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1 – 10 of 297
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Miguel Morales, Carlos Correa, Juan Antonio Porro, Carlos Molpeceres and José Luis Ocaña

Laser shock peening (LSP) is mainly a mechanical process, but in some cases, it is performed without a protective coating and thermal effects are present near the surface…

Abstract

Purpose

Laser shock peening (LSP) is mainly a mechanical process, but in some cases, it is performed without a protective coating and thermal effects are present near the surface. The numerical study of thermo‐mechanical effects and process parameter influence in realistic conditions can be used to better understand the process.

Design/methodology/approach

A physically comprehensive numerical model (SHOCKLAS) has been developed to systematically study LSP processes with or without coatings starting from laser‐plasma interaction and coupled thermo‐mechanical target behavior. Several typical results of the developed SHOCKLAS numerical system are presented. In particular, the application of the model to the realistic simulation (full 3D dependence, non‐linear material behavior, thermal and mechanical effects, treatment over extended surfaces) of LSP treatments in the experimental conditions of the irradiation facility used by the authors is presented.

Findings

Target clamping has some influence on the results and needs to be properly simulated. An increase in laser spot radius and an increase in pressure produces an increase of the maximum compressive residual stress and also the depth of the compressive residual stress region. By increasing the pulse overlapping density, no major improvements are obtained if the pressure is high enough. The relative influence of thermal/mechanical effects shows that each effect has a different temporal scale and thermal effects are limited to a small region near the surface and compressive residual stresses very close to the surface level can be induced even without any protective coating through the application of adjacent pulses.

Originality/value

The paper presents numerical thermo‐mechanical study for LSP treatments without coating and a study of the influence of several process parameters on residual stress distribution with consideration of pulse overlapping.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Carlos E. Morales and Claudia Holtschlag

Postmaterialist values (autonomy, self‐expression, fulfilment of personal goals) have been shown to predict entrepreneurship at the country level. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Postmaterialist values (autonomy, self‐expression, fulfilment of personal goals) have been shown to predict entrepreneurship at the country level. This paper aims to expand previous research by testing the relationship between postmaterialism and entrepreneurship at the individual level across 39 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In a series of multilevel models, with individuals nested within countries, the paper tests whether individuals’ postmaterialist values predict the probability of becoming an entrepreneur after controlling for income level, age, gender and education level. To do this, Inglehart's 12‐item Postmaterialism‐index was used. Data was taken from the 1999‐2004 database of the World Value Survey on approximately forty‐five thousand subjects from 39 countries. Models with random intercepts and random slopes were calculated.

Findings

This paper presents evidence on three issues: postmaterialism decreases a person's likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur; the effect of postmaterialism on entrepreneurship varies across countries; and this effect is more negative in countries with high levels of entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

Theoretical: individuals with materialist values are more likely to be entrepreneurs than postmaterialist individuals. This finding provides support to the hypothesis that entrepreneurs are basically economically driven people. Practical: The efficacy of public policies to promote entrepreneurial activity could be overshadowed by more deeply‐rooted cultural orientations, postmaterialism in this case.

Originality/value

The relationship between postmaterialism and entrepreneurship has been studied previously using countries as the unit of analysis; this paper's main contribution is that it expands this line of research to the individual level of analysis.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Percy Marquina and Carlos E. Morales

The research study has three objectives. One is to provide empirical validation of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate abilities…

5472

Abstract

Purpose

The research study has three objectives. One is to provide empirical validation of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate abilities (CA) as an influential factor in socially responsible consumption. The second is to ascertain whether there are significant differences between CSR parameters estimated in the purchasing decisions of consumers from Peru and Spain. Finally, the authors aim to measure people's trade‐off between the social (CSR) and traditional (CA) features of their purchasing decisions in terms of their willingness to pay.

Design/methodology/approach

A discrete choice modelling experiment was used to test the relationship between CSR and CA, quantify consumers’ intention to purchase, and establish their willingness to pay for specific social features.

Findings

It was found that there is a positive relationship between CSR and CA regarding consumer behaviour and that Peruvian consumers seem to be more sensitive to CSR features of products than Spanish consumers. Moreover, the results show that the willingness to pay for each specific social feature seems to be contextually defined.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the ongoing debate regarding the importance of corporate social responsibility as an influential factor in consumers’ socially responsible consumption. It quantifies the social features of companies’ products and willingness to pay.

