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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Carsten Baumgarth

This paper aims to present historical examples of collaborations between brand strategists and artists; provide an extensive, structured overview of existing published…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present historical examples of collaborations between brand strategists and artists; provide an extensive, structured overview of existing published research on such collaborations and their effects; present seven papers comprising this special issue; and discuss ideas for further research into brand–art collaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an editorial based mainly on an extensive and broad literature review.

Findings

First, this editorial underpins the relevance of brand–art collaboration in the past and present by reference to real examples. Second, it structures the diverse literature into four key aspects of the topic: inspiration, insights, identity and image. Third, it provides a glimpse of the seven papers selected for this special issue. Fourth and finally, it identifies a total of 16 avenues for further research, on four levels (artist, brand owner, consumer and cooperation process).

Originality/value

This editorial and the entire special issue together represent the first anthology on the topic of the interface between brand management and arts. The collection and classification of the existing literature, the formulation of ideas for future research and the content of the seven papers are collectively excellent starting springboards for new and fresh brand research projects.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Samuel Kristal, Carsten Baumgarth and Jörg Henseler

This paper aims to investigate the ways in which “non-collaborative co-creation” can affect brand equity as perceived by independent observers. It reports a study of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the ways in which “non-collaborative co-creation” can affect brand equity as perceived by independent observers. It reports a study of the different effects on that perception attributable to non-collaborative co-creation that takes the form of either “brand play” or “brand attack” and is executed either by established artists or mainstream consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (brand play versus brand attack; consumer versus artist) measured observers’ perception of brand equity before and after exposure to purpose-designed co-created treatments.

Findings

Non-collaborative co-creation has a negative effect on observers’ perceptions of brand equity and brand attack, causing a stronger dilution of brand equity than brand play. Artists either mitigate the dilution or have a positive effect on those perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could usefully investigate the relative susceptibility of brands to non-collaborative co-creation, the effects on brands of higher complexity than those in our experiment, exposed in higher-involvement media, and the effects of more diverse forms of co-creation.

Practical implications

Brand managers must recognise that co-creation carries considerable risks for brand equity. They should closely monitor and track the first signs of non-collaborative co-creation in progress. It could be beneficial to recruit artists as co-creators of controlled brand play.

Originality/value

This study offers a more complete insight into the effect of non-collaborative co-creation on observers’ perceptions of brand equity than so far offered by the existing literature. It connects the fields of brand management and the arts by investigating the role and impact of artists as collaborative or non-collaborative co-creators of brand equity.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Samuel Kristal, Carsten Baumgarth, Carolin Behnke and Jörg Henseler

This paper aims to analyse the general effect of co-created products on the brand equity of observers (OBBE). The influence of different implementations of the co-creation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the general effect of co-created products on the brand equity of observers (OBBE). The influence of different implementations of the co-creation approach on the OBBE is tested. It is also discussed whether co-creation can be a strategic method for companies to positively affect the OBBE in the mass market.

Design/methodology/approach

A between-subject experiment with a 2 (intensity of integration: democratically voted vs commonly created) × 2 (expert knowledge: no expert knowledge vs expert knowledge) design plus one control group (zero co-creation) is conducted for two brands to test the postulated hypotheses.

Findings

Co-creation can have a weak positive effect on the OBBE. Integration intensity and expertise of integrated consumer also affect the OBBE only marginally.

Research limitations/implications

Further research might investigate whether the initial brand equity has a moderating effect. Also brand image and underlying product category could influence the relation between co-creation and the OBBE and would be valuable for future studies.

Practical implications

Brand managers should aim to convert observers into participants, instead of setting the focus on the presentation of the user-designed product to the mass market.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few analyzing the effects of co-creation on observers in terms of brand equity. In addition to existing research, the concept of expertise in combination with co-creation and its influence on the OBBE is explored.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Carsten Baumgarth and Daragh O’Reilly

The purposes of this editorial are first, to review the background to, and development of, the Special Issue call for papers issued in March 2013 on the topic of “Brands…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this editorial are first, to review the background to, and development of, the Special Issue call for papers issued in March 2013 on the topic of “Brands in the Arts and Culture Sector”, second, to introduce the eight papers in the double issue (seven in the Special Issue plus one paper (by Caldwell)) which was submitted to the journal in the normal course and whose topic fits well with the arts and cultural branding topic, and third, to set out a framework designed to facilitate the analysis of individual arts and cultural brands, as well as the directions for future research in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

The papers in this Special Issue use a variety of approaches-some qualitative (e.g. ethnography, expert interviews), others quantitative (e.g. laboratory experiment, surveys); others deal with conceptual issues for individual artists and for the arts market.

