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This paper explores absconding from a new perspective. Literature has tended to focus on the risk factors linked with absconding. This paper aims to consider desistance…
This paper explores absconding from a new perspective. Literature has tended to focus on the risk factors linked with absconding. This paper aims to consider desistance factors for absconding for prisoners at higher risk of absconding in open prisons.
Stage 1 used logistic regression to identify factors associated with increased risk of absconding. Stage 2 identified new receptions with increased risk and used thematic analysis to analyse interviews with prisoners that did not abscond after three months.
Stage 1 found that the total number of previous offences predicted absconding. Stage 2 found three themes linked to desistance in absconding: “support”, “ownership” and “sense of self”.
This study highlights the importance of ensuring prisoners in open prisons are offered the appropriate emotional and practical support. It also identifies the importance of hope amongst prisoners in open conditions. Future research should further explore this idea in more depth.
Previous literature has looked at absconding from a risk factor perspective. This research identifies the desistance factors associated with absconding for individuals who have been identified as high risk of absconding. Improvements in factors associated with desistance from absconding may support a reduction in absconding from open prisons.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of prison‐based cognitive skills programmes in England and Wales in reducing reconviction. Two‐year reconviction rates were compared…
This study evaluated the effectiveness of prison‐based cognitive skills programmes in England and Wales in reducing reconviction. Two‐year reconviction rates were compared for adult male offenders who had participated in a cognitive skills programme between 1996 and 1998 (N = 649) and matched adult male offenders who had not participated (N = 1,947). There were no significant differences in the rates of reconviction between the treatment and matched comparisons. This contrasts with a previous study of prison‐based cognitive skills programmes. Possible explanations for the current finding are discussed. For example, these results may merely reflect expected variation; international experience mirrors the variable reductions in reconviction rates found so far in the evaluation of prison‐based programmes. This evaluation relates to a period when programmes were expanded rapidly, and this may have affected the quality of programme delivery.
In this study, the life experiences of Canadian non-refugee immigrant women were studied to understand their pre-migration lives, the process of decision making about…
In this study, the life experiences of Canadian non-refugee immigrant women were studied to understand their pre-migration lives, the process of decision making about migrating to Canada, and their experiences after resettlement in Canada.
A qualitative methodology involving repeated in-depth person-centred interviewing (n=14) engaged five recent Canadian immigrant women. “Word of mouth” was used to recruit participants. Thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data set.
Loneliness became manifest given the loss of social networks and support systems immigrant women enjoyed in their home countries. Second, the presence of young children and absence of job opportunities for these women had them spending most of their time at home. Third, in some cases, the lack of professional employment opportunities forced the husband leaving Canada to find jobs – resulting in a deeper level of loneliness experienced by the immigrant women. Loneliness and isolation, and mental health issues associated with such isolation are potentially substantial, especially during the initial settlement years.
Given the small sample size, the generalizability of the study findings are limited and cannot represent the entirety of experiences of all Canadian immigrant women. The sample diversity in this study was also limited. The participants were highly educated and had professional careers in their home countries. The experience of less educated women can be different. Further research with a large sample size and diverse sample is needed.
The study offers deeper insights to the day-to-day challenges associated with the journey of migration. Understanding these concerns is important for mental health professionals, counsellors, and social service workers to offer effective treatment, counselling, and emotional support for immigrant women.
The findings further the understanding of immigrant women's experiences and the need to address relational aspects of their immigration journeys. Examining the experiences of immigrants in relation to their lives before and after coming to Canada is important to gain insight about the contemporary daily lives of individuals. A holistic understanding of immigration experiences can assist service providers, professionals, and policy makers to recognize the obstacles faced by immigrants. Suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.
Purpose – This chapter reflects on selected issues raised by the emotions involved in the social relations of qualitative research. We use experiences from two separate…
Purpose – This chapter reflects on selected issues raised by the emotions involved in the social relations of qualitative research. We use experiences from two separate studies to explore the role of emotion and affect in the embodied, face-to-face encounter of the interview; the ‘translation’ of interpretations of emotional responses from one cultural context into another; the reflexivity of the researcher and the researched and the ethical implications of this form of research.
Methodology – The studies, one doctoral research and one funded by a Leverhulme grant, took a qualitative approach, employing individual semi-structured interviews with young people in Zambia and women in their fifties in Swindon, UK.
Findings – The chapter argues that emotions within the interview are bound up with the potential meanings and outcomes of the interview to both the researcher and the interviewee. Emotions affect what is said and unsaid in the interview; what is communicated and hidden and how the material is interpreted.
Originality/Value – The chapter brings together experiences from conducting highly emotive research in majority and minority world contexts. It focuses on similarities in the dilemmas posed to researchers by the emotions involved in the social relations of research, regardless of location.
