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Article

I-Chen Lee, Carol Y.Y. Lin and Te-Yi Lin

The purpose of this paper is to explain the difference of national intellectual capital from the perspective of national culture and to illustrate how national leaders or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the difference of national intellectual capital from the perspective of national culture and to illustrate how national leaders or policy-makers increase their country’s national intellectual capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The study conducts a descriptive analysis combining the research outcome of Lin and Edvinsson’s (2011) national intellectual capital with Hofstede’s (2001) national culture. The research findings and results of these two studies were compared before running a t-test to determine whether countries with relatively high national intellectual capital have a higher level of certain national culture.

Findings

Based on the matching data of 26 countries, the study proposed that countries with certain national culture possess lower intellectual capital. Countries with high intellectual capital tend to exhibit a common culture of low power distance, weak uncertainty avoidance, and individualism.

Practical implications

The study suggests that for a country to enhance its overall intellectual capital, it should strive for a culture of equality, freedom and safety, and an active competitive environment, while avoiding social class distance in order to eliminate insecurity. The study proposes some suggestions to advance the countries’ national intellectual capital. In addition to admit the weakness of their intellectual capital due to cultural reasons, these countries could go a step further to increase their own national intellectual capital by increasing or enhancing certain national cultures if possible.

Originality/value

The study compares national intellectual capital and national culture and finds the relationship between these two sets of constructs. This study proves that national culture not only influences the strategies or behaviors of business level but also the competitiveness of national levels.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Carol Y.Y. Lin and Leif Edvinsson

The threefold purpose of this paper is to reflect on the evolution and transformation of the Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) over the past 20 years, to project its…

Abstract

Purpose

The threefold purpose of this paper is to reflect on the evolution and transformation of the Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) over the past 20 years, to project its future research directions, and, finally, to propose an IC ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

We adopted a combination of a narrative and a systematic review of 700 JIC papers appearing in the journal in its entirety, from Volume 1 (2000) to Volume 20 (2019). The categorization of topics is based on the frequency of keywords in the titles of the papers.

Findings

Scholars have proposed four stages of intellectual capital (IC) research: definition/awareness, measurement/management, implementation/strategy, and ecosystem. Over the past 20 years, a total of 16 special issues were published in the journal. The five topics with the highest paper counts in descending order are country-specific studies, concept papers, reporting and disclosure, measurement and performance. Four issues require the researcher’s special attention: theoretical development, IC research methodology, national intellectual capital, and data collection. An IC ecosystem is proposed to invite discussion and refinement. For future research, ecosystem-oriented and interdisciplinary research are suggested. Research design aimed at achieving Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.

Research limitations/implications

Intellectual capital research has implications for four major types of stakeholders, namely academia, government agencies, practitioners, and top management team of organizations. The major limitation of this research is that this review of twenty years of intellectual capital research is limited exclusively to the papers published in the JIC; IC papers published in relevant journals or conferences were not included.

Originality/value

This paper presents a comprehensive review of the articles published in the first 20 volumes of the JIC. The field of intellectual capital has evolved from the social construction of IC knowledge to IC knowledge diffusion and inheritance. Hopefully, a fully developed IC ecosystem will eventually emerge. IC researchers can position themselves in the IC research continuum and devise distinctive pathways to enhance their contributions to the transformation of IC research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Carol Y.Y. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the national intellectual capital (NIC) of South Africa by making comparisons with Poland and Romania.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the national intellectual capital (NIC) of South Africa by making comparisons with Poland and Romania.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a database of an NIC measurement model spanning 2001-2015, this study plotted the development trend of the NIC and its component capitals – human, market, process and renewal capitals. Their correlations with GDP per capita (ppp) (GDP hereinafter) were also presented.

Findings

The NIC of South Africa is lower than that of both Poland and Romania. Except for the increase of its human capital together with its GDP, the other capitals have lower relevance. Poland experienced highly correlated growth for its NIC and GDP, shedding light for South Africa. The qualitative findings are also reported.

Research limitations/implications

The IMD database carries South African data only for the African continent. Therefore, this paper cannot cover other countries from the continent.

Practical implications

There are three implications from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses: initiate national transformation from the two core issues of education and health; invite and provide attractive incentives for South African returnees from abroad and members of local private sectors to take part in the national transformation efforts; and learn from the NIC development pattern of Poland and Romania by investing in market capital and process capital as soon as possible for faster results.

