Search results

1 – 10 of 413
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Jane L. Ireland, Jackie Bates-Gaston, Kevin Markey, Leah Greenwood and Carol A. Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of a cognitive skills programme (Enhanced Thinking Skills) with adult prisoners.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of a cognitive skills programme (Enhanced Thinking Skills) with adult prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre- and post-treatment design with 171 male prisoners, using self-report psychometric measures.

Findings

Significant differences were found in the direction expected. Clinical recovery using stringent methods was not indicated, although improvement/partial response was across a number of domains.

Practical implications

Expectations for treatment outcome for short-term interventions should be more realistic; cognitive skills programmes may be best considered as precursors to longer term therapies; treatment outcome should focus on improvement and not recovery.

Originality/value

This study represents the first prison study to distinguish between levels of positive change. It questions previous interpretations of treatment outcome.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 May 2018

Cameron Hughes, Jane L. Ireland and Carol A. Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to explore the function of crisis incidents in prisons within the UK and USA. The incidents reviewed included riots and hostage incidents…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the function of crisis incidents in prisons within the UK and USA. The incidents reviewed included riots and hostage incidents, focusing only on information that was available publically. It did not intend to capture official reports not in the public domain.

Design/methodology/approach

Publically available information on incidents were systematically reviewed. Functional assessment and grounded theory were employed to examine background factors, triggers and maintaining factors. In total, 25 crisis incidents were analysed (UK =10 and USA =15) from the past 30 years. It was predicted that crisis incidents would be motivated by negative and positive reinforcement, with negative more evidenced than positive. Precipitating factors (i.e. triggers) were predicted to include negative emotions, such as frustration and anger.

Findings

Similarities in triggers and background factors were noted between hostage taking and riot incidents. Positive reinforcement was primarily indicated. Riots appeared driven by a need to communicate, to secure power, rights, control and/or freedom, whereas for hostage taking these functions extended to capture the removal of negative emotions, to inflict pain, to punish/gain revenge, to effect a release, to manage boredom and to promote positive emotions.

Research limitations/implications

The study is preliminary and focused on the reporting of incidents in publically available sources; consequently, the data are secondary in nature and further limited by sample size. Nevertheless, it highlights evidence for similarities between types of crisis incidents but also some important potential differences. The need to understand the protective factors preventing incidents and minimising harm during incidents is recommended.

Practical implications

It highlights evidence for similarities between types of critical incidents but also some important potential differences. Understanding differences between incidents is important in the tailoring of specific policies to address these areas. Understanding motivation and reinforcement is valuable in working towards the prevention of critical incidents. Understanding the protective factors preventing incidents and minimising harm during incidents is recommended.

Originality/value

This is an under-researched area. The study contributes to the field not only by focusing on providing a detailed analysis of an under-used source (public reporting) but by also identifying where gaps in research remain. The results demonstrate the value in understanding incidents through their motivation, particularly in distinguishing between negative and positive reinforcement.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Thomas Nally, Jane L. Ireland, Leah Greenwood, Carol A. Ireland and Philip Birch

This study aims to explore the impact of inclusion of victim empathy-based content in offender treatment.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of inclusion of victim empathy-based content in offender treatment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study first presents a systematic review of 20 papers before proceeding to consider qualitative interviews with therapists (n = 7) and forensic patients (n = 5), who had completed a long-term violence therapy (Life Minus Violence – Enhanced, LMV-E©). The research explored perceptions of forensic patients and treatment facilitators when completing victim empathy work and explored any negative effects this may have.

Findings

Findings from the systematic review indicated five themes: interventions incorporating victim empathy can be effective; there are positive risk-understanding consequences from completing victim empathy work; offenders perceive victim empathy positively; the emotional impact of victim empathy work on offenders’ is poorly explored; and completing victim empathy in treatment groups receives mixed evaluations from offenders. The systematic review was used to inform the interview themes for the resulting qualitative study with facilitators and forensic patients. This study indicated six themes: victim empathy content facilitates change; victim empathy content can be difficult for patients; victim empathy content can lead to an emotional response; victim empathy content can be beneficial, with the process important; victim empathy content can help understand risk, and patients’ experience of treatment begins before attending sessions.

Practical implications

The potential impact of victim empathy content needs to be evaluated before sessions are completed, accounting for client expectations and treatment readiness. This should include ensuring that appropriate support is in place. Any support provided to patients should be regularly reviewed.

Originality/value

The study represents the first to apply detailed analysis to this topic area and with a complex group.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Carol Ireland, Rebecca Ozanne and Jane Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to consider the current knowledge in regard to females who engage in sexually harmful behaviour (HSB).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the current knowledge in regard to females who engage in sexually harmful behaviour (HSB).

Design/methodology/approach

This is a brief paper, reviewing current literature.

Findings

This paper argues the continual limitations in fully understanding this population. However, it suggests the importance of progressing to discuss patterns of offending as opposed to typologies.

Practical implications

This argues the importance of effective formulation and consideration of patterns when understanding HSB in females.

Originality/value

This is a current brief review of the literature, summarising key thinking in this area, and some suggested ways forward for further progression.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Adele Madden and Carol A. Ireland

Young offenders are known to have more chaotic experiences in childhood than non-offenders, and this impacts on their attachments, coping styles and early maladaptive…

Abstract

Purpose

Young offenders are known to have more chaotic experiences in childhood than non-offenders, and this impacts on their attachments, coping styles and early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between these factors and drug use.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used self-report questionnaires on a sample of 105 incarcerated young offenders.

