysis – and individuals' labor supply response could be more sensitive at this data level. Finally, such cost‐benefit analysis makes more sense when a specific project is considered and therefore its effects on the taxed good can be clearly estimated leading to a more reliable estimative of the marginal social cost of funding that project.

Social implications

Governments should take the actual social cost of public policies into consideration before undertaking any new project.

Originality/value

The paper is useful to characterize the marginal social cost of public funds, estimate the necessary parameters and, last, to calibrate its correspondent using Brazilian data.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Tindara Addabbo and Massimo Baldini

Poverty dynamics and the ability of the Italian welfare system to reduce poverty are investigated by using the 1991‐1995 panel of the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household…

Abstract

Poverty dynamics and the ability of the Italian welfare system to reduce poverty are investigated by using the 1991‐1995 panel of the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household Income and Wealth. Households most exposed to poverty live in the South, have a larger size, a young or female head, with a low educational level or a discontinuous work profile. The dynamic and static effectiveness (in terms of poverty reduction) of social transfers is analysed, as well as the factors affecting exclusion from the safety net. A closer look is taken at the effects of a minimum income guarantee in the experimental phase in Italy.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 21 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Daniel P. Murphy

Crimes are committed for personal reasons or for profit. In any crime for a profit scenario the state has an interest in removing the profit from the criminal. Drug…

Abstract

Crimes are committed for personal reasons or for profit. In any crime for a profit scenario the state has an interest in removing the profit from the criminal. Drug offences, other than simple possession, are the paradigm. People use drugs for a variety of reasons but, at least in the illicit drug trade, individuals sell drugs in order to make money. Traditionally, this was a cash‐based enterprise and, frequently, a misplaced investigative opportunity. A state can attack the criminal profit in order to attack the enterprise. When an illicit criminal activity is undertaken for cash prosecutors and investigators must look at this as an opportunity.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2018

Graham Heaslip, Gyöngyi Kovács and Ira Haavisto

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and material flows in cash-based responses (CBRs) and their implications for humanitarian operations. This research…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and material flows in cash-based responses (CBRs) and their implications for humanitarian operations. This research proposes to view cash as a commodity used by humanitarian actors in emergency operations and therefore aims to explore how CBRs impact on humanitarian logistics and ultimately, affect beneficiaries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach of grounded theory was chosen for this inquiry because it allowed the researchers to generate a general explanation for the process of CBRs in emergency situations based on the views of participants interviewed. Interviews were conducted with senior managers, supply chain managements and logistics officers from international humanitarian organisations (HOs), United Nations agencies and commercial organisations involved in humanitarian operations. Examples of topics covered during the field work included, procedures and policy; knowledge and information management; systems and technology; actors and agents.

Findings

The impact of CBRs on humanitarian operations can though not be understated. They alter supply chain design, the very role of beneficiaries as well as HOs, and change the strategy of aid delivery from push to pull. Perhaps, the most important factor is the elimination of many logistical activities that needed to be performed by HOs. Delivering cash diminishes the needs for lengthy procurement and assessment processes, pre-positioning, transportation and distribution. This bears the potential of significant reductions in costs for delivering humanitarian aid at the same time as it is an important move from aid to trade.

Practical implications

The challenge for humanitarian agencies in the coming years is to overcome their fears surrounding CBRs, and to implement cash programmes where they are judged to be the most appropriate response. This will require not only a change in donor policies, but also a fundamental change in the skill set of humanitarian logisticians, who are used to identifying needs and providing commodities and thus to maintaining control over the provision of assistance.

Originality/value

The contribution of this research is twofold: this is the first examination of cash-based interventions in humanitarian operations through the prism of supply chain management. Second, the research is field based and grounded in empirical observations thus adding to the literature and offering insights to practice.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

Barbara R. Lewis

Presents in the first part a research project designed to explore use and attitudes towards banks by weekly, cash‐paid workers. Discusses in the second part, an attempt…

Abstract

Presents in the first part a research project designed to explore use and attitudes towards banks by weekly, cash‐paid workers. Discusses in the second part, an attempt to summarize views of workers, employers, government and banks with regard to payments by cash and bank credit transfer, along with the possibilities for revising payment methods in the UK. Explores attitudes and behaviour of weekly, cash‐paid workers to banks, other financial institutions, and to their own personal finances. Uses tables to give extra emphasis in explaining the responses in greater detail. Closes the piece by saying the market function must be helped by the bank persuading weekly, cash‐paid workers to open and use a current account, showing advantages over competitors, as well as benefits and satisfaction to gaining use of its services.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Christie C. Onwujuba and Thomas D. Lynch

In this paper, we examine the cash management practices in the State of Louisiana and contrasted those practices with the rate of return on investment income due to cash

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the cash management practices in the State of Louisiana and contrasted those practices with the rate of return on investment income due to cash management practices. Essentially, we framed various model hypotheses from the literature, which tells us that if those practices exist then we should see an increased rate of return due to cash management. In general, our research supported the literature but there were some interesting exceptions that merit attention.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

David G.W. Birch

Money in general, and cash in particular, is not a fixed and independent entity. Cash has always changed its nature to reflect the requirements for its use. As society has…

Abstract

Money in general, and cash in particular, is not a fixed and independent entity. Cash has always changed its nature to reflect the requirements for its use. As society has shifted from the predominantly agricultural ‘first wave’ through a predominantly industrial ‘second wave’ to the information‐based ‘third wave’, so cash has mutated to meet the needs of society. The relationship between the needs of commerce and the nature of cash is, however, one of feedback and reinforcement: the development of paper money, for example, not only supported but drove the development of banking systems to facilitate widespread commerce. Developments in IT mean that the ability to maintain property rights and exchange cash in ‘cyberspace’ is now feasible. Thus, as the infobahn causes shifts in demand for commerce and banking services, these shifts will feed back and accelerate changes in the nature of commerce. The widespread implementation of electronic property rights and electronic cash (e‐cash) — the former linked to personal and corporate identities, the latter anonymous — will therefore catalyse change in banking and commerce. This article draws on some of Hyperion's recent experience in helping to develop the Mondex e‐cash scheme (and other projects, ranging from the re‐engineering of financial institutions to procuring advanced communications networks for developing countries) and attempts to extrapolate and speculate to help businesses plan for the future

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

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