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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1998

Carl A. Rodrigues

Describes cultural classifications of societies, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, to form a basis of managerial styles which expatriate managers, in particular…

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Abstract

Describes cultural classifications of societies, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, to form a basis of managerial styles which expatriate managers, in particular, can use as a reference tool. Goes into more detail about: power distance, collectivism/individualism, strong/weak uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, Confucian dynamism, master of destiny/fatalistic, improvement/maintenance of status quo, enterprise, personnel selection, attitudes towards wealth, sharing in decision making, objective/emotional analysis, and high/low context cultures. Relates this to cross‐cultural management styles, but points out some problems, not least multiple classifications of cultures. Suggests that this article should be used as a starting point, rather than an ultimate cultural guide to conducting business globally.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

Carl A. Rodrigues

In many organizational day‐to‐day situations, effective managersrequire multidimensional leadership characteristics. They need innovatorcharacteristics to solve crises and…

Abstract

In many organizational day‐to‐day situations, effective managers require multidimensional leadership characteristics. They need innovator characteristics to solve crises and to identify and “sell” new visions to the organization; implementor characteristics to systematically operationalize the solutions to the crises and the new visions; and pacifier characteristics to maintain the status quo in stable times. Develops a model containing the traits, abilities, and behaviour of the three leader types. Leaders with multi‐dimensional leadership characteristics are scarce, but they can be developed. A management development agent applied this model to a group of about 50 managers who participated in a leadership development programme. The agent reported positive results. Gender barriers, however, were noted.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Carl A. Rodrigues

Different societies hold different views. Thus, a managerial style that works in one culture will not necessarily work in another, and adaptations must be made…

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11811

Abstract

Different societies hold different views. Thus, a managerial style that works in one culture will not necessarily work in another, and adaptations must be made accordingly. For example, a system that rewards individual efforts (or group efforts) might be quite acceptable in some cultures, but resented in others. This suggests that prospective cross‐cultural managers need to develop sensitivity to the cultural ways of the society where they will be managing; they need to develop a “my culture’s OK, your culture’s OK” frame of reference. But, proposes that the other’s culture is not really OK if it does not support (or it rejects) the organization’s strategies, goals, and objectives. Describes those cultures which might be supportive (“really OK” culture) and those which might not (“really not OK” cultures). Concludes that expatriate managers in “really not OK” cultures need to identify and implement programmes necessary to change the culture to “really OK”.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Carl A. Rodrigues and Eileen Kaplan

Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low…

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999

Abstract

Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low) applied by organizations in the EU countries. Proposes that high formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain; that low formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden; and that moderate formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Finland and The Netherlands. Claims that these propositions can be tested at the organizational level using the Aston study instrument but warns that cultural factors are only an element among a number of other contextual variables such as the subsidiary’s local context (environmental complexity and the amount of local resources available to it), the size and age of the organization, type of organizational function, the way in which organizations confront a crisis, and management preferences for control. Indicates that it should not be assumed that this research can be applied to Confucian‐based Far East cultures. Mentions also that a country’s cultural values can change over time so should be periodically updated using Hofstede’s Value Survey Module.

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Management Research News, vol. 21 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Carl A. Rodrigues

Total Quality Management (TQM), this framework proposes, can be achieved only when the organization develops the ability to cater to customers' needs, monitor the internal…

Abstract

Total Quality Management (TQM), this framework proposes, can be achieved only when the organization develops the ability to cater to customers' needs, monitor the internal and external environments on an ongoing basis to obtain and disseminate information needed by empowered group decision makers, establish and maintain an atmosphere where there is strong vertical and horizontal communication, collaboration, and cooperation among individuals in internal units, as well as among individuals in external units, develop and maintain a bond and a “sense of ownership” among employees; and develop and maintain ongoing training programs.

