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Article

Annalisa Tirella, Carmelo De Maria, Giuseppe Criscenti, Giovanni Vozzi and Arti Ahluwalia

The traditional tissue engineering approach employs rapid prototyping systems to realise microstructures (i.e. scaffolds) which recapitulate the function and organization…

Abstract

Purpose

The traditional tissue engineering approach employs rapid prototyping systems to realise microstructures (i.e. scaffolds) which recapitulate the function and organization of native tissues. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new rapid prototyping system (PAM‐modular micro‐fabrication system, PAM2) able to fabricate microstructures using materials with different properties in a controlled environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Computer‐aided technologies were used to design multi‐scale biological models. Scaffolds with specific features were then designed using custom software and manufactured using suitable modules. In particular, several manufacturing modules were realised to enlarge the PAM2 processing material window, controlling physical parameters such as pressure, force, temperature and light. These modules were integrated in PAM2, allowing a precise control of fabrication parameters through a modular approach and hardware configuration.

Findings

Synthetic and natural polymeric solutions, thermo‐sensitive and photo‐sensitive materials can be used to fabricate 3D scaffolds. Both simple and complex architectures with high fidelity and spatial resolution ranging from ±15 μm to ±200μm (according to ink properties and extrusion module used) were realised.

Originality/value

The PAM2 system is a new rapid prototyping technique which operates in controlled conditions (for example temperature, pressure or light intensity) and integrates several manufacturing modules for the fabrication of complex or multimaterial microstructures. In this paper it is shown how the system can be configured and then used to fabricate scaffolds mimicking the extra‐cellular matrix, both in its properties (i.e. physic‐chemical and mechanical properties) and architecture.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Rita R. Carballo, Carmelo J. León and María M. Carballo

Lanzarote, Spain, as a tourism destination, suffered a rapid tourist expansion for many years, and this has endangered its sustainability. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Lanzarote, Spain, as a tourism destination, suffered a rapid tourist expansion for many years, and this has endangered its sustainability. The purpose of this study is to investigate the case of overtourism and its consequences for the local population and the environment, and to identify ways to mitigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a case study approach. Data obtained from tourists visiting the destination were used to examine three key aspects of tourism development, namely, the arrival of tourists to the island, the accommodation offer and the growth of the population. Social awareness with environmental values and protection of the island’s natural resources were the main engine to establish measures to mitigate overtourism.

Findings

The analysis shows rapid growth in the arrival of tourists to the island and how it affected the accommodation offer and the population. It explores the solution that the authorities of the island took to solve the problem of disorganized growth of tourism and makes reference to the importance of managing the image of a destination to contribute to tourism sustainability.

Originality/value

This research proposes practical solutions to tackle overtourism at a destination which has been used by the United Nations as an example to establish sustainable tourism development guidelines. It proposes a unique mitigation strategy which is derived from the use of natural recreation.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article

María Vidales and Carmelo García-Pérez

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, from an empirical point of view, the importance of each of the main sources of funding in developing countries (foreign direct…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, from an empirical point of view, the importance of each of the main sources of funding in developing countries (foreign direct investment, official development assistance, external debt and remittances) in achieving sustainable, social and inclusive development.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology followed to achieve this purpose is the construction of three econometric models. The general model incorporates as a dependent variable the Human Development Index (HDI) and, as explanatory variables, the four sources of funding indicated above, as well as three exogenous variables (human capital, corruption and natural resources). This model is complemented by two extensions that aim to analyse the behaviour of explanatory variables in reducing inequalities and improving each of the HDI components.

Findings

The results of the estimations of the econometric models show that foreign direct investment and remittances are the sources of funding with the greatest impact on achieving development. Moreover, official development assistance while not making a positive contribution to the achievement of development as a whole, could be adequate to reduce inequalities.

Originality/value

The added value of this paper consists in carrying out a joint analysis of these four sources of funding because previous researches focussed the attention on some of them, drawing partial conclusions. The conclusion of this study is that the four sources of funding analysed can be considered complementary to promote sustainable and inclusive development, although foreign direct investment has a much more important role.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article

Rita R. Carballo, Carmelo J. León and María M. Carballo

This paper aims to investigate the perception of risk by international travellers. There are multiple risks facing tourism that contribute to the formation of perception…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the perception of risk by international travellers. There are multiple risks facing tourism that contribute to the formation of perception of risk. It is necessary to identify the different types of risks that are perceived in tourist destinations. This paper suggests policies and techniques to mitigate the risk perceptions in tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted to test the types of risks that are perceived in international destinations. The data were further analysed with factor analysis to measure the dimension of risk perceptions.

