Search results

1 – 10 of over 32000
Article
Publication date: 3 June 2022

Omar Ikbal Tawfik, Hamada Elsaid Elmaasrawy and Khaldoon Albitar

This study aims to investigate the relationship between political connections, financing decisions and cash holding.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between political connections, financing decisions and cash holding.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on historical data from 181 active non-financial firms listed on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Stock Exchange Markets during the period of 2009–2016, this study uses ordinary least squares and dynamic system-generalized method of moments to test the research hypotheses. The final data set comprises a total of 1,448 firm-year observations from ten major non-financial industry classifications.

Findings

This study finds a positive relationship between political connections and each of internal financing proxied by retained earnings ratio and external financing proxied by short- and long-term debt to total asset. The findings also show a positive relationship between political connections and cash holding.

Practical implications

The findings of the study provide a better understanding of the role of politically connected directors in financing decisions and cash holding in the GCC. Investors can consider the presence of royal family members in the board of directors when making investment decision. Policymakers are encouraged to develop more effective policies that encourage listed firms to provide information on the political positions of the board of directors, managers and major shareholders/owners of companies.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the relationship between political connections and financing decisions by focusing on the GCC region. This study also highlights that boards in connected firms in the GCC have lower monitoring role owing to political interventions, and that connected firms face higher agency problems as they have weak governance and boards compared with non-connected firms.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Ranajee Ranajee and Rajesh Pathak

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cash holding of firms during a crisis and test the widely accepted determinants of corporate cash holding (CCH) for their…

1190

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cash holding of firms during a crisis and test the widely accepted determinants of corporate cash holding (CCH) for their consistency across periods of crisis, stability and recovery, and across firm categories, in the emerging market context of India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs panel data and Fama–Macbeth regression techniques on publicly listed firms during 2001–2015, amid controls for idiosyncratic factors. Further empirical analysis is carried out through the disaggregation of firms based on group affiliation, controlling stake of promoters, financial constraints and firm size.

Findings

The study reports that cash levels are significantly higher during crisis periods for Indian firms. Moreover, promoter holding is observed to be a strong predictor of CCH, which is an addition to the list of predictors in existing literature. Additionally, most of the predictors of cash holding turn out to be consistent through periods of financial crisis, stability and recovery. A firm’s age and growth prospects do not determine cash levels for Indian firms; however, cash-flow volatility, firm size, leverage and non-cash working capital requirements help to determine the cash levels of the firm consistently through different periods. Group-affiliated firms are less likely to engage in cash accumulation as opposed to firms that are large and financially constrained and have high promoter stakes.

Originality/value

The study is unique because it examines the consistency of determinants of cash holding across good and turbulent times and across firm classifications. Moreover, the study uses a broad sample of firms and investigates the topic for a relatively long period in an emerging market setup.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Ly Thi Hai Tran, Thoa Thi Kim Tu and Thao Thi Phuong Hoang

This paper examines the effects of managerial optimism on corporate cash holdings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effects of managerial optimism on corporate cash holdings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a novel measure of managerial optimism based on the linguistic tone of annual reports by applying a Naïve Bayesian Machine Learning algorithm to non-numeric parts of Vietnamese listed firms' reports from 2010 to 2016. The paper employs firm and year fixed effects model and also uses the generalized method of moments estimation as robustness checks.

Findings

The authors find that the cash holding of firms managed by optimistic managers is higher than the cash holdings of firms managed by non-optimistic managers. Managerial optimism also influences corporate cash holdings through internal cash flows and the current year’s capital expenditures. Although the authors find no evidence that optimistic managers hold more cash to finance future growth opportunities in general, optimistic managers hold more cash for near future investment opportunities than non-optimistic managers do.

Research limitations/implications

The novel measure proposed in this study is expected to provide great potential for future finance studies investigating the relation between managerial traits and corporate policies since it is applicable for any levels of financial market development. In addition, the findings highlight the important role, both direct and indirect, of managerial optimism on cash holdings. Related future research should take this psychological trait into account to gain a better understanding of corporate cash holding.