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Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Carl A Rodrigues, Nailin Bu and Byung Min

Discusses the effectiveness of different training approaches in other cultures. Highlights differing learning preferences in different societies. Proposes that traineers…

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1355

Abstract

Discusses the effectiveness of different training approaches in other cultures. Highlights differing learning preferences in different societies. Proposes that traineers in nations which contain a lack of individuality or confucianism prefer more teacher centred methods to those with an emphasis on individualism who require a more hands on approach.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Carl A. Rodrigues and Harvey Blumberg

Do feminine cultures really behave more feminine than masculine cultures?. A comparison of 48 countries femininity‐masculineity ranking to their UN human development…

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2063

Abstract

Do feminine cultures really behave more feminine than masculine cultures?. A comparison of 48 countries femininity‐masculineity ranking to their UN human development rankings. Reveals that feminine cultures do apply greater intensity in investing in human development programmes, including care for the weak and gender equity development than masculine cultures. States that both score low on empowerment of females, suggesting that a countrys power distance measurement affects this. Implies that managers of international firms will find greater demand for improved quality of work and female empowerment programmes in feminine/small power distance countries than feminine high power distance countries and masculine countries. Qualifies comparisons by outlining problems within the UN statistical data.

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Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Carl A. Rodrigues

Four active‐like (A‐like) and six passive‐like (P‐like) business teaching/learning techniques are described. It is proposed that students enrolled and faculty teaching in…

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2688

Abstract

Four active‐like (A‐like) and six passive‐like (P‐like) business teaching/learning techniques are described. It is proposed that students enrolled and faculty teaching in the international business (INTB), marketing (MKT), and management (MAN) business concentrations would rate the A‐like techniques higher than students enrolled and faculty teaching in the management information systems (MIS), finance (FIN), and accounting (ACC) business concentrations. And that students enrolled and faculty teaching in the MIS, FIN, and ACC concentrations would rate the P‐like techniques higher than the students and faculty in the INTB, MKT, and MAN concentrations. Using a survey questionnaire, upper undergraduate and MBA university business students and faculty were asked to indicate the importance level for each technique. Students' ratings do not support the proposition in nine techniques and the faculty ratings do not support it in eight. The conclusion is that the study at least provides a framework that can aid instructors in understanding that different students prefer and different situations require different instructional techniques.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Carl A. Rodrigues

Early last century, for industrially‐developing economies, Fayol offered 14 principles of management aimed to help managers ascertain what to do to manage more…

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51510

Abstract

Early last century, for industrially‐developing economies, Fayol offered 14 principles of management aimed to help managers ascertain what to do to manage more effectively. Currently, service‐based and high‐tech industries are becoming dominant in some economies, such as the United States. Many organizations in these industries interpret the principles quite differently from the way they were interpreted in Fayol’s time. The differences and the cultural challenges managers face in implementing this new framework are presented.

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Management Decision, vol. 39 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Carl A. Rodrigues

Seeks to examine the impact of national culture on the importance level students place on ten teaching techniques commonly used by US business instructors.

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2076

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to examine the impact of national culture on the importance level students place on ten teaching techniques commonly used by US business instructors.

Design/methodology/approach

Undergraduate and MBA business students, including students born in the USA and students born in a foreign country, rated the techniques.

Findings

Ratings by students from cultures preferring techniques where the instructor provides high structure differ slightly from the ratings by students from cultures preferring techniques where the instructor provides lower structure.

Research limitations/implications

The respondents are from one US university. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized.

Practical implications

The framework is useful in that it reminds instructors/trainers that, if a group of learners is from the same culture, a customized technique may be effective but, if the group is from diverse cultures, it reminds them that they may have to provide more structure to those students and trainees from cultures which learn best through directive techniques than to those which learn best through less directive techniques.

Originality/value

Some researchers have examined how culture influences learning‐style preference. However, much of the existing literature has been contributed by educational psychologists, whose major concern has been the academic performance of Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians being lower than that of whites in the USA. This study addresses the impact of national culture on students’ teaching/learning technique preference.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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