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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Carla Mascarenhas, Carla Susana Marques, Anderson Rei Galvão and Gina Santos

This study aims to explore and analyse the literature, related to the Entrepreneurial University, published in the ISI Web of Science, from 1900 to present. The objectives…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore and analyse the literature, related to the Entrepreneurial University, published in the ISI Web of Science, from 1900 to present. The objectives of this paper are, first, to describe how this field of research is organised in terms of publications, authors and sources (i.e. documents), and, second, to identify the main references cited and ways in which they are grouped (i.e. clusters). In addition, this paper discusses how this literature presents challenges. Namely, from this bibliometric study, what has already been studied and the limits of these studies, as well as the research opportunities for this area, can be understood.

Design/methodology/approach

The documents obtained from a search of the ISI Web of Science were subjected to a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software.

Findings

A systematic literature review showed that universities are increasingly dedicated to the commercialisation of knowledge. The results include three clusters: Cluster one – “Entrepreneurial Universities” focuses on changes in the university paradigm; Cluster two – “Academic Entrepreneurship” refers to the commercialisation of knowledge; and Cluster three – “Creation of Technology-Based Companies” focuses on spin-off creation.

Originality/value

By studying the citation profile of documents on the entrepreneurial university, this study has contributed to a better understanding of the flow of production and scientific practices since the beginning of the 21st century. This study also examined research tendencies to identify the emergent areas of this field.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Carla Mascarenhas, Carla S.E. Marques, Anderson R. Galvão, Daniela Carlucci, Pedro F. Falcão and Fernando A.F. Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to examine how important technology transfer offices (TTOs) – which in Portuguese are called “industrial property support offices” or GAPIs …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how important technology transfer offices (TTOs) – which in Portuguese are called “industrial property support offices” or GAPIs – are in terms of fostering patent applications and technology transfer in countries characterized by low performance records in these activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Among the existing 23 Portuguese GAPIs, only eight agreed to provide answers to a semi-structured questionnaire survey. Content analysis was performed on the data collected using NVivo software.

Findings

The results show that GAPIs play an important role in the innovation life-cycle, speeding up the transfer of knowledge and technology to society. The regulation of intellectual property (IP) ownership and royalty sharing with inventors was identified as a major result, strengthening entrepreneurial universities’ role. In addition, after the GAPIs were created, networks were formed that facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience and promote the development of further collaborative partnerships.

Practical implications

This study’s results offer new insights into how GAPIs contribute to socio-economic growth by fostering more entrepreneurial universities and increasing the transfer of technology to society. In addition, these offices promote the creation of networks between GAPIs, enabling them to leverage universities’ potential for participation in socio-economic development.

Originality/value

No previous research has focused on GAPIs/TTOs’ point of view regarding policies that enhance IP and technology/knowledge transfer.

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Carla S.E. Marques, Gina Santos, Anderson Galvão, Carla Mascarenhas and Elsa Justino

This study aims to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of higher education students, as mediated by gender and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship education (EE) on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of higher education students, as mediated by gender and family history. A survey tool for measuring EO was developed and used in one university. The responses were processed using statistical methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected with an online questionnaire distributed to students of engineering and business and social sciences in the past year of their degree program at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some respondents had a class in entrepreneurship, while others did not have it.

Findings

The results highlight that EE generally has a greater impact on business and social sciences students. Family background and gender are moderating variables with a positive influence on individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO).

Practical implications

This study’s main practical implication is that evidence was found that universities need to develop more effective didactic approaches to EE. These must take into account new market demands and students’ profile and always taking into account their different academic areas and levels of previous EE.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to filling a gap in the literature by identifying the importance of EE, gender and family background to the development of IEO in students of different academic programs (i.e. engineering, business and social sciences).

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2020

Carla Mascarenhas, Luis Mendes, Carla Marques and Anderson Galvão

Despite the recognised importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in higher education institutions (HEIs), research concerning CSR’s influence on employees…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the recognised importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in higher education institutions (HEIs), research concerning CSR’s influence on employees’ attitudes and behaviours is still understudied. Grounded in the theory of social identity, this study aims to explore CSR’s impact on employees’ work engagement, job satisfaction and organisational identification in an HEI context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a northern Portugal public HEI through a self-administered questionnaire distributed to both teaching and supporting staff. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was applied to data collected from 171 employees, using the partial least squares-SEM approach.

Findings

Overall, the findings show that CSR is strongly associated with work engagement, job satisfaction, identification with the organisation and perceived organisational support, confirming the hypothesised influence of HEI’s CSR development efforts on study-related attitudes.

