The purpose of this paper is to determine if consumers in two countries (Israel and the USA), which have experienced violence in the retail environment, would perceive…
The purpose of this paper is to determine if consumers in two countries (Israel and the USA), which have experienced violence in the retail environment, would perceive risk in shopping on the internet and if so, to what extent. If there were perceptions of risk for shopping online, this paper wanted to report what differences there might be between Israeli and US consumers.
Surveys were distributed to 641 US consumers and to 50 Israeli consumers with a few modifications for differences in terms. The respondents ranged in age from 14 to 86. These surveys were distributed throughout the New York City tri‐state area and in Israel in a convenience sample using a snowball approach. The surveys were collected by the researchers and returned for analysis.
Women in the USA do consider buying online when concerned with physical safety, while Israeli women were very specific in their consideration of the type of site. For them, international sites like eBay were considered to be a safer alternative when the country was on a high‐security alert. Significantly more men are concerned about the possibilities of identity theft and financial fraud online than women while women think positively about buying online when concerned about physical.
In future research, it would be interesting to follow this focus of social norms for a preference for group social interaction and social norms for independent or individualization and the speed with which e‐commerce is infused within the culture versus using the internet to gather information or to communicate via e‐mail or blogs.
Consumers seem to want to reduce their overall perceived risk and evaluate what actions will lead to a lower total perceived risk. There are good reasons for a store to have both an online presence and a storefront. Stores with a physical presence that are known to the shoppers are more likely to be considered as safe for shopping online.
This is one of the first papers to contrast consumers from a country which has had years of experience with violence in the retail environment with the consumer experiences and perceptions in the USA.
There is a constant evaluation of managerial techniques ranging from the military leadership style to self‐motivated self‐management. Team management has gone from an American concept, to a Japanese enhanced technique back to a US management and leadership tool. It can be useful for both traditional businesses as well as non‐profit organizations such as educational institutions. Teams comprised of administrators, teachers, parents, and staff (and students when age appropriate) can effectively drive the site‐based management shared decision making approach to restructure education. Working as a team is very complex and requires training for the participants for the team to work well together and to thrive. This study looks at identifying factors and variables for team building that can bring good team function as a basis for sound leadership decisions. It was found that incorporating representatives of each of the stakeholder groups was essential for the creation of effective team‐based management. Respect for the foci of the various stakeholder groups is critical to the application of the leadership decisions of the teams.
In much of the literature written in Sustainability and Environmental Justice, the focus is on the effects of government mismanagement or corporate social…
In much of the literature written in Sustainability and Environmental Justice, the focus is on the effects of government mismanagement or corporate social irresponsibility, or CSR ignored for the goal of greater profits. Certainly we have seen natural resources ripped from communities and nations for the benefit of corporate profits (Sarkar, 2013). The idea that a participatory government will lead to greater efforts for sustainability must be viewed in the light of its times and economy (Gonzalez-Perez, 2013). What happens when the man-made disaster precedes or clashes with natural disaster? The Great Recession of 2008 was stunning in the rapidity with which it spread around the globe. The recession illustrated a global acceptance of financial wisdom that had been presented as fact and yet could easily be undermined by people who understood the barriers, boundaries, and restrictions in place as well as where the financial assumptions could be deceived by introduction of new terms and definitions as in the case of credit default swaps.
In this chapter, we focus on the influence of the recession on one of the most powerful financial capitals of the world, New York City. We discuss the general effect of the recession on New York City as a whole and then take a narrower look at each of the five boroughs, Manhattan, Queens, Staten Island, Brooklyn, and the Bronx. We examine the disparate economic states of each borough and how the recession has impacted each of them. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the general perception of Manhattan’s resilience to the recession and how is has impacted the other boroughs, such as the housing crisis in Staten Island and Queens following Hurricane Sandy, unemployment rates in the Bronx, and the rebuilding of a sustainable job market in Brooklyn.
We reviewed relevant literature, including academic research, reports issued by the State of New York, census data, articles printed in popular press outlets, and business resources to provide a thorough look at the influence of the Great Recession on New York City and each of its five boroughs. We found extensive support for the disparity amongst the five boroughs, despite the perception that New York City is thriving in the wake of the Great Recession and Hurricane Sandy. We detail the unique economic and environmental factors of each borough and explain how it influenced the impact of the Great Recession and subsequent natural disaster.
