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1 – 10 of 74
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2018

Catarina Grillo, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, Carla S.E. Marques and João J. Ferreira

The 2008 global financial crisis showed that the ability to innovate is a key management skill and that approaches to assessing the innovation capability of small- and…

Abstract

Purpose

The 2008 global financial crisis showed that the ability to innovate is a key management skill and that approaches to assessing the innovation capability of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need to be as realistic as possible. This study aims to address the latter practical need through a sociotechnical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a combined use of cognitive mapping and the Decision EXpert (DEX) technique, and grounded on the insights generated by a panel of SME managers and entrepreneurs in two intensive group meetings, a knowledge-based assessment system for evaluating SMEs’ innovation capability was created, tested and validated.

Findings

The knowledge-based assessment system identified the most innovative SMEs in a sample of companies. The “plus-minus-1” and dominance analyses carried out provided further support for the results.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed system is extremely versatile but process-oriented and idiosyncratic in nature, meaning that extrapolations to other contexts need to be done with due caution.

Practical implications

The panel of SME decision makers agreed that the system improves the current methods used to evaluate SMEs’ innovation capability, contributing to a more informed perspective on management issues. The panel members also noted that the proposed system functions as a learning mechanism, facilitating the development of well-focused suggestions for improvements SMEs can make.

Originality/value

The integrated use of cognitive maps and rule-base decisions contributes to a better understanding of how to assess SMEs’ innovation capability. No prior work reporting the integrated use of these two techniques in this study context has been found.

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2018

Bernardo M.S. Castela, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, João J.M. Ferreira and Carla S.E. Marques

The aftermath of the recent financial crisis has shown that the ability to innovate is a vital management skill and that the methodologies used to evaluate innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

The aftermath of the recent financial crisis has shown that the ability to innovate is a vital management skill and that the methodologies used to evaluate innovation capability within small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) should be as holistic and integrative as possible. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue through the combined use of cognitive mapping and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

Design/methodology/approach

Cognitive mapping and multiple criteria decision analysis have proved over the years to be effective in handling a wide range of complex decision problems. Following a socio-technical approach, a non-parametric method of evaluating SME innovation capability – based on the results of group meetings with a panel of information technology entrepreneurs and SME chief executive officers – was created, tested and validated.

Findings

The methodological processes adopted in this study provide promising results for decision makers seeking to identify the most innovative SMEs. Furthermore, the sensitivity analyses carried out also supported the findings.

Research limitations/implications

This study confirms the usefulness of integrating cognitive mapping and the AHP to facilitate evaluations of SME innovation capability. However, due to the process-oriented nature of the research, extrapolations without proper adjustments are not recommended.

Practical implications

The panel members who participated in this study consider the proposal extremely versatile and see great potential for further applications in the measurement of SME innovation capability.

Originality/value

The combined use of cognitive mapping and the AHP offers a holistic and well-informed perspective on the issue in question. The authors know of no prior work reporting this approach in the same research context.

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Sara M. Martins, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, João J. M. Ferreira and Carla S.E. Marques

The prosthodontics sector is facing major challenges because of scientific and technological advances that imply a clearer definition of lines of action and decision…

525

Abstract

Purpose

The prosthodontics sector is facing major challenges because of scientific and technological advances that imply a clearer definition of lines of action and decision making processes. Measuring quality of service in this sector is a complex decision problem since the perceptions of three main players need to be considered: patients, dentists and dental technicians. This study sought to develop an artificial-intelligence-based (AI-based) method for assessing service quality in the dental prosthesis sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Using strategic options development and analysis (SODA), which is grounded on cognitive mapping, and the measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH), a constructivist decision support system was designed to facilitate the assessment of service quality in the dental prosthesis sector. The system was tested, and the results were validated both by the members of an expert panel and by the vice-president of the Portuguese association of dental prosthesis technicians.

Findings

The methodological process developed in this study is extremely versatile and its practical application facilitated the development of an empirically robust evaluation model in this study context. Specifically, the profile analyses carried out in actual clinics allowed the cases in which improvements are needed to be identified.

Originality/value

Although already applied in the fields of AI and decision making, no prior work reporting the use of SODA and MACBETH for assessing service quality in the prosthodontics sector has been found.

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Carla S.E. Marques, Gina Santos, Anderson Galvão, Carla Mascarenhas and Elsa Justino

This study aims to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of higher education students, as mediated by gender and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of higher education students, as mediated by gender and family history. A survey tool for measuring EO was developed and used in one university. The responses were processed using statistical methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected with an online questionnaire distributed to students of engineering and business and social sciences in the past year of their degree program at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some respondents had a class in entrepreneurship, while others did not have it.