Findings

Attachment styles did not differentiate drug users from non-drug users. Drug users were found to be no more likely than non-drug users to use avoidant coping styles. However, they were more likely to have emotional coping styles. Drug users had more EMS, and overall, those with insecure attachments had more EMS. Individuals with emotional coping styles scored higher than those with rational coping styles on several EMS. Those with emotional coping styles scored lower on the emotional inhibition EMS than those with rational coping styles.

Practical implications

The evidence presented has implications for the understanding of drug use in young offenders by: providing support to the model proposed by Young et al. (2003) regarding how insecure attachments can contribute to EMS; providing support for Crittenden’s (2008) model of attachment whereby problematic behaviours such as drug use can be a strategy the individual uses to protect themselves at times of threat or discomfort; highlighting the need for an integrated model of substance use in offenders which incorporates early experiences, attachments and EMS; and highlighting why substance use may become a coping strategy in young offenders and how to engage them to meet their needs in pro-social ways.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the understanding of attachment, coping and drug use in a young offender population. It sets foundations in the authors’ understanding of patterns of EMS in young drug users and highlights the need for an integrated model of substance use which incorporates early experiences, attachments and EMS.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Thomas Nally, Jane L. Ireland, Kimberley McNeill, Philip Birch and Carol A. Ireland

The purpose of this paper is to explore non-violent pornography within secure hospital settings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore non-violent pornography within secure hospital settings.

Design/methodology/approach

It includes a systematic review (n = 40 papers), followed by a qualitative study comprising semi-structured interviews (n = 24, 6 patients and 18 staff) and staff focus groups (n = 22 staff).

Findings

The systematic review identified six themes, as follows: pornography is inconsistently defined, pornography exposure can increase general aggression, pornography exposure may increase the risk for sexual aggression, pornography exposure can increase aggression supportive beliefs, pornography exposure impacts negatively on those with a violent predisposition and pornography is educational for men not identifying as heterosexual. The semi-structured interviews and focus groups revealed four themes as follows: staff members hold diverse beliefs about pornographic material, pornography is difficult to obtain and use for patients who do not identify as heterosexual, pornography is used for specific functions, and frequent exposure to pornography can have negative effects for staff members.

Practical implications

Trying to obtain consensus on the impacts of pornography on forensic patients is not possible; material access decisions should be on a case-by-case basis. Policy decisions should be based on fully represented views, including the LGBTI community. The impacts on staff of their occupational exposure to such material should be recognised and support provided. Clinical decision-making in this area should consider not only if access should be allowed but also how it can be managed safely, if at all. This includes for all those who could be exposed to such material, inadvertently or otherwise.

Originality/value

It addresses the under-researched area of patient access to pornography, capturing a poorly considered sample, namely, high secure psychiatric.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2009

Caitriona Higgins and Carol Ireland

This study explored the attitudes of prison officers, forensic staff and members of the public towards and male and female sex offenders. Participants were provided with a

Abstract

This study explored the attitudes of prison officers, forensic staff and members of the public towards and male and female sex offenders. Participants were provided with a vignette depicting a specific sexual offence committed against either an adult or a child, by either a male or a female perpetrator, and were then asked to complete a scale assessing attitudes to sex offenders based on the offender depicted in the vignette. Forensic staff emerged as having the most positive attitudes to sex offenders, viewing them as individuals who could be rehabilitated. Prison officers emerged as having the most negative attitudes, in that they were supportive of harsh and untrusting attitudes. Overall, females emerged as viewing sex offenders in more positive terms, whereas males were more supportive of harsh attitudes to sex offenders. Respondents did not have a more negative attitude to female sex offenders than to male sex offenders.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Carol A. Ireland and Siona Huxley

Clinical professionals working with psychologically traumatised children in the care system can experience potential challenges maintaining their own positive…

Abstract

Purpose

Clinical professionals working with psychologically traumatised children in the care system can experience potential challenges maintaining their own positive psychological health, and when repeatedly being exposed to the traumatic histories of those in their care. The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of vicarious trauma and provide a guide for focussing on future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a systematic literature review, considering 13 articles that met the criteria and identified five main themes linked to secondary traumatic stress/vicarious trauma in staff.

Findings

Five main themes were noted. These are: lack of organisational support; lack of health work-life balance; lack of appropriate training; failure to use self-care techniques; and staff failure to share when they are experiencing symptoms.

Practical implications

Various implications are noted from this review. These include: the importance of education and support for staff, to be mindful that newer staff may be considered an “at risk” group for the negative impact of such trauma, and to encourage staff in achieving an effective work-life balance.

Originality/value

This is a focussed systematic review on secondary and vicarious trauma on staff working with children exposed to psychological trauma, such as sexual and physical abuse.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Carol A. Ireland and Neil Gredecki

Abstract

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Carol Ireland

This paper will discuss the potential impact of a range of cognitive impairments when working with sex offenders who present with them. It will begin by outlining the…

Abstract

This paper will discuss the potential impact of a range of cognitive impairments when working with sex offenders who present with them. It will begin by outlining the nature of cognitive impairment and the research examining the extent of such difficulties in sex offenders. It will then explore the impact of such impairments when engaging a sex offender in treatment, including the role that cognitive impairment might play in the function of their offence. Finally, some methods by which to manage and compensate for cognitive impairments will be presented. While the focus of this paper is on sex offenders, the issues presented in this paper are not exclusive to this group and may be applied to offenders in general.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

1 – 10 of 413