Practical implications

Findings reinforce the need for HEIs to integrate CSR and human resource strategies and to pay special attention to CSR communication strategies.

Social implications

Findings reinforce the need for HEI to develop adequate CSR strategies because these have a significant influence on employees’ satisfaction at work, and thus on employees’ well-being in general.

Originality/value

This study contributes to attenuate the lack of literature on CSR’s impacts on employee behaviours.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Anderson Galvão, Carla Marques, Mário Franco and Carla Mascarenhas

Based on resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, the purpose of this paper is to understand the importance of networks for start-ups and…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, the purpose of this paper is to understand the importance of networks for start-ups and the role incubators play in these companies’ networking processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with the entrepreneurs responsible for three start-ups and the heads of their incubators. The interview data were subjected to content analysis using NVivo software.

Findings

The results indicate that start-ups often resort to networks to overcome their weak reputations and scarce resources. Incubators play a quite important role in this process since they promote events that encourage the creation of partnerships and networks either between start-ups within the same incubator or with external institutions. In addition, the results reveal that most cooperation networks are informal and that they fulfil needs that start-ups are not yet able to meet themselves, for example, when they compete for public tenders.

Practical implications

The present study explored this topic from two perspectives (i.e. start-ups and incubators). This approach facilitated the identification of the main features upon which start-ups depend, the entities to which these companies turn for help, the kind of communication in which they usually engage, the primary advantages of establishing cooperation networks and the main types of support given by incubators.

Originality/value

Most studies of cooperation networks are based on transaction cost economics, a resource-based perspective and/or institutional theory. In contrast, this study innovated by applying resource dependence theory and the concept of interlocking directorates, which provided an alternative explanation regarding cooperation networks’ importance to start-ups and incubators’ roles in these companies’ networking processes.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Anderson Galvao, Carla Mascarenhas, Carla Marques, João Ferreira and Vanessa Ratten

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most extensively studied topics with respect to the triple, quadruple and quintuple helix models developed to explain these…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the most extensively studied topics with respect to the triple, quadruple and quintuple helix models developed to explain these links. The review also focusses on ascertaining future trends within this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant documents obtained from a search in the Institute for Scientific Information’s Web of Science were submitted to bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer software.

Findings

The results of this systematic review illustrate that, despite growing concern about society and the environment, issues related to the three helixes of universities, industries and governments continue to be the most often studied. However, an additional focus on research on the quadruple and quintuple helix models has emerged in the more specialised literature. An analysis of co-citations also identified four clusters of research such as, innovation and knowledge policies; entrepreneurial universities; business innovation strategy; and triple helix stakeholders in innovation, knowledge and regional development.

Originality/value

Some policies are needed. Polices that undergo the mapping of the universities’ specialisations, the industry/society necessities and financial measures could foster the relations between all the stakeholders.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Anderson Galvão, Carla Mascarenhas, Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues, Carla Susana Marques and Carmem Teresa Leal

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of entrepreneurship in economic development based on the four dimensions of the quadruple helix model (Government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of entrepreneurship in economic development based on the four dimensions of the quadruple helix model (Government, University, Enterprise and Society) in relation to the three stages of economy defined by the GEM (innovation-, efficiency- and factor-driven economies). In this context, the authors considered a set of variables that allowed them to measure and verify the stimulus that the four helixes represent in economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was supported on secondary data from the GEM platform for 58 countries, for 2015. SPSS software was used to analyze data, which allowed the use of the ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests, as well as the generalized linear regression.

Findings

The results show that in the factor-driven economies, there is a greater influence by the industry, while in the efficiency-driven economies, there is homogeneity among the four dimensions, highlighting only the variables “R&D transfer” and “Entrepreneurial Intention”. Because of the constant need for innovation to become more competitive, in the innovation-driven economies, business and government are the most important dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Both in the scientific community with future empirical studies that can confirm the relevance of this model to better understanding which dimensions of quadruple helix improve economic development, and in the governmental community, to serve for policies and strategies that stimulate entrepreneurship to foster the transition from one stage of economic development to another.

Originality/value

Proposal and test of a quadruple helix model, using the variables available in the GEM database, to the three stages of economic development of the economies that were involved in the GEM.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Vanessa Ratten, Veland Ramadani, Leo-Paul Dana, Frank Hoy and Joao Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of family entrepreneurship and internationalization strategies by discussing the papers in this special journal issue.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of family entrepreneurship and internationalization strategies by discussing the papers in this special journal issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The main research areas related to family business are discussed in terms of socioemotional wealth and societal trends. A review of the literature is conducted to highlight the emerging themes affecting the decision of family businesses to internationalize.

