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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Gagan Jyot Kaur, Valerie Orsat and Ashutosh Singh

Of the global carrot production, 20–30% is outgraded as carrot rejects and waste (CRW) at the primary processing level, which is partially used toward animal feed and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Of the global carrot production, 20–30% is outgraded as carrot rejects and waste (CRW) at the primary processing level, which is partially used toward animal feed and the remaining ends in the landfills. This study was undertaken to identify the hurdles and seek potential solutions for using CRW in food processing.

Design/methodology/approach

CRW were procured from the processing unit in Ontario, Canada, as (1) outgraded carrots (OGCs) and (2) processed discards (PDs). The physical parameters of CRW, imperfections responsible for their separation from the graded carrots and shelf-life studies were recorded.

Findings

A significant difference with p ≤ 0.05 was recorded for both the physical parameters and the nature of imperfections in CRW. Discolored carrots (42.37 ± 3.59%) and the presence of vertical splits (52.71 ± 3.18%) were among the top defects in the OGCs. In contrast, the presence of broken tips (54.83 ± 2.52%) and vertical splits (40.56 ± 2.65%) were among the primary cause for the generation of PDs. In total, five percent of CRW were initially infected, which later increased to 30% during the seven days storage period.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the study was that only two varieties of carrots were considered and these were procured from one processor (the authors’ industry partner) at different time intervals of the year. Microbiological analysis could not be completed and reported due to prevailing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation but is included for future studies.

Practical implications

Development of specialized post-harvest packaging and handling protocols and separation of infected fragments are essential before suggesting the use of CRW in food processing.

Originality/value

Numerous studies report on the post-harvest management and processing of graded carrots, but limited to no studies are published on the usage of CRW in food processing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Isadora do Carmo Stangherlin, Jose Luis Duarte Ribeiro and Marcia Barcellos

Food waste has received attention during the last decade, especially due to its environmental and social impacts. An important contributor to food waste is consumers’ low…

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Abstract

Purpose

Food waste has received attention during the last decade, especially due to its environmental and social impacts. An important contributor to food waste is consumers’ low preference for purchase fruits and vegetables with unusual appearance, products with damaged package and products close to the expiration date, technically called suboptimal food products. Researches show that consumers tend to reject these products when buying food, increasing avoidable food waste. However, consumer considerations when deciding to buy or not to buy suboptimal food are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to use two different approaches to investigate consumers’ perceptions towards suboptimal food and how they impact their acceptance.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of the study involved a qualitative analysis of participants’ open-ended responses (282 answers), where participants were asked to write down the impressions they had about three suboptimal food images. The second phase explored consumers acceptance of suboptimal food through a focus group discussion.

Findings

Results reveal that considerations about suboptimal food are divergent, with some participants rejecting them because they are impelled to search for perfection when buying food products. However, some individuals are disposed to accept suboptimal products, mainly because they have concern with the environment and cook abilities.

Originality/value

As a whole, this study contributes for food waste reduction strategies and has implications for marketing actions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Navneet Kumar, B.C. Sarkar, H.K. Sharma and Sunil Kumar Jha

The utilisation of food waste/by‐products helps to increase produce recovery and enhances nutrition in low‐cost food without any appreciable increase in product cost. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The utilisation of food waste/by‐products helps to increase produce recovery and enhances nutrition in low‐cost food without any appreciable increase in product cost. The storage behaviour of the product must be studied before commercialisation of the product. This paper aims to focus on this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Extrudates (25 g) prepared under optimised conditions of proportion (rice flour, pulse powder and carrot pomace), moisture content, screw speed and die temperature, were sealed using a polythene sealing machine in LDPE bags and aluminium laminated LDPE bags. The bags were then stored for six months in an incubator at temperature of 38±2°C to evaluate the stability of the product. The extrudates were analysed for change in colour, hardness, moisture content and sensory characteristics.

Findings

Zero‐ and first‐order models were fitted for prediction purposes. The minimum overall change in color ΔE value, minimum increase in moisture content and minimum increase in hardness was observed in aluminium laminated LDPE bags. The zero order model better predicted the variation of L*, b*, ΔE, moisture content and hardness during storage, whereas first order model was better fitted for the a* value.

