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Rebekah P. Massengill and Carol Ann MacGregor

Purpose – Previous studies have found that, for those born after 1960, individuals raised with no religious affiliation were less likely than any other religious group to…

Abstract

Purpose – Previous studies have found that, for those born after 1960, individuals raised with no religious affiliation were less likely than any other religious group to complete a college degree. This finding is surprising in light of the increasing educational attainment of the American public, as well as the finding that declining religious belief is often presumed to accompany higher education. In this chapter, we explore the changing relationship between religious nonaffiliation and educational attainment for Americans over the past three decades.

Methodology – In order to disentangle the mechanisms behind this relationship, we consider the heterogeneity of nonaffiliates and examine educational attainment for three types of religious “nones.” Using the General Social Survey (1972–2008), we look for cohort differences in attaining a bachelor's degree among persistent nones, disaffiliates, and adult affiliates.

Findings – While being raised in no religious tradition was once predictive of higher odds of completing a college degree, the positive relationship between being raised a religious none and college completion has reversed itself in the past 30 years. Instead, for individuals born after 1960, being raised in no religious tradition is actually associated with lower odds of completing a 4-year college degree relative to adults who were raised in any religious tradition and continue to claim a religious identity in adulthood. This effect is particularly pronounced for adults who maintain no religious identity throughout the life course.

Social implications – We propose some explanations for this finding, with a particular emphasis on the potential significance of religious social networks in adolescence.

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Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

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Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

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Book part

Lisa A. Keister, John McCarthy and Roger Finke

The association between religion and material well-being is fundamental to research on inequality and stratification. Broadly considered, this association includes…

Abstract

The association between religion and material well-being is fundamental to research on inequality and stratification. Broadly considered, this association includes questions about how religious affiliation and religiosity are associated with work behaviors, education, income, wealth, and related family processes. Early social sciences debated if and how these traits and outcomes are related and offered important insight into the mechanisms that might explain empirical patterns (Simmel, 1997; Sombart, 1911; Weber, 1905/1930). However, the religious landscape and the mechanisms creating religion and well-being have both changed dramatically since the early days of the social sciences. The proliferation of Protestant denominations, the changing role of Catholics, and the increased presence of other religious traditions are beyond the scope of these early works. Moreover, the relationship between religion and stratification is no longer a function of large-scale shifts in the mode of production but rather reflects changing individual and group approaches to human capital, work, and saving. In the 1960s, sociologists revived these debates, but empirical challenges and a narrowing of the discussion to focus on Protestant–Catholic differences weakened and ultimately ended the literature's momentum (Broom & Glenn, 1966; Glenn & Hyland, 1967; Laumann, 1969; Lazerwitz & Rowitz, 1964; Lenski, 1961).

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Religion, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-347-7

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Book part

Morgan R. Clevenger, Cynthia J. MacGregor, Dina Piepoli Udomsak, Carol Bosack-Kosek and Sharon Castano

Functionality of generating human capital of educated workers and citizens is core to higher education. This chapter explores the long-term relationship for the academy to…

Abstract

Functionality of generating human capital of educated workers and citizens is core to higher education. This chapter explores the long-term relationship for the academy to support the needs for advanced degree and certificate programs, executive education, career preparation, and lifelong service opportunities focused on companies and their needs.

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Business and Corporation Engagement with Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-656-1

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Business and Corporation Engagement with Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-656-1

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Business and Corporation Engagement with Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-656-1

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Article

MAURICE B. LINE and A. SANDISON

The term ‘obsolescence’ occurs frequently in the literature of librarianship and information science. In numerous papers we are told how most published literature becomes…

Abstract

The term ‘obsolescence’ occurs frequently in the literature of librarianship and information science. In numerous papers we are told how most published literature becomes obsolete within a measurable time, and that an item receives half the uses it will ever receive (‘half‐life’) in a few years. ‘Obsolescence’ is however very rarely defined, and its validity, interest, and practical value are often assumed rather than explained. Before reviewing studies on ‘obsolescence’, therefore, it is necessary to look at the concept and to identify the reasons why it should be of interest.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Anna Marie Johnson and Sarah Jent

Sets out to provide a selected bibliography or recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.

Abstract

Purpose

Sets out to provide a selected bibliography or recent resources on library instruction and information literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Introduces and annotates periodical articles, monographs, and exhibition catalogues examining library instruction and information literacy.

Findings

Provides information about each source, discusses the characteristics of current scholarship, and describes sources that contain unique scholarly contributions and quality reproductions.

Originality/value

The information may be used by librarians and interested parties as a quick reference to literature on library instruction and information literacy.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

Ertekin Öztekin

A lot of triaxial compressive models for different concrete types and different concrete strength classes were proposed to be used in structural analyses. The existence of…

Abstract

Purpose

A lot of triaxial compressive models for different concrete types and different concrete strength classes were proposed to be used in structural analyses. The existence of so many models creates conflicts and confusions during the selection of the models. In this study, reliability analyses were carried out to prevent such conflicts and confusions and to determine the most reliable model for normal- and high-strength concrete (NSC and HSC) under combined triaxial compressions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical model was proposed to estimate the strength of NSC and HSC under different triaxial loadings. After verifying the validity of the model by making comparisons with the models in the literature, reliabilities of all models were investigated. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used in the reliability studies. Artificial experimental data required for the Monte Carlo simulation method were generated by using artificial neural networks.

Findings

The validity of the proposed model was verified. Reliability indexes of triaxial compressive models were obtained for the limit states, different concrete strengths and different lateral compressions. Finally, the reliability indexes were tabulated to be able to choose the best model for NSC and HSC under different triaxial compressions.

Research limitations/implications

Concrete compressive strength and lateral compression were taken as variables in the model.

Practical implications

The reliability indexes were tabulated to be able to choose the best model for NSC and HSC under different triaxial compressions.

Originality/value

A new analytical model was proposed to estimate the strength of NSC and HSC under different triaxial loadings. Reliability indexes of triaxial compressive models were obtained for the limit states, different concrete strengths and different lateral compressions. Artificial experimental data were obtained by using artificial neural networks. Four different artificial neural networks were developed to generate artificial experimental data. They can also be used in the estimations of the strength of NSC and HSC under different triaxial loadings.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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