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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Marcia Combs, Casey Hazelwood and Randall Joyce

Digital voice assistants use wake word engines (WWEs) to monitor surrounding audio for detection of the voice assistant's name. There are two failed conditions for a WWE, false…

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Abstract

Purpose

Digital voice assistants use wake word engines (WWEs) to monitor surrounding audio for detection of the voice assistant's name. There are two failed conditions for a WWE, false negative and false positive. Wake word false positives threaten a loss of personal privacy because, upon activation, the digital assistant records audio to the voice cloud service for processing.

Design/methodology/approach

This observational study attempted to identify which Amazon Alexa wake word and Amazon Echo smart speaker resulted in the fewest number of human voice false positives. During an eight-week period, false-positive data were collected from four different Amazon Echo smart speakers located in a small apartment with three female roommates.

Findings

Results from this study suggest the number of human voice false positives are related to wake word selection and Amazon Echo hardware. Results from this observational study determined that the wake word Alexa resulted in the fewest number of false positives.

Originality/value

This study suggests Amazon Alexa users can better protect their privacy by selecting Alexa as their wake word and selecting smart speakers with the highest number of microphones in the far-field array with 360-degree geometry.

Details

Organizational Cybersecurity Journal: Practice, Process and People, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-0270

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 December 2022

Sanjay Goel and Gurvirender Tejay

359

Abstract

Details

Organizational Cybersecurity Journal: Practice, Process and People, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2635-0270

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Allen Dieterich-Ward

Governor Robert F. Casey made his first state visit to Homestead, Pennsylvania the day after his inauguration in January 1987 to announce a package of plans for restoring economic…

Abstract

Governor Robert F. Casey made his first state visit to Homestead, Pennsylvania the day after his inauguration in January 1987 to announce a package of plans for restoring economic vitality to metropolitan Pittsburgh in the wake of steel's collapse. Earlier urban renewal had involved large-scale demolition of older downtowns for conversion to commercial and industrial use, but state and local officials now emphasized a two-pronged redevelopment approach largely modeled on the success of the postwar suburbs. The closure of the Monongahela River (Mon) Valley's mammoth steel mills opened large swaths of land and prompted calls for planned riverfront manufacturing and retail districts similar to those sites sprouting up at suburban interchanges. A second and related effort involved schemes to build new highways tying aging communities in the river valleys to both Pittsburgh and new suburban growth areas, such as the sprawling “edge city” of Monroeville less than 10miles away. Indeed, Casey had a special project in mind for revitalizing the iconic Homestead – construction of the long-delayed Mon/Fayette Expressway that would parallel the river south of Pittsburgh. “This is another big step [to] help bring businesses and jobs into the region,” the governor later declared. “No longer is this valley a forgotten valley” (as cited in Basescu, 1989, p. 1).

Details

Suburbanization in Global Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-348-5

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2019

S. J. Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas

Abstract

Details

Corporate Ethics for Turbulent Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-192-2

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 30 April 2019

S. J. Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas

Building trust and living interpersonal trust are crucial corporate executive virtues that are needed today. Once you have developed and solidified a high level of genuine…

Abstract

Executive Summary

Building trust and living interpersonal trust are crucial corporate executive virtues that are needed today. Once you have developed and solidified a high level of genuine interpersonal trust with all your stakeholders, especially customers, suppliers, and employees, then you are on the right path of managing and transforming your company. A high level of interpersonal trust between all stakeholders and corporates in a business situation will break down communication barriers, foster serious conversation and sharing of ideas, and will eliminate corporate transactional anxieties of fear, mistrust, guilt, rigidity, blame, and resentment. When stakeholders trust you and you trust them, then you speak freely, they speak freely, and your mutual sustained transparency is a gateway to survival, revival, and sustained corporate recovery and transformation, and steady growth and prosperity. Conversely, when there is low trust, high mistrust, and high distrust among stakeholders in a business situation, communications and conversations are stressed and fragmented, teamwork and team spirit are very low, and the company is heading toward its ruin and extermination. Such is the crucial role of interpersonal trust in business. This chapter explores the crucial phenomenon of corporate interpersonal trust. We review various cases, models, concepts, definitions, and theories of trust from the management literature in general, and from the marketing field in particular, to derive psychological, behavioral, ethical, and moral principles of corporate trust, trusting relations, and trusting strategies.

Details

Corporate Ethics for Turbulent Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-192-2

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Michael I.C. Nwogugu

– This paper aims to explain the weaknesses and inconsistencies inherent in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 (USA).

1945

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the weaknesses and inconsistencies inherent in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 (USA).

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is entirely theoretical and multi-disciplinary (and relies on some third-party empirical research), and it consists of a literature review, critique and the development of theories which are applicable across countries.

Findings

The Dodd-Frank Act is inefficient and inadequate as a response to the global financial crisis. The Dodd-Frank Act has not resulted in significant economic growth and has increased transaction costs and compliance costs for both government agencies and financial services companies.

Originality/value

The author developed the theories introduced in the paper.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Valerie K. York, Laura A. Brannon, Carol W. Shanklin, Kevin R. Roberts, Betsy B. Barrett and Amber D. Howells

This paper aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four‐hour ServSafe® food safety training, a theory‐based intervention targeting food service employees' perceived…

3157

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four‐hour ServSafe® food safety training, a theory‐based intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to implementing food safety practices, and a combination of the two treatments. Dependent measures include behavioral compliance with and perceptions of control over performing hand washing, use of thermometers, and handling of work surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Four groups are compared: employees receiving only ServSafe® training, intervention alone, training and intervention, and no treatment. Employees complete a questionnaire assessing perceived barriers to practicing the targeted behaviors. Then, employees are observed in the production area for behavioral compliance.

Findings

Training or intervention alone is better than no treatment, but the training/intervention combination is most effective at improving employees' compliance with and perceptions of control over performing the behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Research is limited to restaurant employees in three states within the USA, in only 31 of the 1,298 restaurants originally contacted. Future research should identify barriers of other types of food service employees and evaluate the effectiveness of these and other intervention strategies.

Practical implications

ServSafe® training can be enhanced with a simple intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to food safety. Providing knowledge and addressing barriers are both important steps to improving food safety in restaurants.

Originality/value

No previous research has used the theory of planned behavior to develop an intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to implementing food safety practices. Research also has not attempted to improve the effectiveness of ServSafe® food safety training by adding an intervention.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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