Findings

The results highlight that EE generally has a greater impact on business and social sciences students. Family background and gender are moderating variables with a positive influence on individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO).

Practical implications

This study’s main practical implication is that evidence was found that universities need to develop more effective didactic approaches to EE. These must take into account new market demands and students’ profile and always taking into account their different academic areas and levels of previous EE.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to filling a gap in the literature by identifying the importance of EE, gender and family background to the development of IEO in students of different academic programs (i.e. engineering, business and social sciences).

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

Carla Mascarenhas, Carla S.E. Marques, Anderson R. Galvão, Daniela Carlucci, Pedro F. Falcão and Fernando A.F. Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to examine how important technology transfer offices (TTOs) – which in Portuguese are called “industrial property support offices” or GAPIs …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how important technology transfer offices (TTOs) – which in Portuguese are called “industrial property support offices” or GAPIs – are in terms of fostering patent applications and technology transfer in countries characterized by low performance records in these activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Among the existing 23 Portuguese GAPIs, only eight agreed to provide answers to a semi-structured questionnaire survey. Content analysis was performed on the data collected using NVivo software.

Findings

The results show that GAPIs play an important role in the innovation life-cycle, speeding up the transfer of knowledge and technology to society. The regulation of intellectual property (IP) ownership and royalty sharing with inventors was identified as a major result, strengthening entrepreneurial universities’ role. In addition, after the GAPIs were created, networks were formed that facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience and promote the development of further collaborative partnerships.

Practical implications

This study’s results offer new insights into how GAPIs contribute to socio-economic growth by fostering more entrepreneurial universities and increasing the transfer of technology to society. In addition, these offices promote the creation of networks between GAPIs, enabling them to leverage universities’ potential for participation in socio-economic development.

Originality/value

No previous research has focused on GAPIs/TTOs’ point of view regarding policies that enhance IP and technology/knowledge transfer.

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Fernando A.F. Ferreira, Sérgio P. Santos, Carla S.E. Marques and João Ferreira

Considered the largest investment for most households, buying a house requires careful and transparent analysis by all parties involved in the transaction. The aim of this…

1046

Abstract

Purpose

Considered the largest investment for most households, buying a house requires careful and transparent analysis by all parties involved in the transaction. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodological framework allowing for the readjustment of trade-offs among risk evaluation criteria, considered of extreme importance in the lending decision process of mortgage loans.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has proved over the years to be effective and versatile in handling compensations among criteria. Measuring attractiveness is applied by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH) to a pre-established structure of credit-scoring criteria for mortgage lending risk evaluation. This pre-established structure is currently used by one of the largest banks in Portugal.

Findings

The framework allowed the authors to provide the credit experts who participated in the study with a more informed, transparent and accurate mortgage-lending risk-evaluation system. The sensitivity and robustness analyses carried out also helped in promoting discussion and supporting the readjustments made.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows the usefulness of using the MACBETH approach to assist credit analysts in making better informed decisions, and opens avenues for further research. However, due to the dependence on the participants involved, extrapolations without proper caution are discouraged.

Practical implications

The credit analysts who participated in this study considered the framework more discerning in terms of Basel directives.

Originality/value

The integration of MACBETH and credit-scoring mechanisms holds great potential for risk assessment and decision support. No prior work reporting the application of MACBETH in terms of mortgage-lending risk-evaluation is known.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Carla Mascarenhas, Carla Susana Marques, Anderson Rei Galvão and Gina Santos

This study aims to explore and analyse the literature, related to the Entrepreneurial University, published in the ISI Web of Science, from 1900 to present. The objectives…

1221

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore and analyse the literature, related to the Entrepreneurial University, published in the ISI Web of Science, from 1900 to present. The objectives of this paper are, first, to describe how this field of research is organised in terms of publications, authors and sources (i.e. documents), and, second, to identify the main references cited and ways in which they are grouped (i.e. clusters). In addition, this paper discusses how this literature presents challenges. Namely, from this bibliometric study, what has already been studied and the limits of these studies, as well as the research opportunities for this area, can be understood.

Design/methodology/approach

The documents obtained from a search of the ISI Web of Science were subjected to a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software.