Findings

The paper stresses how it is important to have an entrepreneurial approach to internationalization of family businesses.

Research limitations/implications

As more family businesses are born globals, it is important to focus on the positive aspects of internationalization, including emerging markets and gaining important entrepreneurial knowledge.

Practical implications

Family businesses need to be more innovative and risk-taking in their approach to internationalization as it helps them build their reputation and increase performance.

Originality/value

As there are limited studies about family entrepreneurship and internationalization in terms of a broad view of family, this paper takes an inclusive approach to the changing nature of how a family is defined in today’s global society.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Sergio Jesus Teixeira, Carla Maria Lopes Casteleiro, Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues and Maria Dulce Guerra

This study aims to pursue better understanding and investigation of the factor that can have an impact on the level of entrepreneurial activity. To achieve this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to pursue better understanding and investigation of the factor that can have an impact on the level of entrepreneurial activity. To achieve this, statistical analysis was conducted. Indicators from 22 countries of the European Union were reunited to compare the differences between entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyse entrepreneurial intentions in Europe, two databases of the Global Databases Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) were used, namely, “GEM NES Key Indicators 2007-2015” and “GEM APS Key Indicators 2001-2015”, available at www.gemconsortium.org/data/sets, considering only the data from 2015 and analysed with IBM SPSS Statistics tool. Each original database includes 60 countries, and this study is limited to an analysis of only countries of the European continent, resulting in a sample of 22 countries.

Findings

The major determinants of the entrepreneurial intention in the countries studied were: “perceived capacity”; “entrepreneurial intention” itself which will, in fact, influence the “rate of nascent entrepreneurship”; “governmental and political factors” in relation to the respective “financing for the entrepreneur”; and “basic education and training” in entrepreneurship which influences “research and development”.

Research limitations/implications

This study has few limitations because, as it refers to a European analysis, it would require a more generalized analysis of the factors, such as to include more and better indicators for the demographic, economic and institutional determinants of the entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurship in the European countries under study. For future research on the explanation of commercial activity, we must address the methodological problem of distinguishing the effect of business intentions from other determinants, as these also influence entrepreneurial attitudes. Despite the conceptual and empirical limitations, the conclusions of the study imply and provide several recommendations for the future policy of entrepreneurship in Europe.

Practical implications

In the past decades, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intentions have gained increasing attention from academics, governments and politicians around the world. It is seen as a critical factor for economic growth and development of a country, as it contributes to the solution of fundamental macroeconomic issues such as increased employment, development of competitiveness, innovation and the creation of economic and social values. Therefore, academics and researchers, governments and politicians are interested in identifying the differences and causes between countries that influence the level of entrepreneurship as a phenomenon associated with business activity in a country.

Social implications

Results reveal that some of the key determinants of entrepreneurial intention in the European countries are related to policy factors, like “governmental and political factors” and “basic education and training” in entrepreneurship. In this way, the study can help politicians elaborate the policies related to entrepreneurship, implying an increase in entrepreneurial intentions in a country and consequently implications for socio-economic development.

Originality/value

To achieve the originality of the study, two databases of the GEM of 2015 were used and duly adapted. In this way, the value of the article is very significant, as it is possible to group data from several countries, to test hypotheses and to arrive at very useful conclusions that may be of interest to policymakers at both the European and national levels. The adoption of adequate policies promotes and supports entrepreneurship in the context of the Europe 2020 Strategy, which is the European Union’s growth strategy.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Vitor Medeiros, Carla Marques, Anderson Rei Galvão and Vitor Braga

The aim of this study is to explore which factors of entrepreneurship and innovation influence economic development under the quadruple helix model, contrasting Southern…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore which factors of entrepreneurship and innovation influence economic development under the quadruple helix model, contrasting Southern and Northern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, secondary data are collected from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor databases, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and Global Competitiveness Index, for four countries in the North and four Southern European countries, for the period from 2007 to 2015. Data was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software and subjected to several multivariate statistical tests.

Findings

The results show a statistically significant difference in the variables of the four quadruple helix model dimensions. This means that Northern European countries (Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden) display better results on innovation and entrepreneurship than Southern European countries (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal). The results also showed that per capita gross domestic expenditure on R&D is positively related to government and university dimensions, with significant differences between Southern and Northern European countries.

Originality/value

It is hoped that this study will contribute to new evidence on the factors of innovation and entrepreneurship that are decisive for economic development. To the traditional quadruple helix model, control variables were added to meet the endogenous characteristics of the countries.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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