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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Carla Ruiz-Mafe, Jose Tronch and Silvia Sanz-Blas

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of emotions and social influences on loyalty formation towards online travel communities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of emotions and social influences on loyalty formation towards online travel communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The individual (perceived risk) and social (subjective norm and social presence) antecedents of emotions as well as the impact of emotions on attitude and loyalty towards online travel communities are tested through structural equation modelling techniques. The sample consists of 385 active users of online travel communities in Spain.

Findings

Data analysis shows that perceived privacy and security risk elicit negative emotions such as stress, frustration and fear towards the online travel community. Normative influences (subjective norm) and feeling the presence of other community members (social presence) boost positive emotions towards the online travel community. Interpersonal influences have a positive effect on subjective norm but not external influences. Positive and negative emotions affect preferences towards the online travel community (attitudes) as proposed by social impact theory. Subjective norm and attitude have a direct influence on loyalty towards an online travel community, confirming previous research grounded on theory of reasoned action models.

Originality/value

Despite the crucial impact of consumers’ affective states on loyalty formation, research on social media is mainly focused on the technological nature of consumer information exchanges, neglecting other drivers of consumer behaviour beyond the technology employed. This paper develops a model that integrates the relationships between consumer emotions and their individual (perceived risk) and social (social presence and subjective norm) antecedents and outcome variables (attitude and loyalty). The role of social influences is analysed, assessing the conjoint impact of one-way communication (interpersonal influences and mass media) and Web 2.0 communications (social presence) on positive emotions and loyalty formation towards the online travel community.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2019

Alberto Badenes-Rocha, Carla Ruiz-Mafé and Enrique Bigné

This study aims to analyze the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) customer perceptions, customer–company identification and customer trust on customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) customer perceptions, customer–company identification and customer trust on customer engagement (CE), paying special attention to the moderating effects of two types of social media communication, firm-generated content and user-generated content.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed-methods’ approach. First, a single-factor experiment using Twitter posts as stimuli with 227 hotel guests. The structural model was analyzed using SmartPLS 3.2.7. Second, structured in-depth interviews were undertaken with three hotel industry experts to complement the conclusions of the quantitative study.

Findings

The results show that when a customer trusts a hotel and identifies with its corporate values, CSR tweets generate CE toward the hotel. CSR communications made by customers reinforce the impact of CSR tweets on customer trust more than CSR tweets posted by hotels. Hotel industry experts give insights to explain these results in different types of hotels.

Practical implications

CSR communications made through Twitter affect customers’ perceptions of a hotel’s CSR activities and customer trust in hotels, especially if they originate from a source external to the company. This result can be of use for hotel managers who have not previously given importance to active CSR communications or the interactivity of social media.

Originality/value

The authors show the moderating effect of user-generated content in the relationship between CSR customer perceptions and customer trust, thus contributing to the research into the effectiveness of social media. They use a mixed-methods’ approach to increase the validity of the results.

Propósito

Este estudio analiza el papel de las percepciones de RSC, la identificación cliente-empresa (CCI) y la confianza en el engagement del cliente (CE), prestando especial atención al efecto moderador de dos tipos de comunicación en redes sociales: Contenido Generado por la Empresa (FGC) y Contenido Generado por el Usuario (UGC).

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se emplean métodos mixtos: un experimento de un factor usando publicaciones de Twitter como estímulo con 227 huéspedes del hotel, cuyo modelo estructural se analizó con SmartPLS 3.2.7., y 3 entrevistas en profundidad con expertos de la industria hotelera.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que, cuando un cliente confía en el hotel y se identifica con sus valores corporativos, los tweets de RSC generan engagement. La comunicación de RSC emitida por usuarios refuerza el impacto de los tweets de RSC en la confianza del cliente más que los tweets publicados por hoteles. Los expertos de la industria hotelera aportan nociones para explicar estos resultados en diferentes tipos de hoteles.

Implicaciones prácticas

La comunicación de RSC realizada a través de Twitter afecta las percepciones del cliente sobre las actividades de RSC del hotel y la confianza en el mismo, especialmente si proceden de una fuente externa a la empresa. Este resultado puede ser útil para gerentes de hoteles que no se benefician de la comunicación activa de RSC o la interactividad de las redes sociales.

Originalidad/valor

Se valida el efecto moderador del UGC en la relación entre las percepciones de RSC y la confianza de los clientes, contribuyendo así a la investigación sobre la efectividad de las redes sociales. Se emplea un diseño mixto para incrementar la validez de los resultados.

