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The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the business-family interface (BFI) in the moderating context of the level of economic development in two emerging countries – Morocco and Turkey. The enrichment perspective was operationalized as family instrumental (financial) and affective (moral) support, while interference was operationalized as gender-related personal problems.
The study drew upon the work-family interface (WFI) theory from the family embeddedness perspective in the context of institutional economics. In Morocco, a purposive sample of 116 women entrepreneurs completed a self-administered questionnaire using field collection, mail, and phone surveying methods. In Turkey, 147 women entrepreneurs completed the questionnaire online and through personal contacts in business organizations.
The findings indicated a positive relationship of family financial support with business performance of female entrepreneurs in Morocco, a less economically advanced country. However, family moral support is related to better firm performance in Turkey, a more advanced economy. Gender-related personal problems of women entrepreneurs appear to hamper their business performance in Turkey; while in Morocco, the performance of women entrepreneurs seems to improve in the face of such impediments.
The results provide initial evidence that female entrepreneurs benefit from the linkages of family-to-business enrichment in different ways, depending on the country’s level of economic development. In less economically developed countries, women entrepreneurs benefit more from instrumental rather than affective components of the enrichment dimension of the BFI. Conversely, in more economically advanced countries, female entrepreneurs benefit more from affective rather than the instrumental elements of this dimension. Likewise, the components of the interference dimension of the BFI affect female entrepreneurs differently depending on the economic development of the countries. Women in the less-developed country of Morocco are less impeded by their personal problems compared to their counterparts in Turkey, a more developed economy. Actually, Moroccan women entrepreneurs improved their business performance when facing obstacles, most likely due to their increased inner strength and resilience acquired when battling adversarial institutional conditions.
The present study makes three unique contributions to the entrepreneurship literature. First, the study links the two BFI dimensions (enrichment and interference) to firm performance with an exclusive focus on female business owners. Second, within the construct of enrichment, the study employs both family instrumental and emotional support. Third, the study shows that the country’s level of economic development moderates the relationships between the BFI dimensions and firm performance.
Teaching notes are available for educators only.
Objective 1 analyse the internationalization process of Involys and compare it with the traditional theoretical analyses; Objective 2 analyse and learn from past successes and failures in Africa, building up a meaningful strategic analysis with a specific focus on: understanding the advantages and disadvantages of size (small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) suppliers/State Institutions customers); understanding the importance of institutional barriers and opportunities in this specific context; understanding and measuring the distances issues and the way they affect the company’s development Objective 3 learn to be creative and concrete in proposing feasible solutions to the Board of Involys.
Involys is a medium-sized Moroccan company designing and implementing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. It was co-founded in the 1980s by its present chief executive officer (CEO), quite a charismatic individual. As its listing on the Casablanca Stock Exchange, the company has set its main goal to develop its business on the African markets. This is a significant shift in commercial strategy for a company who has built its past success on working with Northern countries. Involys tries with its ERP system to accompany state-level reforms. The case study takes place in 2017, Involys has just lost a significant project in Cameroun, despite significant pre-sale investments, and is trying to build on its success in Gabon to accelerate and improve its competitive position in Africa. The case focusses on the internationalization process of a firm involved in long terms contracts and dealing mainly with institutions such as states or state departments. The issues of sizes, institutional barriers and distance should be specifically addressed in a south-south context.
Complexity academic level
Master’s degree executive training programs.
CSS 5: International business.
Intergenerational transmission is a paramount managerial and patrimonial issue. Although planning and governance tools are being developed and spread in business, the…
Intergenerational transmission is a paramount managerial and patrimonial issue. Although planning and governance tools are being developed and spread in business, the handling of emotions often remains the key to a successful process. It is within the framework of the paternalistic Moroccan society that we are led to question the psychology and emotions of the stakeholders in the transmission of this small services business.
Masters students in Family Business, Management Science, Entrepreneurship, Small Business Management.
After 19 years of existence, Moroccan Shipping is confronted at the beginning of 2010 to the issue of the sustainability of the family business. The founder directs his affair with an iron fist, and his sons, who were educated abroad, are determined not to get fooled. The father claims he wishes to be relieved from daily operations and handover part of his responsibilities to his second son. At the same time, the youngest doesn't feel like he fits in the present firm's configuration and is ready to quit.
Expected learning outcomes
This case study will lead users to work on several managerial dimensions of small family businesses in emerging economies. At first, the entrepreneur's traits might be highlighted, as they deeply affect the way the succession process may be handled. However, as the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) specificity, the Moroccan family system will be taken into consideration to better analyse both the incumbent and the successor behaviours. Management tools may then be discussed to help with the transfer of both power and ownership in family businesses.
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