Originality/value

The carrot pomace has the potential to be used as a food ingredient that enhances the nutritional attributes of products along with a reduction in cost. Extruded products were successfully developed in the laboratory using carrot pomace as one of the ingredients. This study evaluates the kinetic changes during the storage of carrot pomace based extruded snacks.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1977

One of the most serious problems facing the country today is maintaining dietary standards, especially in the vulnerable groups, in the face of rising food prices. If it…

Abstract

One of the most serious problems facing the country today is maintaining dietary standards, especially in the vulnerable groups, in the face of rising food prices. If it were food prices alone, household budgetry could cope, but much as rising food prices take from the housewife's purse, rates, fuel, travel and the like seem to take more; for food, it is normally pence, but for the others, it is pounds! The Price Commission is often accused of being a watch‐dog which barks but rarely if ever bites and when it attempts to do this, like as not, Union power prevents any help to the housewife. There would be far less grumbling and complaining by consumers if they could see value for their money; they only see themselves constantly overcharged and, in fact, cheated all along the line. In past issues, BFJ has commented on the price vagaries in the greengrocery trade, especially the prices of fresh fruit and vegetables. Living in a part of the country given over to fruit farming and field vegetable crops, it is impossible to remain unaware of what goes on in this sector of the food trade. Unprecedented prosperity among the growers; and where fruit‐farming is combined with field crops, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower and leafy brassicas, many of the more simple growers find the sums involved frightening. The wholesalers and middle‐men are something of unknown entities, but the prices in the shops are there for all to see. The findings of an investigation by the Commission into the trade, the profit margins between wholesale prices and greengrocers' selling prices, published in February last, were therefore not altogether surprising. The survey into prices and profits covered five basic vegetables and was ordered by the present Prices Secretary the previous November. Prices for September to November were monitored for the vegetables—cabbages, brussels sprouts, cauliflowers, carrots, turnips and swedes, the last priced together. Potatoes were already being monitored.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 79 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1982

Robin Osner

It has been estimated that roughly one quarter of food produced in the UK is wasted from the time the food commodities leave the farm until they are presented to the…

1803

Abstract

It has been estimated that roughly one quarter of food produced in the UK is wasted from the time the food commodities leave the farm until they are presented to the consumer on a plate. Dr Osner looks at the crude energy gap, when and where food wastage occurs, and discusses ways of reducing and utilising waste

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 82 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Manuela Ferreira, Margarida Liz Martins and Ada Rocha

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate waste at a Portuguese university setting in order to suggest improvements on foodservice sustainability.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate waste at a Portuguese university setting in order to suggest improvements on foodservice sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

The work was developed during four weeks in order to allow the evaluation of parameters of an entire menu cycle. The index of waste/consumption (%) was obtained by the ratio between plate waste and the quantity of foods distributed, subtracting the weight of leftovers.

Findings

The average index of waste/consumption was approximately 24 percent, higher in the days with a fish menu, values considered unacceptable. Each canteen user is served with approximately 940 g of foods, from which only 660 g were effectively consumed, corresponding to 80 g of leftovers and 200 g of waste.

Originality/value

It seems possible and desirable to reduce food waste in order to optimize food unit profitability and sustainability. Reducing food waste will contribute to improve foodservice quality as well as consumer's satisfaction. Potential strategies to achieve this goal may include previous booking of meals, to adopt tray less during lunch and additionally analyze the eating patterns for a particular forecasted meal, and then prepare and serve food based on the appropriate forecast.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

In the Court of Appeal last summer, when Van Den Berghs and Jurgens Limited (belonging to the Unilever giant organization) sought a reversal of the decision of the trial…

