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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2019

JiHye Park, JaeHong Park and Ho-Jung Yoon

When purchasing digital content (DC), consumers are typically influenced by various information sources on the website. Prior research has mostly focused on the individual…

Abstract

Purpose

When purchasing digital content (DC), consumers are typically influenced by various information sources on the website. Prior research has mostly focused on the individual effect of the information sources on the DC choice. To fill the gap in the previous studies, this research includes three main effects: information cascades, recommendations and word of mouth. In particular, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the interaction effect of information cascades and recommendations on the number of software downloads.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the panel generalized least squares estimation to test the hypotheses by using a panel data set of 2,000 pieces of software at download.cnet.com over a month-long period. Product ranking and recommendation status are used as key independent variables to capture the effects of information cascades and recommendations, respectively.

Findings

One of this study’s findings is that information cascades positively interact with recommendations to influence the number of software downloads. The authors also show that the impact of information cascades on the number of software downloads is greater than one of the recommendations from a distributor does.

Originality/value

Information cascades and recommendations have been considered as the primary effects for online product choices. However, these two effects typically are not considered together in one research. As previous studies have mainly focused on each effect, respectively, the authors believe that this study may fill the gap by examining how these effects are interacted to one other to influence customers’ choices. The authors also show that the impact of information cascades on the number of software downloads is greater than one of the recommendations from a system does.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Sibel McGee, Jaime Frittman, Seongjin James Ahn and Susan Murray

This paper aims to provide a preliminary systemic portrayal of risk relationships in the context of critical infrastructures (CIs) during disasters and assess the adequacy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a preliminary systemic portrayal of risk relationships in the context of critical infrastructures (CIs) during disasters and assess the adequacy of the Hyogo Framework in addressing such relationships and the resultant cascading effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a systems thinking approach, this study views CIs as complex systems operating in the context of broader societies and disaster conditions. Using a causal loop diagramming technique, relationships across a large number of variables are mapped to capture pathways for cascading effects across CIs. This theoretical understanding is supplemented by cascading effects seen during the 2011 Japanese disaster. The Hyogo Framework indicators are mapped both to causal variables and disaster events to identify gaps. Data on cascading effects were collected from journals, news articles and reports by governments and NGOs.

Findings

The Hyogo Framework does not address facilitation by the host country of international aid during disasters; identification of infrastructure interdependencies and prioritization planning for recovery operations; national risk assessments that account for interrelated disasters; and private sector’s need to understand CIs’ dependencies and establish robust continuity plans that account for potential infrastructure failures.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to assess the Hyogo Framework’s potential in addressing risk relationships and cascading effects. The knowledge provided in the paper is derived from the synthesis of previous cascading effects’ literature and examination of a real-life disaster. Findings are applicable to any disaster risk reduction initiative that seeks to anticipate and mitigate risk relationships and their implications for CIs during disasters.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Qihua Liu and Liyi Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine information cascades in the context of users’ e-book reading behavior and differentiate it from alternative factors that lead to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine information cascades in the context of users’ e-book reading behavior and differentiate it from alternative factors that lead to herd behavior, such as network externalities and word-of-mouth effects.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructed panel data using information concerning 226 e-books in 30 consecutive days from Sina.com’s reading channel (Book.Sina.com.cn) from October 2, 2013, to October 31, 2013 of the same year in China. A multinomial logit market-share model was employed.

Findings

E-books’ ranking has a significant impact on their market share, as predicted by informational cascades theory. Higher ranking e-books’ clicks will see a greater increase as a result of an increase in clicks ranking. Due to the information cascades effect, review volume had no impact on the market share of popular e-books. Total votes had a powerful impact on the market share of e-books, showing that once information cascade occurred, it could be enhanced by the increase in total votes. The total clicks of e-books had a significant impact on their market share, suggesting that online reading behavior would be influenced by network externalities.

Practical implications

As important information, the ranking or popularity of e-books should be carefully considered by online reading web sites, publishers, and authors. It is not enough for the authors and publishers of e-books to simply pay attention to the content. They should design their marketing strategies to allow network externalities and informational cascades to work for them, not against them. Online reading web sites should also focus on eliminating certain behavior, such as “brush clicks” and “brush votes,” in order to prevent an undesirable information cascade due to false information.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first study to examine information cascades in the context of users’ e-book reading behavior. Moreover, this study can help other researchers by utilizing a large sample of daily data from one of the earliest online reading platforms in China.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

David O. Baloye and Lobina Gertrude Palamuleni

The purpose of this paper is to map the cascade effects of emergencies on critical infrastructure in a fast-growing city of a developing country. The paper specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to map the cascade effects of emergencies on critical infrastructure in a fast-growing city of a developing country. The paper specifically seeks to refocus the attention of decision makers and emergency managers towards a more effective way of reducing risk and costs associated with contingencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a 2D representation of the three initiating events of fire, flood and automobile crashes. Detailed analysis was undertaken of the effects on the critical infrastructure, based on the probability of occurrence, frequency, spatial extent and degree of damage for the emergencies studied. Subsequently, a cascade matrix was generated to analyse the level of interaction or interdependencies between the participating critical infrastructures in the study area. A model of the cascade effects under a typical emergency was also generated using a software model of network trace functions.