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Barbara J Stewart–Knox, Audrey Rankin, Brendan P Bunting, Lynn J Frewer, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Arnout R.H. Fischer, Rui Poínhos, Sharron Kuznesof, Mike J Gibney and John C. Mathers

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Randomised controlled trials identify causal links between variables but not why an outcome has occurred. This analysis sought to determine how psychological factors assessed at baseline influenced response to personalised nutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

Web-based, randomised, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across seven European countries. Volunteers, both male and female, aged over 18 years were randomised to either a non-personalised (control) or a personalised (treatment) dietary advice condition. Linear mixed model analysis with fixed effects was used to compare associations between internal and external health locus of control (HLoC), nutrition self-efficacy (NS-E) and self-report habit index (S-RHI) at baseline (N = 1444), with healthy eating index (HEI) and Mediterranean diet index (MDI) scores between conditions post-intervention (N = 763).

Findings

An increase in MDI scores was observed between baseline and six months in the treatment group which was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001), S-RHI (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p < 0.001). Increase in HEI between baseline and six months in the treatment group was associated with higher NS-E (p < 0.001) and external HLoC (p = 0.009). Interaction between time and condition indicated increased HEI scores (p < 0.001), which were associated with higher S-RHI scores in the treatment than control group (p = 0.032). Internal HLoC had no effect on MDI or HEI.

Originality/value

Psychological factors associated with behaviour change need consideration when tailoring dietary advice. Those with weaker habit strength will require communication focussed upon establishing dietary habits and support in integrating advised changes into daily routine. Information on habit strength can also be used to inform how progress towards dietary goals is monitored and fed back to the individual. Those with stronger habit strength are more likely to benefit from personalised nutrition.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Maísa Gomide Teixeira, Silvia Morales de Queiroz Caleman and Jean Carlos da Silva Américo

This study aims to analyze how multirational management relates to cooperatives’ corporate governance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze how multirational management relates to cooperatives’ corporate governance.

Design/methodology/approach

A typology of agricultural cooperatives’ potential for multirational management in relation to corporate governance is proposed. Coordinates based on data from assembly participation and separation of ownership and control are used to map cooperatives among these typologies. Four case studies representing each typology were conducted, allowing analysis of propositions.

Findings

By mapping the cooperatives from Mato Grosso do Sul, a reduced potential for multirational management is noted. By analyzing the four case studies, coded as Coop 1, 3, 13 and 16, this study found convergence with P1, P2 and P3. “Coop 1” shows signs of adopting exploitation practice. In “Coop 3,” evidence points to avoidance practice and, analyses of “Coop 13” indicates adoption of tolerance practice. In Coop 16, however, P4 could not be confirmed. Instead of polarizing practices, there is evidence of avoidance practice. Therefore, a positive relation between corporate governance and multirational management can partially be observed.

Originality/value

There are no records of a paper that has explored the relation of governance and multirational management. Therefore, this research broadens the understanding of how corporate governance can function in the context of cooperative organizations. As well, insight is given on how different mechanisms of corporate governance can influence organizations to adopt explicit or implicit and monorational or multirational methods of dealing with multiple rationalities.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Gustavo Morales-Alonso, Yilsy Núñez Guerrero, Juan Francisco Aguilera and Carlos Rodríguez-Monroy

This study aims at shedding light on entrepreneurial aspirations on both developed and developing economies, in terms of contextual and individual values. Among the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at shedding light on entrepreneurial aspirations on both developed and developing economies, in terms of contextual and individual values. Among the former, economic development and inequalities are sought after, while among the latter national culture is the variable under study.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used are extracted from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor for a panel of countries, where the entrepreneurial aspirations of individuals of each country are measured through the Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA). The influence of cultural values as defined by Hofstede (individualism-collectivism (IDV), masculinity–femininity (MAS) and uncertainty avoidance (UAI)), moderated by the development level of the country and the existing inequalities are analyzed through artificial neural network (ANN) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) techniques.

Findings

Results show that in the post-crisis era, entrepreneurial aspirations are negatively linked to individualism in developing countries. In developed countries, however, entrepreneurship is not linked to individualism but to inequalities.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurial aspirations have not been thoroughly studied in the post-crisis era. We prove that entrepreneurial orientations have changed, together with the world, in the last decade. Cultural differences between countries tend to moderate, especially among developed ones, which speak of homogenization of national cultures. In this regard, inequalities are the determining factor. Contrarily, in developing countries, the differences in individualism are noticeable when it comes to analyzing entrepreneurial aspirations.

Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Eduardo Silva

The resurgence of left governments in Latin America raised expectations for the reincorporation of popular sectors broadly writ into the political arena from which they…

Abstract

The resurgence of left governments in Latin America raised expectations for the reincorporation of popular sectors broadly writ into the political arena from which they largely had been excluded by governments committed to Washington Consensus policies. This was particularly true in cases where mobilization by broad-based, heterogeneous social movement coalitions set the stage for their election. In some cases highly contentious cycles of mass mobilization in the context of economic crisis and party system collapse opened opportunities for outsider left candidates and their new political movements and parties to sweep into office. This was the case of Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, and, partially, Argentina. In other cases institutional continuity prevailed but mass discontent with low average growth, increasing poverty and inequality, and declining opportunities drove the electorate to vote for more established left parties. Brazil, Uruguay, and Chile are the emblematic cases. In all cases, to a greater or lesser degree, there was an assumption of a closer alignment between left governments and social movements than before. This chapter tests such assumption in the case of Bolivia because it exhibited exceptionally favorable conditions for a close alignment of social movements and the government of Evo Morales, the country’s first president of indigenous origin.

Details

Voices of Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-546-3

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2022

Gustavo Morales-Alonso, José Antonio Blanco-Serrano, Yilsy Núñez Guerrero, Mercedes Grijalvo and Francisco José Blanco Jimenez

This research aims at the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) framework – How can cognitive traits for entrepreneurship be used…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims at the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) framework – How can cognitive traits for entrepreneurship be used by incubators and accelerators?

Design/methodology/approach

In this research the authors analyze the factors that catalyze the founding of new technology-based firms. From a practitioner stand-point, the GEM posits that these factors can be classified as contextual, social and individual factors. The present study focuses on the latter, looking into how demographic characteristics, possession of human capital and cognitive traits interrelate. The authors rely on a sample of 141 technological new ventures being incubated in Madrid, Spain, which is analyzed with the multilayer perceptron technique.

Findings

The results show that cognitive traits, as defined in the TPB, act as the “last mile” in the entrepreneurial decision process, while demographic and human capital factors appear to antecede them. These results are relevant for incubators and accelerators, which now gain a better, more complete understanding of success factors of their incubatees.

Originality/value

This research deals both with practitioners' view of entrepreneurship and with scientific literature, intertwining both with the purpose of providing valuable information for incubators and accelerators.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Carlos Morales, Steven A. Brieger, Dirk De Clercq and Felicia Josephine Martin

This study investigates the differential likelihood of being an entrepreneur among immigrants to and natives of a country. Using a mixed embeddedness perspective, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the differential likelihood of being an entrepreneur among immigrants to and natives of a country. Using a mixed embeddedness perspective, the authors outline how economic, sociocultural, and institutional embeddedness influence the likelihood of entrepreneurial activity exhibited by immigrant and native residents.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests of the hypotheses rely on a multilevel cross-country research design that uses secondary data from different sources.

Findings

Compared with their native counterparts, immigrants are more likely to start and run their own businesses, and an array of environmental factors influences this likelihood. The level of economic development and equality laws increase it; the abundance of market opportunities in an economy, entrepreneurship culture and cultural collectivism diminish it.

Practical implications

The findings provide policy makers and stakeholders with valuable insights into pertinent environmental factors that determine the differential propensities of immigrant and native residents to become entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This study provides an expanded understanding of the connection between being an immigrant and entrepreneurial activity, by explicating the influences of country-level conditions.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Fátima García-López, Sara Martínez-Cardama and Ana María Morales-García

The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of a catalogue of museum objects associated with two media art collections. The proposal was formulated under the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of a catalogue of museum objects associated with two media art collections. The proposal was formulated under the Voremetur Project “Vocabularios para una Red de Archivos y Colecciones de Media Art y sus efectos: metaliteracy y turismo de conocimiento” (thesauri for networked media art archives and collections and their effects: metaliteracy and knowledge tourism) (HAR2016-75949-C2-1-R). Collection characteristics and typologies are discussed along with the difficulties encountered and the interoperability of the platform chosen with other Web resources that foster visibility.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes a case study and a review of the protocols and standards used to catalogue media art collections. Digitised descriptions were processed with Omeka software in conjunction with the expanded Dublin Core metadata schema. This paper also reviews the literature on the conceptualisation of these collections and the challenges involved in their conservation and management.

Findings

The result was the creation of a digital repository for two media art collections: one linked to Espacio P; and the other the outcome of digitising part of the MIDECIANT collection (Archivo Media ART AEMA).

Originality/value

The methodology innovates the description and analysis of museum objects on media art in Spain. The proposed cataloguing method can be replicated and used to describe similar collections and lays the grounds for creating a Spanish network of media art archives and collections.

Details

Collection and Curation, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9326

Keywords

1 – 10 of 297