183

Abstract

In the Court of Appeal last summer, when Van Den Berghs and Jurgens Limited (belonging to the Unilever giant organization) sought a reversal of the decision of the trial judge that their television advertisements of Stork margarine did not contravene Reg. 9, Margarine Regulations, 1967—an action which their Lordships described as fierce but friendly—there were some piercing criticisms by the Court on the phrasing of the Regulations, which was described as “ridiculous”, “illogical” and as “absurdities”. They also remarked upon the fact that from 1971 to 1975, after the Regulations became operative, and seven years from the date they were made, no complaint from enforcement authorities and officers or the organizations normally consulted during the making of such regulations were made, until the Butter Information Council, protecting the interests of the dairy trade and dairy producers, suggested the long‐standing advertisements of Reg. 9. An example of how the interests of descriptions and uses of the word “butter” infringements of Reg. 9. An example af how the interests of enforcement, consumer protection, &c, are not identical with trade interests, who see in legislation, accepted by the first, as injuring sections of the trade. (There is no evidence that the Butter Information Council was one of the organizations consulted by the MAFF before making the Regulations.) The Independant Broadcasting Authority on receiving the Council's complaint and obtaining legal advice, banned plaintiffs' advertisements and suggested they seek a declaration that the said advertisements did not infringe the Regulations. This they did and were refused such a declaration by the trial judge in the Chancery Division, whereupon they went to the Court of Appeal, and it was here, in the course of a very thorough and searching examination of the question and, in particular, the Margarine Regulations, that His Appellate Lordship made use of the critical phrases we have quoted.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 80 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1984

Things seem to be going desperately wrong with the concept of the “brave new world” predicted by the starry‐eyed optimists after the Second World War finally came to an…

Abstract

Things seem to be going desperately wrong with the concept of the “brave new world” predicted by the starry‐eyed optimists after the Second World War finally came to an end. To those who listen only to what they want to hear, see everything, not as it is, but as they would like it to be, a new society could be initiated and the lusty infant would emerge as a paragon for all the world to follow. The new society in truth never really got off the ground the biggest mistake of all was to cushion millions of people against the results of their own folly; to shelter them from the blasts of the ensuing economic climate. The sheltered ones were not necessarily the ordinary mass of people; many in fact were the victims and suffered the consequences. And now that the state has reached a massive crescendo, many are suffering profoundly. The big nationalised industries and vast services, such as the national health service, education, where losses in the case of the first are met by Government millions, requests to trim the extravagant spending is akin to sacrilege in the latter, have removed such terms as thrift, careful spending, value for money from the vocabulary.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 86 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1972

The pattern of food prosecutions in more recent times has remained relatively unchanged. Most have been taken under Section 2, Food and Drugs Act, 1955, even for foods…

Abstract

The pattern of food prosecutions in more recent times has remained relatively unchanged. Most have been taken under Section 2, Food and Drugs Act, 1955, even for foods which have obviously been unfit for human consumption. The Section because of its wider application has distinct procedural advantages. A few local authorities routinely use Section 8 successfully; it probably depends upon a more liberal interpretation and understanding by local justices. The five‐year study of food prosecutions, (BFJ 1971, 73, 39), separated them into a number of well‐defined groups and showed that those for the presence of foreign material were the majority and remained fairly constant throughout the period; mouldy foods increased during the five years and then remained steady as the second largest single group. The foods most commonly affected and the foreign matter commonly present could be seen; neither changed much during the period of the survey.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Olayinka Moses, Emmanuel Edache Michael and Joy Nankyer Dabel-Moses

This study explores the extent of environmental management and reporting regulations in Nigeria, highlighting areas of inadequacies in regulatory enforcement and

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the extent of environmental management and reporting regulations in Nigeria, highlighting areas of inadequacies in regulatory enforcement and companies’ compliance. We approach the review within the context of the UN 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (SDA).

Methodology

This chapter is based on a systematic review of extant environmental regulations and academic literature.

Findings

The results show several inadequacies with respect to Nigeria’s environmental management and reporting regulations. We specifically note the changing environmental management and reporting landscape in Nigeria birthing several emerging mandatory reporting codes. We find that fragmented reporting regulations and inappropriate sanctions are responsible for the unsatisfactory compliance and disclosure level noted among firms in the country. Additionally, weak enforcement, funding limitations, unrealistic financial penalties, and general implementation deficits remain factors impeding effective environmental management practice in Nigeria.

Originality

This research provides insight into environmental management and reporting inadequacies in Nigeria, and the actions regulators and firm managers need to take on board to help the country actualize the UN 2030 SDA.

1 – 10 of 227