Findings

A systematic literature review showed that universities are increasingly dedicated to the commercialisation of knowledge. The results include three clusters: Cluster one – “Entrepreneurial Universities” focuses on changes in the university paradigm; Cluster two – “Academic Entrepreneurship” refers to the commercialisation of knowledge; and Cluster three – “Creation of Technology-Based Companies” focuses on spin-off creation.

Originality/value

By studying the citation profile of documents on the entrepreneurial university, this study has contributed to a better understanding of the flow of production and scientific practices since the beginning of the 21st century. This study also examined research tendencies to identify the emergent areas of this field.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Carla Marques, Carmem Leal, João Ferreira and Vanessa Ratten

The present study aims to identify women microentrepreneurs’ motivations that may influence the legalisation of their businesses and their capacity to reconcile the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to identify women microentrepreneurs’ motivations that may influence the legalisation of their businesses and their capacity to reconcile the demands of family and work in a developing country (i.e. Brazil).

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on women’s microentrepreneurial initiatives in three northern Brazil cities: Salvador da Bahia (Bahia), Fortaleza (Cear) and Belm (Par). Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse textual data from the 30 interviews. The content was standardised and subsequently analysed using NVivo and IBM’s Many Eyes data visualisation software.

Findings

The results suggest that these women opt for legalised individual entrepreneurship to access the benefits of formalising their businesses and to search for mechanisms that encourage a work–family balance. However, in the more rural city studied, women show greater resistance to, and more distrust of, the benefits of legalising their business, as opposed to women from the two more urban cities.

Practical implications

The results contribute to a better understanding of women’s motivations to legalise their microbusiness. In Brazil, the writing and passing of a law geared towards this type of entrepreneur (e.g. individual microentrepreneurs) has had a quite positive effect on the legalisation of businesses, in particular for women. However, this law has had a more positive effect in urban areas, which suggests that further dissemination is needed of the benefits of formalising microbusinesses in rural areas.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research that seeks to understand better entrepreneurial preferences (i.e. formal vs informal) and the role played by gender and legal, financial and family contexts.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2018

Anderson Galvão, Carla Susana Marques and Carlos Peixeira Marques

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to research on individual entrepreneurial intention (IEI) by assessing the importance of entrepreneurship education to students…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to research on individual entrepreneurial intention (IEI) by assessing the importance of entrepreneurship education to students in vocational training programmes and using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to analyse these students’ entrepreneurial intentions. The family background of the students and their exposure to entrepreneurship subject matter were included as antecedents of TPB components and IEI.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the research model, the primary data were collected with questionnaires distributed to students in their last year of vocational training programmes with and without entrepreneurship coursework, in a region of Northern Portugal. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results show that TPB dimensions substantially contribute to explaining students’ IEI. However, their family background makes only a minor contribution, and exposure to entrepreneurship education has no influence on IEI.

Research limitations/implications

Given these results, the authors propose a broader discussion is needed of the importance of introducing business classes into the curricula of vocational training programmes.

Originality/value

This research’s results show that IEI models need to assign greater importance to variables related to previous exposure to entrepreneurial experiences through direct family members. The findings contribute to a fuller understanding of IEI and the factors that precede the formation of this intention among students in training programmes.

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Anderson Galvão, Carla Marques, Mário Franco and Carla Mascarenhas

Based on resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, the purpose of this paper is to understand the importance of networks for start-ups and…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, the purpose of this paper is to understand the importance of networks for start-ups and the role incubators play in these companies’ networking processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with the entrepreneurs responsible for three start-ups and the heads of their incubators. The interview data were subjected to content analysis using NVivo software.

Findings

The results indicate that start-ups often resort to networks to overcome their weak reputations and scarce resources. Incubators play a quite important role in this process since they promote events that encourage the creation of partnerships and networks either between start-ups within the same incubator or with external institutions. In addition, the results reveal that most cooperation networks are informal and that they fulfil needs that start-ups are not yet able to meet themselves, for example, when they compete for public tenders.

Practical implications

The present study explored this topic from two perspectives (i.e. start-ups and incubators). This approach facilitated the identification of the main features upon which start-ups depend, the entities to which these companies turn for help, the kind of communication in which they usually engage, the primary advantages of establishing cooperation networks and the main types of support given by incubators.

Originality/value

Most studies of cooperation networks are based on transaction cost economics, a resource-based perspective and/or institutional theory. In contrast, this study innovated by applying resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, which provided an alternative explanation regarding cooperation networks’ importance to start-ups and incubators’ roles in these companies’ networking processes.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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