Palabras claves

Comunicación de RSC, Engagement del Consumidor, Fuente del mensaje, Contenido generado por la empresa, Contenido generado por el usuario, Twitter, Compromiso con el cliente

Tipo de artículo

Trabajo de investigación

Details

Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Carla Ruiz-Mafe, Enrique Bigné-Alcañiz and Rafael Currás-Pérez

This paper analyses the interrelationships between emotions, the cognitive information cues of online reviews and intention to follow the advice obtained from digital…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the interrelationships between emotions, the cognitive information cues of online reviews and intention to follow the advice obtained from digital platforms, paying special attention to the moderating effect of the sequencing of review valence.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 830 Spanish Tripadvisor users. In a two-step approach, a measurement model was estimated and a structural model analysed to test the proposed hypotheses. SmartPLS 3.0 software was used. The moderating effect of sequencing of reviews is tested.

Findings

The data analysis showed a bias effect of review sequence on the impact of online information cues and emotions on intention to follow advice obtained from Tripadvisor. When the online reviews of a restaurant begin with positive commentaries, their perceived persuasiveness is a stronger driver of the pleasure and arousal elicited by online reviews than when they begin with negative reviews. On the other hand, the perceived helpfulness of online reviews only triggers arousal when the user reads negative, followed by positive, comments. The impact of pleasure on intention to follow the advice provided in an online travel community is higher with positive-negative than with negative-positive sequences.

Originality/value

While researchers have demonstrated the benefits of customer reviews on company sales, a largely uninvestigated issue is the interplay between emotions and cognitive information cues in the processing of online reviews. This is one of the first studies to examine the moderating effect of conflicting reviews on the impact of emotions and cognitive information cues on consumer intention to follow the advice obtained from digital services.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Blanca Hernandez-Ortega, Joaquin Aldas-Manzano, Carla Ruiz-Mafe and Silvia Sanz-Blas

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of perceived value on post-acceptance behaviour for users of advanced mobile messaging services (AMMS). The paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of perceived value on post-acceptance behaviour for users of advanced mobile messaging services (AMMS). The paper also compares differences in the influence of perceived value on satisfaction and of satisfaction on loyalty to AMMS in Spain and Greece, to test the moderating effect of culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Partial least squares path modelling is used to test the model. Perceived value is modelled as a multidimensional reflective construct with four dimensions. Culture is studied at a national level. Differences between countries are tested using the multigroup analysis approach proposed by Henseler et al. (2009).

Findings

Perceived value contributes significantly to satisfaction. Satisfaction also has a significant effect on loyalty. Regarding the moderating effect of culture, the influence of perceived value on satisfaction is higher in Greece than in Spain. The authors report similar findings for the effect of satisfaction on loyalty, demonstrating the relevant moderating role of cultures with different degrees of masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and collectivism.

Practical implications

This cross-cultural comparison enables mobile phone companies to understand how to provide the greatest value with AMMS in each country in order to increase user satisfaction and loyalty to the service.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that develops cross-cultural research to analyse the post-acceptance of mobile services. It analyses the effect of perceived value and satisfaction, making an original comparison of two countries generally considered too similar to be compared.

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Carla Ruiz-Mafe, Jose Martí-Parreño and Silvia Sanz-Blas

With the rapid expansion of social networking sites, researchers and practitioners are challenged to understand drivers of customer loyalty in fan pages. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid expansion of social networking sites, researchers and practitioners are challenged to understand drivers of customer loyalty in fan pages. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main drivers of Facebook fan page loyalty in order to promote the creation of affective links and long-term relationships with users.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of trust, fan page content dependency, attitude and consumer beliefs on loyalty to fan pages was tested through structural equation modelling techniques. The sample consisted of 691 Spanish Facebook users.

Findings

Data analysis shows that attitude appears as a key variable in increasing loyalty to fan pages. The empirical study also found a significant positive influence of perceived usefulness, attitude, trust and dependency on loyalty in fan pages, and an indirect influence of perceived ease of use mediated by perceived usefulness and attitude.

Practical implications

This research enables managers to know what aspects to highlight in their communication strategies to increase fan page use and positive word-of-mouth. Research findings show managers that Facebook fan page content should provide valuable information, be fun and foster user interactions in order to improve user attitude and loyalty. Practical recommendations to reinforce consumer trust on Facebook fan pages are also provided.

Originality/value

There are still too few studies that analyse the effects of trust and fan page dependency on fan page users’ loyalty. This work aims to combine the influence of dependency on fan pages, trust, attitude and Technology Acceptance Model beliefs in order to construct an improved model for fan page loyalty formation.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Carla Ruiz Mafé and Silvia Sanz Blas

To analyse key drivers of television dependency and its impact on teleshopping adoption.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyse key drivers of television dependency and its impact on teleshopping adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

The applicability of the media dependency scale is tested in the Spanish market. The impact of demographics, television exposure and television affinity on television dependency is analysed together with behavioural changes deriving from television dependency (willingness to teleshopping).