Robert Putnam, in his best seller, Bowling Alone, has highlighted a trend in western society over the past 40 years ‐ people are less likely to join things. Yet it is this…
Robert Putnam, in his best seller, Bowling Alone, has highlighted a trend in western society over the past 40 years ‐ people are less likely to join things. Yet it is this membership of face‐to‐face groups that provides part of the social capital of friendship, trust and belonging that binds communities together. Against this backcloth, Putnam shows how churches and other faith groups are holding up well, losing fewer members than other organisations and maintaining an active community life. Caroline Morris shows how the mental health service in Lambeth has actively sought out links with faith‐based groups.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodological significance and potential of integrating Facebook in ethnographic research. The authors discuss how friendly…
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodological significance and potential of integrating Facebook in ethnographic research. The authors discuss how friendly relationships with participants could be initiated, fostered and managed by incorporating Facebook in ethnographic data collection and how such relationships deepen ethnographic interpretation.
This paper focuses on the methodological implications of adopting “friendship as method” during ethnographic research. The discussion is premised upon a longitudinal, multi-method ethnographic research process exploring new family identity formation in Sri Lanka and New Zealand.
Building on friendship theories, the authors suggest that Facebook engagement helps overcome three challenges inherent to ethnographic research: gaining access and immersion, capturing multiple perspectives, and developing rich and thick interpretations. The findings illustrate that adopting Facebook as a platform to strengthen friendships with research participants expands the researcher’s field by enabling him to follow the ethics and pace of conventional friendship and by inspiring dialogical interaction with participants. Thus, it is suggested that Facebook helps diluting the power hierarchy in the participant–researcher relationship and encourages participants to reveal more subtle details of their mundane lived experiences.
Even though researchers have often used social media interactions in ethnographic research, there is no theoretical foundation to understand how such interactions could better inform the depth and richness of research phenomena. Particularly, considering the emerging significance of social media in personal identity construction, sustenance and enactment, it is import to understand how such mediums enable researchers overcome inherent methodological complexities. Therefore, this paper contributes to literature on conventional ethnography, netnography and friendship theories by presenting a theoretical framework to understand how Facebook interaction contributes to overcome challenges in conducting ethnographic research.
Purpose – In this chapter, the use and organization of conditional threats are analysed in relation to preschool children's disputes.Methodology – Using conversation…
Purpose – In this chapter, the use and organization of conditional threats are analysed in relation to preschool children's disputes.
Methodology – Using conversation analysis, naturally occurring examples of children's threats observed in preschool classrooms demonstrate how conditional threats are placed, used and analysed by children in their talk-in-interaction.
Findings – The function of threats – specifically in terms of the outcome of children's disputes – cannot be classified by the content of the inducement. ‘You can’t come to my birthday party’, for example, is commonly heard in young children's discourse, but this threat is implicated in both the resolution and dissipation (abandonment) of dispute episodes. Accordingly, the meaning and analysability of threats is explored with respect to their relative value and their practical rationality.
Research limitations – This small data set presents the opportunity for the phenomena of children's threats to studied further in a larger collection.
Originality/value of chapter – This chapter makes a unique contribution to the study of language and social interaction by illustrating young children's competent use of conditional threats in the closings of peer disputes.
Since Bram Stoker’s tale of Count Dracula struck a chord with a sensation-hungry public, vampires have remained a popular part of horror in cinema. Since the turn of the…
Since Bram Stoker’s tale of Count Dracula struck a chord with a sensation-hungry public, vampires have remained a popular part of horror in cinema. Since the turn of the millennium, vampires have now become a mainstay of horror TV. Programmes like True Blood (2008–2014) and The Vampire Diaries (2009–2017) have propelled the vampire into the home.
This chapter will investigate the problematic, but often sympathetic relationship between vampires and humans in The Vampire Diaries.
The transition from elementary to secondary school involves major changes for students that are reflected socially, academically, and environmentally. Increased emphasis…
The transition from elementary to secondary school involves major changes for students that are reflected socially, academically, and environmentally. Increased emphasis on social interactions, school procedures, and academics make high school potentially stressful. For students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), these new academic and social challenges may be particularly anxiety-producing as they reluctantly leave familiar surroundings and friends and transition to high school.
Many of the characteristics of students with ASD may be incompatible with the demands of life in high school. This paper examines the skills that are required for students to be successful in high school and compares them to the skills of many adolescents with ASD. Following a description of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the paper presents an overview of curriculum analysis and possible curricular changes to assist these students in high school. To enhance the support of the curriculum, subsequent information in this chapter includes the use of visual supports and the implementation of technology. Additional strategies are then presented including information on peer tutoring, and the use of social scripts and social stories. The final section discusses components of high school that may prove challenging, such as block scheduling and the use unstructured time. It concludes with a description of the effective secondary teacher and a look at future directions for this topic.