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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Carlos Maria Jardon and Amandio Dasilva

Small businesses created as a subsistence activity (subsistence small businesses (SSBs)), often are oriented towards the short term. The environmental performance, by…

Abstract

Purpose

Small businesses created as a subsistence activity (subsistence small businesses (SSBs)), often are oriented towards the short term. The environmental performance, by contrast, is an indicator of long-term strategies. The purpsoe of this paper is to analyse how intellectual capital (IC) dimensions affect environmental concern, preparing SSBs to have a proper environmental behaviour in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

A method based on the partial least square technique is suggested to select the model and estimate the parameters. A sample of 113 small businesses in the timber industry in a region of Argentina was selected for this study.

Findings

The results indicate that IC promotes environmental concern. Relational capital directly affects environmental concern, human capital and structural capital and these, in turn, indirectly affect the environmental concern through relational capital in SSBs.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used is a cross-section. IC is subjectively measured. This paper only studies small businesses in the timber sector in a region of Latin America.

Practical implications

This paper enables practitioners and scholars to understand and make legitimate decisions and conclusions that can foster SSB growth in environmental concern. The paper suggests a combination of strategies in order to achieve a sustained development.

Originality/value

The authors tested the impact of dimensions of IC on environmental concern in SSB of developing countries, showing the importance of IC in sustained strategies in these companies.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Carlos Fernández Jardón, Mariia Molodchik and Sofiia Paklina

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategy-specific competencies with regard to intangibles and provides empirical evidence of intangible-based strategy groups for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore strategy-specific competencies with regard to intangibles and provides empirical evidence of intangible-based strategy groups for Russian companies. Additionally, the study examines the link between intangible-based strategy and company performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses strategic group theory and the resource-based view framework to identify similar strategic behaviour of companies by employment of intangibles. In line with the intellectual capital concept, the study provides a cluster analysis that considers four types of intangibles: human, relational, innovation and process capital. These are measured through publicly available data using principal component analysis. The empirical part of the study uses a database of 1,096 Russian public companies, which covers the period 2004–2014.

Findings

As a result, the study reveals three profiles of strategic behaviour with regard to intangibles. The majority of Russian public companies (63.5 per cent) are Generics and pursue a non-intensive intangible strategy. Only 13.3 per cent of companies constitute the intangible-intensive profile by having endowment of all intellectual resources higher than the sample average. The remaining companies (23.2 per cent) also pursue an intangible-intensive strategy with a focus on innovation capital. Intangible-intensive strategic groups outperform Generics.

Originality/value

The study proposes a novel intangible-based strategy continuum, which straddles two polar strategies: generic and smart. The study introduces insights to better understand the differences in performance across intangible-intensive strategies and presents a new empirical inquiry into strategic behaviour with regard to intangibles in Russia.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Carlos M. Jardón and Nilda C. Tañski

This paper aims to study the competitiveness of subsistence small businesses (SSBs) and the use of the place to get competitive advantages. Complementarily the paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the competitiveness of subsistence small businesses (SSBs) and the use of the place to get competitive advantages. Complementarily the paper analyzes the intellectual capital as a possible mediator for the competitiveness of SSBs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained by conducting surveys with owners and managers of wood-processing companies located in Misiones (Argentina), during 2015. The research uses principal component analysis and path analysis to study the relationships. The study introduces tangible resources and size as control variables.

Findings

The results show the importance of place as source of competitive advantages in SSBs. The SSBs present competitive advantages that generate better results. The place affects competitive advantages directly and indirectly through intellectual capital.

Research limitations/implications

The data used refer to a certain period, so the use of the panel data enables generalizing findings over time. Sample is in a particular region and sector, and generalizations should be done carefully.

Practical implications

SSBs should raise the strategy integrating short and long term, which requires a strengthening of intellectual capital, especially in cooperation, professionalism and training.

Social implications

The findings suggest specific support local policies to these businesses to improve their performance in developing countries.

Originality/value

SSBs are very important in developing countries, but they are not sufficiently studied. This paper examines place-based competitiveness of SSBs and the moderation effect of dimensions of intellectual capital.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Mariia Molodchik and Carlos Maria Jardon

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital (IC) and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital (IC) and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for such a link for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Russian business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study implements an intellectual capital-based view and the concept of novelty proposed by Schumpeter to highlight the crucial role of knowledge for transition to a higher level of competition. Drawing on a literature review, the authors determine three specific components of IC: foreign human capital, information and communication technology (ICT) capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners in order to pinpoint a premier position on the next level of the market. For empirical testing of the proposed model, a data set comprising more than 1,400 Russian manufacturing SMEs was used. Estimations were performed with the help of a principal component analysis and ordinal logistic regression.