Originality/value

This paper helps to extend the literature on managerial optimism measurement by introducing a new measure of managerial optimism based on the linguistic tone of annual reports. Furthermore, this is among the first studies directly linking annual report linguistic tone to cash holding. The paper also provides new evidence regarding how managerial optimism affects the relationship between the firm's growth opportunities and cash holding, given that mispricing corrections are naturally uncertain.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2021

Emmanuel Onyebuchi Onah, Angela Ifeanyi Ujunwa, Augustine Ujunwa and Oloruntoba Samuel Ogundele

This paper aims to examine the effect of financial technology on cash holding in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of financial technology on cash holding in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use Pesaran et al.’s (2001) autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test approach to cointegration to estimate the long-run relationship between four direct measures of financial technology (automated teller machine [ATM], Internet banking [IB], point of sale [POS] and mobile banking [MB]) and cash holding.

Findings

The authors find the presence of long-run negative relationship between cash holding and the four direct measures of financial technology.

Practical implications

Despite the negative effect of financial technology on cash holding, the descriptive results highlight increasing trajectory in cash holding. This suggests that structural factors such as ethical climate, literacy level, household characteristics, currency denomination structures, economic uncertainty and infrastructure deficit may account for the pervasive cash transactions in Nigeria and not necessarily the unwillingness of economic agents to use digital platform for financial transactions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to existing literature by augmenting the money demand function to accommodate direct measures of financial technology in examining the effectiveness of the policy on cash holding in Nigeria.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Sanjib Guha and Niazur Rahim

US corporations are now sitting on an enormous stockpile of cash. Instead of investing their resources and creating jobs, the firms are holding on to excess cash

Abstract

Purpose

US corporations are now sitting on an enormous stockpile of cash. Instead of investing their resources and creating jobs, the firms are holding on to excess cash. Academicians and practitioners alike have tried to fathom the reasons why companies are holding on to so much cash. Numerous studies have talked about the various motives for holding cash. Many researchers have tried to correlate excess cash holding with particular firm characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to study the correlations that exist between excess cash holding and some measurable managerial characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Four different measures of managerial horizon (MH) were constructed. The first two constructs (MH1 and MH2) are based on the CEO’s age and how long he has been the CEO of the company. The next two constructs (MH3 and MH4) are based on compensation, proportion of current compensation and proportion of future compensation. This paper tries to examine if MH has any impact on excess cash holding.

Findings

The results clearly show that the CEO age and the proportion of CEO’s compensation (current and future) do determine level of cash holding in the company. Younger CEOs hold more cash compared to older CEOs. Older CEOs hold less cash suggesting that as CEOs grow older they might be motivated by the idea of leaving a long lasting legacy. CEOs who receive more of their compensation in future payments also hold on to more cash, whereas CEOs who receive more of their compensation in current payments hold less cash.

Originality/value

There is no previous literature dealing with MH and cash holding by corporations.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 45 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2022

Efstathios Magerakis

This paper aims to consider the effect of the chief executive officer’s (CEO) ability on the amount of cash stock at the firm level.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to consider the effect of the chief executive officer’s (CEO) ability on the amount of cash stock at the firm level.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical hypothesis is examined via fixed-effect regression models using data from US incorporated firms.

Findings

Consistent with the upper echelon theory and cash holding motives, the results reveal that able CEOs are associated with an increased level of cash stock, ceteris paribus. Further analysis shows that the association between CEO ability and firm cash holding is more profound for financially sound firms. The authors also demonstrate that firm size significantly affects the relationship between CEO ability and cash management. The results are robust to various sensitivity analyses and additional tests.

Research limitations/implications

This work is subject to limitations inherent in the use of relevant proxies. Thus, the study implements several model specifications to ensure the validity of findings in a more generic context. Future research should investigate the board structure’s role and the monitoring procedures on the CEOs’ cash holding behavior as a natural extension to this study.

Practical implications

The insights derived from the study are expected to advance the decision-making process of cash policies and CEO selection for shareholders, business executives and investment strategists.

Originality/value

Overall, the study provides new evidence that CEO ability is a contingent factor of corporate cash stock.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2022

Tingting Huang, Yilin Pan, Kai Zhu and Xinyuan Chen

This paper aims to study the impact of human resource heterogeneity on firms’ cash-holding policies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the impact of human resource heterogeneity on firms’ cash-holding policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors construct a proxy for human resource heterogeneity using the dissimilarity in employees’ skill structure between the firm and its peers in the same industry.

Findings

The authors report evidence that firms with heterogeneous human resources hold more cash than other firms. This effect is more pronounced in labor-intensive firms and firms more susceptible to hold-up by employees, i.e. firms located in regions with more labor disputes and firms surrounded by more external employment opportunities. In addition, the authors demonstrate that high cash holdings triggered by human resource heterogeneity reduce the scale and efficiency of firms’ capital investment.