Findings

The main results point to the existence of five types of risk affecting tourists during international travel: health risk, risk of suffering from crime and delinquency, accident risk, environmental risk and risk from disasters. Result shows that uncontrollable risks are perceived as more important than those which are more controllable.

Originality/value

As the existing literature on perception of risk in tourism does not contain a substantially detailed discussion relating to types of risk in international destinations and its contribution to the formation of risk perceptions, this paper may contribute to a better understanding of risk perception. The results could assist in decision-making and have implications for the management of risks.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Development of the Maltese Insurance Industry: A Comprehensive Study
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-978-2

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Abstract

Details

Inequality and Poverty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1374-7

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Article

Ana‐Maria Wahl

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism…

Abstract

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism reflects an urban bias. Examines social security coverage for the rural poor in Mexico and notes that there are great variations depending on area, suggesting that social security coverage is politically negotiable. Outlines briefly the historical development of Mexico’s welfare state and uses a power resource model to demonstrate how groups with competing interests go about securing benefits from the state. Cites literature on dependency theory, indicating that rural groups have failed to mobilize politically and have therefore not secured the same state resources (such as social security benefits and housing) as urban groups, yet argues that this does not always apply in Mexico, partially due to party politics and bureaucratic paternalism. Explains how data was collected to examine regional variations in social security coverage among the rural poor and how the data was analysed. Reveal that workers in important international export markets (such as cotton and sugar) have greater political leverage in obtaining better social security benefits. Notes also that areas supporting the political party in power obtain better benefits. Concludes, therefore, that rural workers are not powerless in the face of urban capitalism and that urban bias and dependency theories do not reflect the situation in Mexico – rather social security benefits are politically negotiable.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Carmelo Caligiuri

In Italia si è fatto quanto non è stato fatto in nessun altro Paese, sempre nel settore dell'istruzione media turistico‐alberghiera. Per cui mi permetto di suggerire, come…

Abstract

In Italia si è fatto quanto non è stato fatto in nessun altro Paese, sempre nel settore dell'istruzione media turistico‐alberghiera. Per cui mi permetto di suggerire, come ebbi a fare altre volte, di esaminare gli ordinamenti scolastici esistenti negli altri Paesi. Ciò per stabilire, in quanto è possibile, un programma comune sull'istruzione media turistica.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Book part

Carine Fournier and Rémy Knafou

This chapter demonstrates that despite an unfavorable disciplinary climate for new academic subjects in France, tourism found its place in the French geographical scene…

Abstract

This chapter demonstrates that despite an unfavorable disciplinary climate for new academic subjects in France, tourism found its place in the French geographical scene almost 40 years ago. The first part traces the history of tourism in French geography until the epistemological turn due to the research laboratory MIT in the mid-1990s. It also focuses on the absence of knowledge of the Anglo-American literature and of multidisciplinarity in French research on tourism. The second part focuses on the valorization of tourism geography research in France, emphasizing the development of multidisciplinarity since the early 2000s, including the creation of a multi-disciplinary tourism laboratory and two journals. The chapter concludes reflecting on the possibility of a science of tourism.

Details

Geographies of Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-212-7

Keywords

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Book part

Alessia Mariotti

This chapter discusses the main research interests and outputs in the various branches of geography that have influenced the study of tourism from a geographical…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the main research interests and outputs in the various branches of geography that have influenced the study of tourism from a geographical perspective. It argues that the idiographic tradition has been transversal throughout, leading to the growing interest for tourism within the geography academic community in the last 10 years. There is a focus on the birth of specific research groups, mainly related to a constellation of new university curricula on tourism and—with few exceptions of territorial tradition—to an intermittent availability of public research funds. The chapter concludes with a more general picture of the place of tourism within the geography discipline in Italy and of evolving trends in terms of research results, dissemination, and evaluation.

Details

Geographies of Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-212-7

Keywords

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