Social implications

The research findings of this paper unveil the root of the social problems in South Africa, including education, health, high unemployment and so on. Suggestions are provided for mid-term and long-term potential solutions.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the value of an NIC in the economically successful Poland whose growth and GDP growth occurred at a similar pace.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Pirjo Ståhle, Sten Ståhle and Carol Y.Y. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different countries. The paper brings a new perspective to explaining hidden economic drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces a new theoretically and computationally justified method, so-called ELSS model that is based on expansion and augmentation of the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators. The method is applied by using the database that contains NIC indices for 48 countries covering the period from 2001 to 2011.

Findings

The results show that intangible capital accounts for 45 per cent of world GDP. The figure for the USA is 70.3 per cent and for the European Union 51.6 per cent. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7 per cent, with NIC contributing to 72.5 per cent of GDP in Sweden, 69.7 per cent in Finland and 67.6 per cent in Denmark.

Research limitations/implications

The expanded Cobb-Douglas production function is sensitive to valuations of capital inputs and sensitive to estimates of production shares for various augmenting and expanding inputs. Therefore further work is needed to develop and test methodologies for the assessment of all of these.

Practical implications

ELSS production function helps to give a realistic picture of the value and impact of NIC and accordingly gives evidence for accurate investment decisions for the future.

Social implications

The method will help policy makers figure out what steps are needed to reduce the cross-country NIC differences.

Originality/value

The authors have uncovered the value of NIC beyond monetary inputs, and at the same time taken account of country specifics. The ELSS formula is comprehensive yet not too complicated to replicate. The approach significantly contributes to the development of the current research tradition into intangibles.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

World Class Cooking for Solving Global Challenges: Reparadigming Societal Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-123-5

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Book part

Badi H. Baltagi, Georges Bresson and Jean-Michel Etienne

This chapter proposes semiparametric estimation of the relationship between growth rate of GDP per capita, growth rates of physical and human capital, labor as well as…

Abstract

This chapter proposes semiparametric estimation of the relationship between growth rate of GDP per capita, growth rates of physical and human capital, labor as well as other covariates and common trends for a panel of 23 OECD countries observed over the period 1971–2015. The observed differentiated behaviors by country reveal strong heterogeneity. This is the motivation behind using a mixed fixed- and random coefficients model to estimate this relationship. In particular, this chapter uses a semiparametric specification with random intercepts and slopes coefficients. Motivated by Lee and Wand (2016), the authors estimate a mean field variational Bayes semiparametric model with random coefficients for this panel of countries. Results reveal nonparametric specifications for the common trends. The use of this flexible methodology may enrich the empirical growth literature underlining a large diversity of responses across variables and countries.

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Abstract

Details

Quality Services and Experiences in Hospitality and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-384-1

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Article

Wing-hin Kam

This paper aims to analyse how both Lin’s birthplace identity and his Christian identity contributed to his fruitful public career and to ascertain which identity became…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how both Lin’s birthplace identity and his Christian identity contributed to his fruitful public career and to ascertain which identity became the most significant.

Design/methodology/approach

Archival research is the main method used in this paper. The most important archives drawn from are the Daniel Tse Collection in the Special Collection and Archives of the Hong Kong Baptist University Library. Oral history has also been used in this paper to uncover more material that has not yet been discussed in existing scholarly works.

Findings

This paper argues that although Lin’s birthplace identity and social networks helped him to start his business career in Nam Pak Hong and develop into a leader in the local Chaozhou communities, these factors were insufficient to his becoming a respectable member of the Chinese elite in post-war Hong Kong. He became well known not because of his leading position in local Chaozhou communities or any great achievement he had obtained in business but because of his contribution to the development of Christian education. These achievements earned him a reputation as a “Christian educator”. Thus Lin’s Christian identity became more important than his birthplace identity in contributing to his successful public career.