Findings

Data analysis shows that the media dependency scale needs to be adapted to the Spanish market and Spanish televiewers show intermediate levels of television dependency. Dependent televiewers are mainly mature, feel high‐television affinity and have high levels of exposure as televiewers. Television dependency determines teleshopping adoption, with the most relevant factor being that of searching guides for decision taking and fun.

Practical implications

This research enables companies to know the different objectives which television can help consumers to attain and, therefore, what aspects to highlight in their direct marketing strategies. Television agents should exploit the dimensions television offers to increase individual dependency and message effectiveness. The significant influence that “decision taking and fun” exerts on willingness to teleshopping shows managers that program contents become a key tool to increase future television purchases.

Originality/value

Despite dramatic online differences were discovered between television dependent and non‐dependent consumers, very limited research has been conducted to examine them. There are still no enough studies that analyse the background and effects of television dependency on the non‐purchasing televiewers behaviour. This paper analyses the background of television dependency and its influence on future purchase intentions of non‐buyer Spanish televiewers.

Details

Direct Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-5933

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Carla Ruiz Mafé and Silvia Sanz Blas

The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teleshopping adoption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teleshopping adoption.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of demographics, televiewing behaviour, non‐store shopping previous experience and attitude to teleshopping in present and future teleshopping decisions is analysed in the paper.

Findings

Data analysis shows that attitude towards teleshopping and teleshopping genre exposure are the main predictors of teleshopping behaviour, while consumer attitude towards teleshopping and previous experience as user of non‐store shopping channels (catalogue and television) are the most relevant factors influencing future teleshopping intention.

Practical implications

This research enables companies to know the key drivers influencing teleshopping adoption and, therefore, what aspects to highlight in their marketing strategies. Companies that use television as a shopping channel must increase their presence on the television market and improve televiewers' opinion of the teleshopping system as it would allow televiewers to maintain a relation with the teleshopping genre and to increase their probability of purchase. The significant influence that non‐store previous experience exerts on willingness to teleshop shows managers that the complementary use of other non‐store shopping systems becomes a key tool to increase teleshopping in the future.

Originality/value

Despite dramatic differences being discovered between non‐store shoppers, very limited research has been conducted to examine them. There are still not enough studies that examine the demographic, behavioural and attitudinal differences among televiewers and teleshoppers. This paper analyses the background of teleshopping and key drivers of future teleshopping decisions among Spanish consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Rafael Currás‐Pérez, Carla Ruiz‐Mafé and Silvia Sanz‐Blas

The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of social networking site loyalty, paying special attention to the roles of user attitude, perceived risk and satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of social networking site loyalty, paying special attention to the roles of user attitude, perceived risk and satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of uses and gratifications of social networking sites, attitude, perceived risks and satisfaction on social networking site loyalty is tested through structural equation modelling techniques. The sample consisted of 811 Spanish social networking site users collected through a personal survey. Risk is measured as a formative construct.

Findings

Data analysis shows that attitude is a key variable in increasing satisfaction and loyalty towards social networking sites. Sociability and entertainment gratifications and perceived risks (psychological, time loss and social) are the main drivers of user attitude towards social networking sites.

Practical implications

This research enables managers to know what aspects to highlight in their communication strategies to increase social networking site use and positive word‐of‐mouth. The research findings show managers that social networking site content should provide fun and foster user interactions in order to improve user attitude. Practical recommendations to increase social networking site satisfaction and loyalty and guidelines to reduce perceived risk dimensions are also provided.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of social networking sites for companies, only limited work has been done to identify motivators and barriers of social networking site loyalty. This work aims to combine the influence of gratifications provided by social networking sites, perceived risks, attitude and satisfaction in order to construct an improved model for social networking site loyalty formation. Furthermore risk is measured as a formative construct because there is no reason to expect that risk dimensions in social networking site use are correlated.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

José Martí Parreño, Silvia Sanz‐Blas, Carla Ruiz‐Mafé and Joaquin Aldás‐Manzano

The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers' attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers' attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance.

Design/methodology/approach

A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

Findings show that entertainment, irritation and usefulness are key drivers of teenagers' attitude toward mobile advertising. Moreover, perceived usefulness reduces irritation. The authors' model also suggests that improving teenagers' attitude toward mobile advertisements is a key factor for teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance.

Practical implications

This research offers practical implications for marketing managers interested in targeting mobile advertising campaigns to teenagers. Marketers should take care of the number and frequency of messages being sent in order to avoid teenagers being irritated by their advertising attempts. Marketers can improve attitude through message personalization, content relevance and enriching the sales messages with entertainment features.

Originality/value

While consumer‐driven factors such as perceived control or trust have deserved a lot of attention, little research has focused on the role of emotions on attitude and behaviour towards mobile advertising. This paper combines the influence of cognitive and affective message‐driven factors on teenagers' attitude and behaviour towards mobile advertising.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 113 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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