Findings

The findings reveal that higher (IC) endowment promotes the level of product novelty. For Russian manufacturing SMEs, the most important is R&D capital. At the same time, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners contribute significantly to the probability of transition to a new market level.

Research limitations/implications

The study employs cross-sectional data that restrict the analysis of innovation dynamics.

Practical implications

The study appears to have policy implications for the development of governmental programmes for Russian SMEs such as the creation of IC awareness, training for IC management, special programmes for R&D support and ICT capital accumulation.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new approach for investigating the “knowledge-innovation” link, shifting the focus from a general analysis of product innovation to a level of novelty for product innovation. This is the first empirical study of the relationship between IC components and the level of product novelty for SMEs in the context of the Russian business environment.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Carlos M. Jardón

Subsistence small businesses (SSBs) do not seek the maximum benefit; they only seek a benefit that enough satisfies their basic needs. In consequence, a dual behaviour of…

Abstract

Purpose

Subsistence small businesses (SSBs) do not seek the maximum benefit; they only seek a benefit that enough satisfies their basic needs. In consequence, a dual behaviour of companies is expected and possibly the competitiveness of these companies is different. The purpose of this paper is to study the dual behaviour of SSBs and the differences about their competitive advantages.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained by conducting surveys with owners and managers of wood processing companies located in a region of Misiones (Argentina). The results were checked by interviews in 2012 and 2015. The research uses principal component analysis and K-means to classify the different behaviour and MANOVA analysis to study the relationships.

Findings

The findings suggest two types of SSBs and show that competitive advantages are different into two groups of companies.

Research limitations/implications

The data used refer to a certain period of time, with interviews in next periods. Sample is in a particular region and sector and generalisations should be done carefully. The variables are measured with subjective questions.

Practical implications

The findings suggest instruments to change the strategy of unsatisfied SSBs to grow.

Social implications

The growth of SSBs is very important in poorest areas. The paper suggest governments’ politics that facilitate a stable environment for improving competitiveness of SSBs.

Originality/value

SSBs are very important in developing countries, but they are not sufficiently studied. The research shows the importance of satisfying principle in the competitiveness of subsistence entrepreneurs.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Carlos M. Jardon and Xavier Martinez–Cobas

Small-scale forestry-based enterprising communities are particularly associated with their territory and, therefore, are very conditioned by the local culture. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Small-scale forestry-based enterprising communities are particularly associated with their territory and, therefore, are very conditioned by the local culture. This paper aims to explore the relationship between culture and competitiveness in small-scale Latin-American forestry-based enterprising communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used 212 surveys in companies linked to the production, industrialisation and commercialisation sector of the forestry industry in the province of Misiones (Argentina), using partial least squares to analyse the relationships thereof.

Findings

Culture and competitive advantages improve the growth of small-scale timber businesses and growth, in turn, increases financial performance. However, culture does not have an impact on competitive advantage and no interaction effect of culture on competitive advantage was detected. The results can indicate that there might be a need to incorporate other concepts and operationalisation that are better suited to the geographical and industrial contexts in developing countries.

Research limitations/implications

The literature and measures used to operationalise variables in the survey did not necessarily succeed in capturing the culture in the studied small- and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, the design of the sample and subjective measures may partially condition the results.

Practical implications

For business managers and consultants, this study indicates that they must take into account the local culture to improve performance. Entrepreneurs must reorient the company strategy towards the long term, integrating local culture into their strategy to generate competitive advantages.

Social implications

Political authorities and social agents should also take into consideration the cultural aspects of the territory when implementing regulations and specific actions to improve the industry and strengthen the sense of community. The results highlight the vitality of animators and development agencies and of any factor that fosters social cohesion.

Originality/value

The paper shows a new approach to the relationship between culture and competitiveness in small-scale forestry-based enterprising communities, combining performance in a formal sector with the bazaar model.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Carlos M. Jardon

This paper aims to analyse the location as root of the specificity of the sources of competitiveness in subsistence small businesses (SSBs) of wood industry to improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the location as root of the specificity of the sources of competitiveness in subsistence small businesses (SSBs) of wood industry to improve the situation of poverty and the different behaviour of subsistence entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The research uses an exploratory analysis based on principal components in two phases and confirmatory analysis based on partial least square techniques applied to a sample of 113 small and medium enterprises of wood industry in Oberá, a region of Argentina.