Findings

Findings and insights relate to topics such as: how the “in-between spaces” (e.g. art studios) can be key building blocks of a strong artist’s brand; the importance of western ideas for the Chinese art market; how pro-activeness, innovation, and risk-taking are the three key drivers for the decision to integrate blockbusters as a sub-brand in museum brand architecture; the importance of experiential design for low-involvement museum visitors; the utility of the notion of brand attachment in explaining volunteering; the potential of visual arts branding for general branding theory; the concept of millennial cultural consumers and how to reach them; and celebrity casting in London’s West End theatres.

Research limitations/implications

The authors believe that all of the papers have implications for future thinking, research, scholarship, paedagogy, and practice in the area of arts and cultural branding.

Originality/value

As far as the editors are aware, this is the first ever journal Special Issue on arts and cultural branding. More specifically, the authors have taken the opportunity to present in this editorial essay the “C-Framework” of arts and cultural brands, which offers a new way of thinking about arts and cultural brands − one which can accommodate classical or so-called “mainstream” branding ideas as well as insights from cultural, media, and consumer studies, and other disciplines. This framework can be applied to individual arts and cultural brands as well as to the entire field.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Carsten Baumgarth

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of brand attitude and brand attachment on different categories of visitors’ behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of brand attitude and brand attachment on different categories of visitors’ behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adapts a model from the classical brand research on the cultural sector. This model is tested by a visitor survey for an independent theatre and the soft modelling approach PLS.

Findings

Brand attitude and brand attachment explain similar simple types of consumer behaviour in the cultural and arts context. However, most difficult visitors’ behaviour like volunteering or demonstration is only explained by brand attachment.

Practical implications

Cultural manager should consider brand attachment as an additional construct in classical visitor surveys. Furthermore, cultural manager should develop and implement measures for increasing the brand attachment via a higher level of brand identification and brand prominence.

Originality/value

This paper is the first research, which integrates the construct brand attachment in the cultural sector. Furthermore, the distinction between different categories of visitors’ behaviour is new and fruitful for further brand research in the cultural sector. Finally, the discussed measures for improving the brand attachment opens directions for further research.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Carsten Baumgarth and Lars Binckebanck

This paper aims to develop and empirically test a conceptual framework explaining the influence of the sales force on brand equity relative to the product and promotion…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop and empirically test a conceptual framework explaining the influence of the sales force on brand equity relative to the product and promotion elements of the marketing mix, in the context of business‐to‐business marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Six research hypotheses, relating to the effects of four key drivers of B‐to‐B brand equity identified in a review of the relevant literature, were empirically tested with a sample of 201 respondents in B‐to‐B firms in Germany, using partial least squares analysis.

Findings

The results confirm the high relevance of the sales force to the building and maintenance of a strong B‐to‐B brand. The most important driver of brand equity in this environment is the salesperson's behaviour, followed in sequence by his or her personality, product quality and non‐personal marketing communications.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size permits only a general analysis and conclusions. The choice of PLS analysis and formative scales limits the rigorousness of scale and model evaluation. The decision to interview one manager per company may have introduced informant bias.

Practical implications

The study identifies controllable variables that are critical to the effective management of a B‐to‐B brand and offers an alternative approach to the measurement of brand equity in B‐to‐B marketing.

Originality/value

This is the first study to test the widely claimed influence of the sales force on B‐to‐B brand equity empirically, developing a simple but powerful framework to integrate sales management and brand management in this context.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

Carsten Baumgarth

The purpose of this paper is to design and test a model for the internal anchorage of a business‐to‐business brand via corporate brand orientation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and test a model for the internal anchorage of a business‐to‐business brand via corporate brand orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 261 usable responses to a questionnaire distributed in the German business‐to‐business sector, were applied to model estimation by the “soft modelling” partial‐least‐squares regression technique.

Findings

The structure of the brand orientation model is supported by the results. The findings demonstrate the positive influence of brand orientation on market and economic performance. Smaller business‐to‐business companies exhibit lower levels of brand orientation than larger counterparts, to their strategic disadvantage. Line of business and management type had no influence on brand orientation in this survey.