Findings

The results show that while different levels of probability of occurrence, frequency and extent of damage was observed on the evaluated critical infrastructure under different emergency events, damage to the electricity distribution components of the critical infrastructure recorded the highest cascade effect for all emergency events.

Originality/value

This paper underlines the need to pay greater attention to providing protection to critical infrastructure in the rapidly growing cities, especially in developing countries. Findings from this study in Abeokuta, Nigeria, underscore the needs to expand the prevailing critical infrastructure protection beyond the current power and oil sectors in the national development plan. They also highlight the urgency for greater research attention to critical infrastructure inventories. More importantly, the results stress the need for concerted efforts towards proactive emergency management procedures, rather than maintaining the established “fire brigade, window dressing” approach to emergency management, at all levels of administration.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Sheila Roy and Indrajit Mukherjee

In the context of sequential multistage utilitarian service processes, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate propositions to study the impact of service…

Abstract

Purpose

In the context of sequential multistage utilitarian service processes, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate propositions to study the impact of service quality (SQ) perceptions developed in intermediate stages, along with the impact of service gestalt characteristics, such as peak and end experiences, on quality perception at each stage and on overall service quality (OSQ) perception. The cascade phenomenon (interdependency between process stages) is considered in the evaluation of OSQ perception of customer, who experiences service through a series of planned, distinct and partitioned sequential stages.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a conceptual framework is used to evolve the propositions. Subsequently, propositions are tested in three different utilitarian service contexts wherein customer survey was conducted for feedback on attributes at each stage, summary perception evaluations of each stage and OSQ evaluation of multistage process. Peak experiences, considered for OSQ evaluation, were defined by a suitable statistical technique. Ordinal logistic regression with nested models is the technique used for analyzing the data.

Findings

This work reveals significant cascade effect of summary evaluation of intermediate stages on the subsequent stage. Peak customer experience (negative or positive) is observed to be marginally significant on intermediate stage and OSQ evaluation. In addition, OSQ is observed to be influenced by summary perception evaluations of intermediate stages, which leads to better model adequacy. Finally, among all the stages, end stage performance is observed to have a significant impact on the overall multistage SQ.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that in view of the cascade effect of intermediate stages, managers need to allocate resources to ensure that all stages are performing at an adequate level instead of only focusing on improving peaks and end effects of customer experiences. The proposed approach is easy to implement and suitable for evaluating SQ and OSQ in varied multistage sequential utilitarian service environment.

Originality/value

An integrated approach for evaluation of SQ in sequential multistage utilitarian service processes is proposed from the perspective of cascade effect of intermediate stages and peak and end effects on OSQ perception.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2018

Sudeshna Roy, Pranab K. Dan and Nipu Modak

The purpose of this paper is to study the cascading effect of management actions on new product development (NPD) for achieving success in Indian manufacturing industries…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the cascading effect of management actions on new product development (NPD) for achieving success in Indian manufacturing industries. The critical linkage of managerial support for establishing management actions has been explored to realize the NPD success in terms of financial and economic measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The structural equation modeling approach is used to investigate the relationship depicting the managerial control on management practices for NPD success. Primary data from 263 experts of Indian manufacturing industries have been collected for the purpose of this analysis.

Findings

Senior management motivation, risk-taking attitude, problem-solving capacity, awareness in novel development cascade the management actions such as information technology management, conflict management, project management, human resource management, strategic management, organizational factors, planning, long-term vision, and entrepreneurial culture to escalate the NPD success, which in turn be articulated by financial and economic terms.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that managerial support influences the adoption of management actions leading toward NPD success. The developed framework realizes the necessity of implementation of these management actions cascaded from the top management support (TMS) for influencing the financial and economic measures of NPD success.

Originality/value

The cascaded framework depicting the TMS for implementing management actions for NPD success in Indian manufacturing sectors adds novelty to the available literature. Moreover, this study uses a semi-structured questionnaire which incorporates the practical experiences of the experts for quantifying the constructs in a more detailed manner than available in the previous literature. Besides, the realization of comprehensive management actions along with the support from senior management escalates the implementation of the developed framework for NPD success in near future.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Arnaud Mignan, Anna Scolobig and Anne Sauron

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot study involving high school teachers in natural sciences. The aim was to foster critical thinking about…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot study involving high school teachers in natural sciences. The aim was to foster critical thinking about cascading hazards via the use of reasoned imagination. Cascading phenomena can lead to extreme catastrophes and are thus a challenge for disaster prevention and management.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a presentation listing some known cascading phenomena, the participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a blank hazard correlation matrix (HCM) and some open-ended questions. The HCM qualitatively described possible interactions between 16 different perils selected from a large spectrum of natural, technological and socio-economic hazards.

Findings

Most participants were able to describe cascading phenomena within the HCM by reducing them into sets of one-to-one interactions. Based on their experience and imagination, the participants foresaw additional interactions that were not discussed, never observed but are scientifically plausible. The majority of the respondents reported that they learnt something new and wanted to learn more about cascading hazards.