Originality/value

Our study highlights the role of human resource heterogeneity in determining firms’ cash policies. This paper adds to the understanding of labor adjustment costs within the firm and provides insights into firms’ cash-holding decisions.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2022

Jayalakshmy Ramachandran, Yezen H. Kannan and Samuel Jebaraj Benjamin

This paper aims to investigate auditors’ pricing of excess cash holdings and the variation in their pricing decisions in light of the precautionary motives of cash holdings

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate auditors’ pricing of excess cash holdings and the variation in their pricing decisions in light of the precautionary motives of cash holdings and certain firm-specific conditions and during periods of crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct the two-stage-least-squares multivariate analysis using a sample of publicly listed non-financial US firms for the period 2003 to 2021 (42,413 firm-year observations).

Findings

The findings show a significant positive relationship between excess cash and audit fee. Next, the authors find that audit pricing of excess cash is significantly higher for firms with lower financial constraints. However, the authors do not find evidence to suggest that auditors price excess cash significantly higher for firms with lower hedging needs. In additional analysis, the authors find evidence to suggest that auditors charge significantly less for excess cash in firms that report financial loss and firms operating in industries with high litigation risk. The additional analysis also reveals excess cash is not positively and significantly priced by auditors as a result of the global financial crisis and Covid-19 pandemic.

Originality/value

Most researchers have analyzed excess cash holding from the perspective of managers, i.e. agency conflict or managerial prudence, while somewhat neglecting auditors’ perception of the embedded risk of excess cash holdings. The authors provide new insights on auditors’ perspective of excess cash holding and identify certain factors/situation/conditions that cause variation in the audit fee premium. The findings offer useful insights for managers and shareholders who are interested in assessing the effects of excess cash holdings policies on the audit fee premium.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Efstathios Magerakis

This paper examines the role of managerial discretion in the relation between managerial ability on the level of corporate cash.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the role of managerial discretion in the relation between managerial ability on the level of corporate cash.

Design/methodology/approach

Conjoining the upper echelons theory's premises and the theoretical framework of cash holdings, we posit that the managerial ability's effect on cash policy varies with managerial discretion using firm-level data. To test the empirical prediction, we employ a linear regression model with fixed effects with a sample of US listed firms from 1980 to 2016.

Findings

The findings reveal that the positive association between the ability of chief executive officers and corporate cash savings is weakened by firm-level managerial discretion. The results are robust to various additional analyses, namely lagged independent variables regression, reduced form regression and granger causality test. Overall, the findings are generally consistent with the cash holding motives yielding transaction and precautionary demand for money. However, our findings also shed light on whether managerial discretion moderates or exacerbates agency problems related to top executives' cash holding policies.

Originality/value

This work's distinct characteristic is the investigation of the joint effect of managerial talent and discretion on a firm's cash holding, which remains unexplored in the literature.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 60 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Moncef Guizani and Ahdi Noomen Ajmi

This study aims to investigate the influence of macroeconomic conditions on corporate cash holdings in terms of their influence on the level of cash and the speed of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of macroeconomic conditions on corporate cash holdings in terms of their influence on the level of cash and the speed of adjustment of cash to target levels in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC).

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs both static and dynamic regression analyses considering a sample of 2,878 firm-year observations drawn from stock markets in GCC countries over the 2010–2018 period.

Findings

Consistent with the precautionary motive, the results show that GCC firms tend to accumulate cash reserves in weak economic periods. Evidence also reveals that the estimated adjustment coefficients from dynamic panel models show that GCC firms adjust more slowly toward their target cash ratio in periods of unfavorable economic conditions.

Practical implications

This study has important implications for managers, policymakers and regulators. For managers, the study is an important reference to understand and design cash management policies by considering financial constraints imposed by macroeconomic conditions. In particular, managers should pay more attention to periods of credit crunch and weak economic conditions in which firms may be exposed to greater bankruptcy risks. For policymakers and regulators, this study may be useful in assessing the effect of macroeconomic factors on firm's cash holding decision. Therefore, in an effort to increase the supply of external financing available to firms, policymakers may devise investment friendly environment by controlling macroeconomic factors.

Originality/value

This paper offers some insights on the macro determinants of cash holdings by investigating emerging economies. It explores the role of macroeconomic conditions on corporate cash holdings in terms of their influence on the costs of external funds and financial constraints.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 32000