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This study uses migrant household survey data from 2008 to 2009 to examine how parental migration decisions are associated with the nutritional status of children in rural…
This study uses migrant household survey data from 2008 to 2009 to examine how parental migration decisions are associated with the nutritional status of children in rural and urban China. Results from instrumental variables regressions show a substantial adverse effect of children’s exposure to parental migration on height-for-age Z scores of left-behind children relative to children who migrate with their parents. Additional results from a standard Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition, a quantile decomposition, and a counterfactual distribution analysis all confirm that children who are left behind in rural villages – usually because of the oppressive hukou system – have poorer nutritional status than children who migrate with their parents, and the gaps are biggest at lower portions of the distribution.
The minimum wage has been regarded as an important element of public policy for reducing poverty and inequality. Increasing the minimum wage is supposed to raise earnings…
The minimum wage has been regarded as an important element of public policy for reducing poverty and inequality. Increasing the minimum wage is supposed to raise earnings for millions of low-wage workers and therefore lower earnings inequality. However, there is no consensus in the existing literature from industrialized countries regarding whether increasing the minimum wage has helped lower earnings inequality. China has recently exhibited rapid economic growth and widening earnings inequality. Since China promulgated new minimum wage regulations in 2004, the magnitude and frequency of changes in the minimum wage have been substantial, both over time and across jurisdictions. The growing importance of research on the relationship between the minimum wage and earnings inequality and its controversial nature have sparked heated debate in China, highlighting the importance of rigorous research to inform evidence-based policy making. We investigate the contribution of the minimum wage to the well-documented rise in earnings inequality in China from 2004 to 2009 by using city-level minimum wage panel data and a representative Chinese household survey, and we find that increasing the minimum wage reduces inequality – by decreasing the earnings gap between the median and the bottom decile – over the analysis period.
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
What started as a pilot project in 1985 has become a successful online tool for resource sharing today. The IRVING Network gives libraries with incompatible computers the…
What started as a pilot project in 1985 has become a successful online tool for resource sharing today. The IRVING Network gives libraries with incompatible computers the ability to access each other's current catalog, determine circulation status, and process interlibrary loan transactions, while maintaining the integrity of their own systems. Although communication standards are evolving through the efforts of the Linked Systems Project, cooperative vendor programs in AVIAC, and Standards Committee D of NISO, it may be years before the majority of vendors can implement the standards and offer network packages to libraries across the country. In the meantime, the IRVING Library Network presents a practical, working solution to the problem of linking heterogenous library systems.
Dynamic predictions of financial distress of the firms have received less attention in finance literature rather than static prediction, specifically in Malaysia. This…
Dynamic predictions of financial distress of the firms have received less attention in finance literature rather than static prediction, specifically in Malaysia. This study, therefore, investigates dynamic symptoms of the financial distress event a few years before it happened to the firms by using neural network method. Cox Proportional Hazard regression models are used to estimate the survival probabilities of Malaysian PN17 and GN3 listed firms. Forecast accuracy is evaluated using receiver operating characteristics curve. From the findings, it shown that the independent directors’ ownership has negative association with the financial distress likelihood. In addition, this study modeled a mix of corporate financial distress predictors for Malaysian firms. The combination of financial and non-financial ratios which pressure-sensitive institutional ownership, independent director ownership, and Earnings Before Interest and Taxes to Total Asset shown a negative relationship with financial distress likelihood specifically one year before the firms being listed in PN 17 and GN 3 status. However, Retained Earnings to Total Asset, Interest Coverage, and Market Value of Debt have positive relationship with firm financial distress likelihood. These research findings also contribute to the policy implications to the Securities Commission and specifically to Bursa Malaysia. Furthermore, one of the initial goals in introducing the PN17 and GN3 status is to alleviate the information asymmetry between distressed firms, the regulators, and investors. Therefore, the regulator would be able to monitor effectively distressed firms, and investors can protect from imprudent investment.
Devotes the entire journal issue to managing human behaviour in US industries, with examples drawn from the airline industry, trading industry, publishing industry, metal…
Devotes the entire journal issue to managing human behaviour in US industries, with examples drawn from the airline industry, trading industry, publishing industry, metal products industry, motor vehicle and parts industry, information technology industry, food industry, the airline industry in a turbulent environment, the automotive sales industry, and specialist retailing industry. Outlines the main features of each industry and the environment in which it is operating. Provides examples, insights and quotes from Chief Executive Officers, managers and employees on their organization’s recipe for success. Mentions the effect technology has had in some industries. Talks about skilled and semi‐skilled workers, worker empowerment and the formation of teams. Addresses also the issue of change and the training that is required to deal with it in different industry sectors. Discusses remuneration packages and incentives offered to motivate employees. Notes the importance of customers in the face of increased competition. Extracts from each industry sector the various human resource practices that companies employ to manage their employees effectively ‐ revealing that there is a wide diversity in approach and what is right for one industry sector would not work in another. Offers some advice for managers, but, overall, fails to summarize what constitutes effective means of managing human behaviour.
This paper aims to explore different strategic avenues in international markets. In particular, the authors investigate the role of four marketing tactics – marketing…
This paper aims to explore different strategic avenues in international markets. In particular, the authors investigate the role of four marketing tactics – marketing network, domestic network, standardization/adaptation and positioning. The authors aim at identifying optimal use of these strategic vehicles to achieve firm performance.
The authors construct a database of 132 Norwegian exporters and identify, through cluster analysis, three different categories of firms. They use multi-group analysis to explore strategy–performance pattern in each group.
All four strategic levers impact positively on the performance, but only two of them (marketing networks and positioning) with major impact. Standardization and domestic networks play a minor role. Based on these strategic levers, the authors identify three strategic groups (opportunists, networks seekers and global marketers) with different optimal export strategy patterns. The authors argue that these groups represent firms in different stages, epitomizing a learning process in three stages.
A broader perspective of strategy variables should be included to get a more complete picture of the “optimal” model for different groups of exporters. Other marketing mix factors and the firm’s stance toward governance in international markets (operation modes) should therefore be included in the repertoire of strategy drivers determining group membership and to analyse their pattern.
Opportunists are advised to focus on positioning through domestic network relations; network seekers should concentrate on building marketing networks. Global marketers may carry out standardization strategies – preferably in collaboration with their marketing partners in export markets. For the two other groups, there is no evidence that speak in favour of such approach, nor for its counterpart, adaptation. For export promotion agencies, the authors suggest enhanced support to establish network partners.
The authors introduce strategic levers not yet explored in the export literature. Furthermore, they use a contingency causal approach to explain differences in strategy development (in international markets) and the link with performance.