Originality/value

The HCM is especially effective in translating complex hazard scenarios into basic interactions and vice versa. Being imaginative (here via the use of reasoned imagination) and accessible, the HCM could be used as basis for transformative learning in the education of the public and of practitioners on the role of cascading hazards in catastrophes.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Abhilash Panda and Andrew Bower

The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on the place of cyber security risk in the framework of global commitments adopted in 2015 to reduce disaster risks in an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on the place of cyber security risk in the framework of global commitments adopted in 2015 to reduce disaster risks in an all-hazards approach. It explores the correlations between traditional risks associated with critical infrastructures – as understood by the Sendai framework – cyber security risks and the cascading effects characteristic of today’s complex and interrelated shocks and stresses. It takes a step further, expanding the focus of traditionally understood technological risks to explore cyber security risks, at the heart of our societies’ digital transformations,and showcase opportunities from the European context.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing existing literature on cyber security, disaster resilience and cascading disasters, this paper highlights current challenges and good practices undertaken by various governments.

Findings

Understanding disaster risks is a precondition to improving the mitigation of impacts of existing risks and preventing new risks. Effective risk reduction relies on a solid understanding of losses resulting from events to inform future actions, and on the assessment of risks relying on a robust evidence base and state-of-the-art scientific capacity to model and simulate potential hazards. In this context, embedding cyber security risks, and the complexity of cascading impacts in improving the understanding of disaster risks, calls for appropriate methods and tools allowing for a multi-risk and holistic focus to the assessment of risks and the planning of risk management capacities that follow.

Research limitations/implications

Globally and in Europe, focus on interconnected risk and their impacts is steadily increasing. Risk assessments are still conservative; incorporation of cyber resilience into national and local level DRR plans is yet not visible.

Originality/value

Existing research is restricted to cyber security and disaster resilience, as separated subjects. This paper, for the first time, brings together the interconnection between the two topic options to address them.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Pablo Estrada and Leonardo Sánchez-Aragón

Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub…

Abstract

Financial contagion refers to the propagation of shocks that can generate widespread failures. The authors apply a financial contagion model proposed by Elliott, Golub, and Jackson (2014) to a cross-shareholding network of firms in Ecuador. The authors use a novel dataset to study the potential channels for contagion. Although diversification is not high, results reveal enough conditions for a contagion event to occur. However, the low level of integration attenuates the effects of shocks. The authors run simulations affecting a particular firm at the time, and find that two firms coming from the finance and trade industry cause the highest contagion. In addition, when an entire industry receives a shock, trade and manufacturing industries contagion more companies than the rest. Finally, the model can assist policymakers to monitor the market and evaluate the fragility of the network in different scenarios.

Details

The Econometrics of Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-576-9

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Rodolfo Jr. Espada, Armando Apan and Kevin McDougall

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach that examines the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures using the network theory in geographic information system (GIS) setting in combination with literature and government reports. Specifically, the objectives of this study were to generate the network models of critical infrastructure systems (CISs), particularly electricity, roads and sewerage networks; to characterize the CISs’ interdependencies; and to outline the climate adaptation (CA) and flood mitigation measures of CIS.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated approach was undertaken in assessing the vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructures. A single system model and system-of-systems model were operationalized to examine the vulnerability and interdependency of the identified critical infrastructures in GIS environment. Existing CA and flood mitigation measures from government reports were integrated in the above-mentioned findings to better understand and gain focus in the implementation of natural disaster risk reduction (DRR) policies, particularly during the 2010/2011 floods in Queensland, Australia.

Findings

Using the results from the above-mentioned approach, the spatially explicit framework was developed with four key operational dimensions: conceiving the climate risk environment; understanding the critical infrastructures’ common cause and cascade failures; modeling individual infrastructure system and system-of-systems level within GIS setting; and integrating the above-mentioned results with the government reports to increase CA and resilience measures of flood-affected critical infrastructures.

Research limitations/implications

While natural DRR measures include preparation, response and recovery, this study focused on flood mitigation. Temporal analysis and application to other natural disasters were also not considered in the analysis.

Practical implications

By providing this information, government-owned corporations, CISs managers and other concerned stakeholders will allow to identify infrastructure assets that are highly critical, identify vulnerable infrastructures within areas of very high flood risk, examine the interdependency of critical infrastructures and the effects of cascaded failures, identify ways of reducing flood risk and extreme climate events and prioritize DRR measures and CA strategies.

Originality/value

The individualist or “pigeon-hole” approach has been the common method of analyzing infrastructures’ exposure to flood hazards and tends to separately examine the risk for different types of infrastructure (e.g. electricity, water, sewerage, roads and rails and stormwater). This study introduced an integrated approach of analyzing infrastructure risk to damage and cascade failure due to flooding. Aside from introducing the integrated approach, this study operationalized GIS-based vulnerability assessment and interdependency of critical infrastructures which had been unsubstantially considered in the past analytical frameworks. The authors considered this study of high significance, considering that floodplain planning schemes often lack the consideration of critical infrastructure interdependency.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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