Findings

The analysis evidences the use of competitiveness sources of SSBs and a double behaviour in SSBs according to subsistence threshold. Satisfactory SSBs use competitiveness sources to improve organizational and economic performance. Unsatisfactory SSBs find economic performance without relation to organizational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Data are cross-sectional, and in a conjuncture of economy expansion, future research should monitor the sample of firms using panel data to assess the development of relations. Sample is in a particular region and sector, and generalizations should be done carefully.

Practical implications

SSBs should raise the strategy integrating short and long term, which requires a strengthening of intellectual capital, especially in cooperation, professionalism and training. They could integrate and share a business community to develop competitive advantages of collective systemic.

Originality/value

The research shows the importance of the location for the competitiveness of SSBs and provides a classification of SSBs according to their performance.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2019

Mariia A. Molodchik, Carlos Maria Jardon and Anna Andreevna Bykova

The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the contribution made by intellectual capital (IC) to company performance at company and industry levels…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the contribution made by intellectual capital (IC) to company performance at company and industry levels in the Russian context. It examines the performance effect of IC using a multilevel approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The study combines the resource- and industry-based view. It decomposes performance determinants into two levels of analysis in such a way that it is assumed that IC at industry and company levels has a significant simultaneous impact on company performance. The empirical part of the study uses a database of 1,096 Russian public companies, covering the period of 2004–2014 and divided into 19 industries. The econometric methodology uses hierarchical linear models to estimate the effect of IC in the different levels of analysis.

Findings

The study confirms that the strength of the performance effect of IC is contingent on the industry. Furthermore, the study reveals that industry-level endowment with regard to intangibles contributes more to company performance in comparison with a company-level endowment, in the context of the transitional economy.

Originality/value

The study proposes a novel methodological approach to the performance effect of IC in the Russian context, studying the differences between industry and company effect. The study provides insights to better understand the importance of the politics of IC at the different levels (industry and company) and presents a new empirical enquiry into strategic behaviour regarding IC in Russia.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Thadeu Gasparetto, Angel Barajas and Carlos María Fernandez-Jardon

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for tickets in the Brazilian State Championships focussing in the impact generated by the brand teams as well as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for tickets in the Brazilian State Championships focussing in the impact generated by the brand teams as well as the play-off matches in the demand for tickets and, consequently, in the match day revenues.

Design/methodology/approach

An equations system by three-stage least square estimator is employed. The data set comprises 1,114 matches from Mineiro, Carioca and Paulista Championships over the seasons 2013-2015.

Findings

All explanatory variables increase both attendance and match day revenues. However, the most important goal is the distribution of wealth found. The presence of brand teams in those championships provides a financial aid for smaller teams.

Practical implications

The proposals from the mass media to exclude the brand teams and design those championships exclusively in play-off stages should not be implemented by the policymakers. On the contrary, rearranging the design of the competition with more matches between small teams and brand teams may help to all of them.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to introduce the Brazilian State Championships in the sport economics literature as well as evidences the redistribution effect of wealth among clubs.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Carlos M. Jardon and Maria Susana Martos

Emerging clusters, formed by small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) of slow growth and embryonic management systems present a different competitive advantage scheme. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

Emerging clusters, formed by small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) of slow growth and embryonic management systems present a different competitive advantage scheme. The purpose of this paper is to analyze relationships among components of intellectual capital within a model of competitive advantages in emerging clusters in a region of Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

An intellectual capital model in a competitive advantage scheme is defined. A sequential method based in PLS technique is suggested to select the model and estimate the parameters. A sample of 113 wood manufacturing SMEs in a region of Argentina was selected.

Findings

The competitive advantage scheme in emerging clusters of SMEs proposes that resources affect organizational capabilities; territory and organizational capabilities affect strategic factors which improve performance. In this scheme, human capital affects structural capital and structural capital generates relational capital. SMEs organize tangible resources and relational capital to build organizational capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is a cross‐section. The performance is subjectively measured by the satisfaction of the entrepreneurs with different items.

Practical implications

The paper establishes suggestions to strategies of the SMEs in emerging clusters and politics of developing countries. This paper enables practitioners and scholars to comprehend and make legitimate decisions and conclusions that can foster business growth.

Originality/value

The authors tested the impact of dimensions of intellectual capital on performance in emerging clusters of developing countries within a competitive advantage scheme, showing relationships among intellectual capital dimensions and competitive advantages. The analysis differentiates between intellectual capital dimension and organizational capabilities.

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