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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1993

Carrie H.S. Ruxton, Terry R. Kirk, Neville R. Belton and Michael A.M. Holmes

Presents new data comparing the nutrient content of school meals toproposed standards and showing the contribution of school meals to theoverall diet of seven to…

Abstract

Presents new data comparing the nutrient content of school meals to proposed standards and showing the contribution of school meals to the overall diet of seven to eight‐year‐old children. School meals contributed 24 per cent of daily energy intake and 17 to 35 per cent of daily nutrient intake but compared unfavourably to the proposed standards, being too low in certain micronutrients and too high in percentage energy from fat. However, since the overall diets of the children were deemed satisfactory, it was concluded that standards were not necessary for energy and the majority of nutrients. A targeted approach, recommending suitable levels for nutrients of particular concern, was suggested as a more viable option.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 95 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Emma Derbyshire and Carrie Ruxton

This review aims to evaluate and review literature published in the area of rising concerns that red meat consumption may be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes…

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to evaluate and review literature published in the area of rising concerns that red meat consumption may be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although there have been discrepancies between study findings, and put the findings into context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic literature review was undertaken to locate and summarise relevant studies which included epidemiological and clinical studies published between 2004 and 2014.

Findings

A total of 23 studies were found, with 21 epidemiological and two clinical studies meeting the criteria. Overall, the totality of the evidence indicates that while processed meat consumption appears to be associated with T2DM risk, the effect is much weaker for red meat, with some associations attenuated after controlling for body weight parameters. Where studies have considered high intakes in relation to T2DM risk, meat intake has tended to exceed 600 g per week. Therefore, keeping red meat intakes within recommended guidelines of no more than 500 g per week, while opting for lean cuts or trimming fat, would seem to be an evidence-based response.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of studies conducted to date have been observational cohorts which cannot determine cause and effect. Most of these used food frequency questionnaires which are known to be subject to misclassification errors (Brown, 2006). Clearly, more randomised controlled trials are needed to establish whether red meat consumption impacts on markers of glucose control. Until then, conclusions can only be viewed as speculative.

Originality/value

This paper provides an up-to-date systematic review of the literature, looking at inter-relationships between red meat consumption and T2DM risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2011

Carrie Ruxton

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role of micronutrients and omega‐3 fatty acids in promoting healthier ageing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role of micronutrients and omega‐3 fatty acids in promoting healthier ageing.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted using Medline and key words relevant to ageing, nutritional status, nutrient intake and disease risk. Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) were used to determine micronutrient adequacy.

Findings

The NDNS showed that intakes of vitamin A, B2, B6, folic acid, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine fell below recommended levels for groups of older people. Vitamins and mineral supplements may improve nutritional status, lower the risk of deficiency, and impact favourably on disease markers.

Practical implications

The evidence suggests that dietary interventions and supplementation may become increasingly important in maintaining health and quality of life in older people.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the positive role of nutrition in healthy ageing.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Carrie H.S. Ruxton

The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the impact of black tea on health, highlighting the role of flavonoids.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the impact of black tea on health, highlighting the role of flavonoids.

Design/methodology/approach

This review builds on previous systematic reviews by incorporating new studies on black tea and health published between 2004 and 2009.

Findings

Black tea was strongly associated with heart disease prevention by plausible mechanisms linked to flavonoid bioactivity. In vitro studies suggest that tea has anti‐cancer properties, but this needs to be confirmed by additional long‐term human studies. Emerging research indicates that tea may benefit cognitive function and weight management, although more studies are needed. Tea flavonoids are bioavailable with or without milk.

Originality/value

The benefits of tea drinking are of relevance to public health as tea is the main contributor to dietary flavonoids in Western countries. Consuming one to eight cups of black tea per day is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease. Caffeine intakes at this level are moderate.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Anne M. Clarke, Carrie H.S. Ruxton, Lesley Hetherington, Sharon O'Neil and Brian McMillan

Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes amongst Scottish schoolchildren are lower than recommended. The purpose of this paper is to describe an intervention which combined F&V…

Abstract

Purpose

Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes amongst Scottish schoolchildren are lower than recommended. The purpose of this paper is to describe an intervention which combined F&V with peer‐modelling and rewards to influence consumption of F&V.

Design/methodology/approach

A school‐based initiative was implemented in 19 primary schools. The evaluation of 8 schools (n = 1,477 pupils aged 4.5‐12 years) is reported. The three‐week intervention included free F&V (80 g portions), a peer‐modelling video and a series of small rewards followed by a four to six week maintenance phase during which time free F&V continued. Questionnaires were completed at baseline (T1) and up to two months after the end of the maintenance phase (T2) to assess changes in F&V consumption.

Findings

At T2, children in years 1 and 2 consumed F&V at school more often compared with T1, and ate a greater number of portions each time. There were no significant differences in home consumption. The picture was similar for children in years 3‐7 with no change in the reported number of portions.

Originality/value

Few behavioural interventions have been carried out in the public health arena to increase F&V consumption. This paper shows that a peer‐modelling intervention significantly increased consumption of F&V at school, while home consumption remained stable.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Carrie H.S. Ruxton and Brian McMillan

Research has shown that mycoprotein, a vegetable protein ingredient, can lower blood cholesterol. This paper aims to test this in a consumer setting.

Abstract

Purpose

Research has shown that mycoprotein, a vegetable protein ingredient, can lower blood cholesterol. This paper aims to test this in a consumer setting.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 21 healthy, free‐living adults, who were not usually mycoprotein consumers, were asked to eat mycoprotein, as Quorn™ products, daily for six weeks. Ten control group participants followed their habitual diets. Fasting lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, body mass index and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after six weeks.

Findings

A significant reducing effect of the intervention on total cholesterol levels was found among those participants with higher baseline blood cholesterol level. No significant differences were seen between the intervention and control groups for the sample as a whole, although there were compliance issues in the control group that may have reduced its validity. Good compliance with the mycoprotein‐rich diet also appeared to have a significant lowering effect on total blood cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The findings confirm that mycoprotein may be a useful food ingredient for helping to manage blood cholesterol levels.

Research limitations/implications

There was no randomisation or blinding, which may have influenced compliance with a habitual diet in the control group. The sample size was small and so further work in a larger population is warranted, particularly to determine optimal mycoprotein intakes and likely mechanisms of action.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on a trial that used commercially available products in a free‐living sample.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Carrie Ruxton and Emma Derbyshire

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the latest mounting evidence reporting associations between the important role of whole grains and fibre in lowering the risk of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the latest mounting evidence reporting associations between the important role of whole grains and fibre in lowering the risk of chronic diseases and health.

Design/methodology/approach

A general systematic review was conducted to locate and summarise up-to-date published studies within the field. A Medline search identified human-controlled trials and observational studies published in the past five years.

Findings

A total of 49 studies were identified. In observational studies, higher intakes of whole grain and dietary fibre were associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, abdominal adiposity and certain cancers. This was further supported by human intervention trials, which reported benefits for appetite control, blood lipid levels, glycaemic control, digestive health and secondary cancer prevention. Mechanisms may relate to the micronutrients and phytonutrients present in high fibre foods.

Practical implications

Practical advice is needed to help people identify foods rich in whole grains, e.g. breakfast cereals. UK fibre recommendations should be aligned with European guidelines and food labelling regulations, and a whole grain dietary recommendation, e.g. similar to the US guideline of three portions a day, could be introduced. Government and industry should play a role in communicating dietary fibre guidelines and the health benefits associated with whole grain and fibre, particularly insoluble fibre.

Originality/value

This paper develops knowledge about whole grains, health and the importance of establishing whole-grain dietary recommendations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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