Originality/value

This paper has value in showing how Christian influences interacted with various cultural factors in early Hong Kong. It also offers insights into Lin’s life and motivations as well as the history of the institutions he contributed to/founded. It not only furthers our understanding of the Chinese Christian business elite in early Hong Kong but also provides us with insights when further studying this group of people in other British colonies in Asia.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

Keywords

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Article

Carol Mutch

Qualitative data analysis requires methodological knowledge and intellectual competence. Analysis is not about adhering to any one correct approach or set of right…

Abstract

Qualitative data analysis requires methodological knowledge and intellectual competence. Analysis is not about adhering to any one correct approach or set of right techniques; it is imaginative, artful, flexible, and reflexive. It should also be methodical, scholarly, and intellectually rigorous. (Coffey and Atkinson, 1996, p.1.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

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Article

Cui Stacey Li, Carol Xiaoyue Zhang, Xiaoqing Chen and Meng Shan Sharon Wu

This study aims to explore how the concept of extended self-influences luxury shopping tourism consumption among Chinese tourists. It explores why luxury shopping is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how the concept of extended self-influences luxury shopping tourism consumption among Chinese tourists. It explores why luxury shopping is important for Chinese tourists. Specifically, this study focuses on a strategically important emerging market segment: post-1990s female Chinese tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the link between the extended self and luxury shopping tourism consumption among post-1990s Chinese female tourists, this study adopted a qualitative and interpretive approach. A total of 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out to collect the data.

Findings

This qualitative inquiry found that luxury shopping during overseas holidays has some subtle differences from luxury shopping in China, as the conceptualisation of luxury is highly context-based. Through a focus on gender and generational differences, the current study reveals that the idea of individuality has started to influence their luxury purchases.

Practical implications

The study shows how different selves are associated with luxury shopping. It thus provides empirical evidence regarding the reasons behind their motivation, especially for shopping overseas to get a good price and an exclusive and enjoyable luxury shopping experience abroad. Also, it was found that curiosity about buying luxury products is viewed as less favoured and logical shopping will be a future trend. Individuality is becoming a trend for younger consumers.

Originality/value

Theoretically, by linking the “extended self” with luxury shopping tourism, this study provides the social-psychological aspects of luxury shopping tourism. Instead of focusing on particular destinations, this study provides compressed but also focused inquiries to explore how the concept of the self-influences post-1990s female Chinese tourists’ shopping consumption while on holiday, and how this luxury shopping experience influences their concept of the self.

目标

本文运用“延伸自我”概念对中国泳客在境外购买奢侈品的行为和意义进行探讨, 从而进一步了解中国游客对奢侈品的消费形态。 研究主要专注在中国90后女性市场, 女性市场已被许多学者以即市场营销人员认定为新兴市场领域。

设计

通过22个深度访谈的所得数据表明境外奢侈品高买行为与自我概念有着紧密的联系, 并为消费者购买动机背后的原因提供了实证

主要结论

在境外旅游过程中购买奢侈品有非常大的价格优势, 同时又能为消费者提供独特的购物体验, 中国90后女性的奢侈品购买行为日趋理性并在出行之前做好详细的购物计划, 个性的展示将成为中国年轻女性奢侈品消费的主导因素。

理论贡献

该研究的理论贡献是探索自我概念如何影响90年代后中国女性游客在境外旅行度假时的奢侈品购物行为, 以及这种奢侈品购物体验如何影响其自我概念。

关键词 购物,中国游客,女性, 延伸自我,自我概念

文章类型 研究论文

Propósito

El estudio se dedica a explorar cómo influir el conceptöauto-extensión¨ al comportamiento de comprar los artículos de lujo en el extranjero entre los chinos turísticos, también a explorar la importancia de tal caso para ellos.

Metodología

Este estudio ha adaptado un enfoque cualitativo entre 22 entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas para la recopilación de datos y muestra cómo se asocian diferentes seres con las compras de lujo.

Resultados

Por lo tanto, se proporciona las pruebas evidentemente sobre las razones detrás de su motivación. Comprar artículos de lujo durante los viajes al extranjero tiene una gran ventaja de precio, al tiempo que las ofrece una experiencia especial. Estos actos se están volviendo más racionales y tienen planes de compras detallados antes de viajar. La exhibición de la personalidad se convertirá en el factor dominante en cuanto al consumo de artículos de lujo por parte de tales chinas.

Originalidad

Principalmente se enfoca a un nuevo campo del mercado en lo cual los consumidores son las chicas quienes nacieron después del año 1990.

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