Practical implications

Business‐to‐business brand managers now have empirically‐based evidence for the benefits of intensive implementation of brand orientation. The associated four‐level conceptual model of the phenomenon offers them an enhanced understanding of the process, procedures and probable outcomes. It can be used for management control as well as strategic planning and implementation.

Originality/value

The paper is the first empirical study to examine the internal aspects of branding in the business‐to‐business sector, and one of the first large‐scale surveys that is not industry‐specific to analyse the link between brand management and company performance.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Sue Vaux Halliday and Alexandra Astafyeva

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise millennial cultural consumers (MCCs) to bring together strands of consumer theory with branding theory to consider how to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise millennial cultural consumers (MCCs) to bring together strands of consumer theory with branding theory to consider how to attract and retain younger audiences in arts organisations. Within that the authors single out for attention how “brand community” theory might apply to MCCs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a conceptual paper that reviews and comments on concepts relevant to helping arts organisations develop strategies to attract and retain younger consumers in their audiences.

Findings

Thoughtful conceptual insights and four research propositions for further work by academics and/or practitioners on Millennials and the art and culture world are derived from this review and commentary. Managerial implications are also drawn out.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the knowledge development of such concepts as value and brand communities. It also provides an explanation of these concepts conncecting academic thought on value with pressing management challenges for arts organisations, suggesting ways to apply brand community thinking to innovatiely conceptualised MCCs.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Chloe Preece

The purpose of this paper is to examine the branding of the Cynical Realist and Political Pop contemporary art movements in China. The trajectory this brand has taken over…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the branding of the Cynical Realist and Political Pop contemporary art movements in China. The trajectory this brand has taken over the past 25 years reveals some of the power discourses that operate within the international visual arts market and how these are constructed, distributed and consumed.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of avant-garde art in China and its dissemination is undertaken through analysis of historical data and ethnographic data collected in Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong.

Findings

The analysis exposes the ideological framework within which the art market operates and how this affects the art that is produced within it. In the case of Cynical Realism and Political Pop, the art was framed and packaged by the art world to reflect Western liberal political thinking in terms of personal expression thereby implicitly justifying Western democratic, capitalist values.

Research limitations/implications

As an exploratory study, findings contribute to macro-marketing research by demonstrating how certain sociopolitical ideas develop and become naturalised through branding discourses in a market system.

Practical implications

A socio-cultural branding approach to the art market provides a macro-perspective in terms of the limitations and barriers for artists in taking their work to market.

Originality/value

While there have been various studies of branding in the art market, this study reveals the power discourses at work in the contemporary visual arts market in terms of the work that is promoted as “hot” by the art world. Branding here is shown to reflect politics by circulating and promoting certain sociocultural and political ideas.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Nadine Ober-Heilig, Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn and Joerg Sikkenga

This purpose of this paper is to discuss how experiential design can provide a basis for museums’ branding strategies in order to attract visitors, particularly those…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this paper is to discuss how experiential design can provide a basis for museums’ branding strategies in order to attract visitors, particularly those visitors with a low involvement with museums.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first analyze the experiential motives that museums should consider as relevant in attracting potential visitors. Consequently, the authors examine effects of experiential design on the participants’ behavior and attitudes, which are relevant for achieving branding objectives and institutional objectives of museums. In an experiment, using computer simulations, the authors tested the effects of an experiential vsus a non-experiential museum design on potential, especially low-involved participants.

Findings

The results of the experiment show a positive impact of the multidimensional experiential design on low-involved participants concerning branding relevant behavior, such as loyalty and perceived differentiation. There is also a positive influence on institutional goals such as perceiving the museum as role model and a positive change of attitude toward museums in general.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the virtual character of the examined museum the results show only a tendency for potential behavior of real museum visitors. Future studies should test the effects of experience design for a real museum with a distinct brand profile.

Practical implications

The study reveals that once in a museum, potential visitors with a low involvement can be addressed by a museum design that appeals to their experiential motives and which, at the same time, communicates a differentiated brand profile of the museum. Following the visit, this impression can help to overcome barriers in terms of further museum visits and stimulate positive word-of-mouth advertising to other potential visitors.

Social implications

The results suggest that from a global perspective, experience inducing museums can become role models for other museums, thus altering the image, expectations, and attitude of potential visitors with low-involvement toward museums as social institutions.

Originality/value

For the first time the explicit effects of a strategic experiential museum design on potential visitors are analyzed in terms of relevant branding and institutional objectives of museums.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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