Manhattan was well insulated from the initial impact of the Great Recession, with tourism in the city remaining high through 2008 and financial firms on Wall Street experiencing record high profits well into 2009. Despite the downfall of Lehmann Brothers and Merrill Lynch, the financial bailouts and Federal Reserve credit available to Wall Street firms prevented Manhattan’s financial sector from experiencing the dramatic unemployment rates that the rest of New York and the United States were facing (DeFreitas, 2009).
The Great Recession hit disadvantaged areas, like the Bronx, harder than other areas of New York, while Hurricane Sandy halted the economic recovery in areas like Queens and Staten Island. While unemployment remains low in New York City as a whole, the recovery from the Great Recession has been uneven, further widening the gap between New York City’s boroughs, with the lower income areas at a greater disadvantage and the higher income areas souring. While Manhattan has recovered significantly, with Wall Street profits reaching record levels in 2009, other boroughs haven’t experienced the same economic upturn and are still facing significant challenges (Parrott, 2010). While the city has gained nearly 375,000 jobs, nearly twice the number of jobs that were lost during the Great Recession (Crain’s New York Business, 2013), the significant variance in wages and high costs of living has not greatly reduced the number of working poor across New York City and has not resulted in an evenly spread boost in wealth.
At the end of our chapter, we discuss “lessons learned” and, in particular, the importance of preparation for both fiscal and natural disasters. Local policy makers must ensure that the needs of its constituents are being met and will be met in the future if such hardship were to strike. Government leaders need to have a forward-looking plan, rather than simply handling immediate needs.
The originality of our content stems from a deeper look into the nuances of the economy of New York City. Statistics paint a picture of a thriving City, despite the Great Recession. However, understanding the distinct differences amongst the five boroughs illustrates that these citywide averages do not paint an accurate picture of life for New Yorkers off of Wall Street. The extent to which the high-income areas in Manhattan have recovered suggests that the economy of New York City as a whole is thriving, whereas the reality is that the middle-class has not recovered and the previously disadvantaged are now even more so. It is important to look at each of the five boroughs of New York City individually when creating policy to both recover from and prevent events such as the Great Recession and the destruction of Hurricane Sandy. Our chapter illustrates stark differences within New York City in the face of both financial and natural crises.
This chapter demonstrates the strategic use of social media by firms interacting with stakeholders, not just customers. Corporations have seen how consumers can share their experiences with products and services. Smart companies find ways to leverage these conversations to engage current and potential customers and other stakeholders.
Our approach is theoretical, based on an examination of how the communication channel of social media can be used as a strategic tool throughout the organization, going well beyond marketing.
This chapter looks at four advantages of social media. Social media provides a mechanism for firms to not just find customers, but also allow customers to find firms. Social media can engage customers, industry influencers, and thought pundits in cost-effective ways that benefit both the firm and stakeholders. The largest contribution of social media is the information from big data on customer needs and wants as well as on the processes underlying consumer decisions. The greatest opportunity lies in how a firm converts data into actionable intelligence in real time.
We discuss how the words, social and media, need to be de-coupled: The concept of social can be practically applied very effectively to areas of strategy and internal learning, and product development. Taking advantage of the opportunities presented by social media requires a social enterprise to be effective.
This chapter presents an original theoretical framework of social media that can be used by a company to examine the social aspects and implications of every element in the value chain.
The increasing complexity and dynamism of new technology implemented or to implement have imposed substantial uncertainties and subjectivities in the risk assessment…
The increasing complexity and dynamism of new technology implemented or to implement have imposed substantial uncertainties and subjectivities in the risk assessment process. This paper aims to present a risk assessment methodology for e-procurement implementation based on modified analytic network process (ANP) coupled with fuzzy inference systems.
ANP is modified in such a way that the experts can provide necessary data precise numerical value, a range of numerical values, a linguistic term or a fuzzy number. The proposed methodology incorporates knowledge and judgements obtained from experts to carry out identification of risk factors and to assess the risk magnitude of the identified risk factors based on factor index, risk likelihood and risk severity.
Risk magnitude of third party systems are found to be minor with a belief of 100 per cent, and for in-house systems, the risk is found to be between minor with a belief of 30 per cent and major of 70 per cent. The results indicate that by using the proposed methodology, the technological risk assessment of new technology can be done effectively and efficiently.
Using the results of this study, the practitioners can better know the pros and cons of implementing both in-house and third party e-procurement systems.
The modified ANP is used mainly to structure and prioritize the diverse risk factors. Finally, an illustrative example on technological risk assessment of both in-house and third party e-procurement systems is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology in real life situations.