Describes cultural classifications of societies, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, to form a basis of managerial styles which expatriate managers, in particular…
Describes cultural classifications of societies, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, to form a basis of managerial styles which expatriate managers, in particular, can use as a reference tool. Goes into more detail about: power distance, collectivism/individualism, strong/weak uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, Confucian dynamism, master of destiny/fatalistic, improvement/maintenance of status quo, enterprise, personnel selection, attitudes towards wealth, sharing in decision making, objective/emotional analysis, and high/low context cultures. Relates this to cross‐cultural management styles, but points out some problems, not least multiple classifications of cultures. Suggests that this article should be used as a starting point, rather than an ultimate cultural guide to conducting business globally.
In many organizational day‐to‐day situations, effective managers require multidimensional leadership characteristics. They need innovator characteristics to solve crises and to identify and “sell” new visions to the organization; implementor characteristics to systematically operationalize the solutions to the crises and the new visions; and pacifier characteristics to maintain the status quo in stable times. Develops a model containing the traits, abilities, and behaviour of the three leader types. Leaders with multi‐dimensional leadership characteristics are scarce, but they can be developed. A management development agent applied this model to a group of about 50 managers who participated in a leadership development programme. The agent reported positive results. Gender barriers, however, were noted.
Different societies hold different views. Thus, a managerial style that works in one culture will not necessarily work in another, and adaptations must be made…
Different societies hold different views. Thus, a managerial style that works in one culture will not necessarily work in another, and adaptations must be made accordingly. For example, a system that rewards individual efforts (or group efforts) might be quite acceptable in some cultures, but resented in others. This suggests that prospective cross‐cultural managers need to develop sensitivity to the cultural ways of the society where they will be managing; they need to develop a “my culture’s OK, your culture’s OK” frame of reference. But, proposes that the other’s culture is not really OK if it does not support (or it rejects) the organization’s strategies, goals, and objectives. Describes those cultures which might be supportive (“really OK” culture) and those which might not (“really not OK” cultures). Concludes that expatriate managers in “really not OK” cultures need to identify and implement programmes necessary to change the culture to “really OK”.
Total Quality Management (TQM), this framework proposes, can be achieved only when the organization develops the ability to cater to customers' needs, monitor the internal and external environments on an ongoing basis to obtain and disseminate information needed by empowered group decision makers, establish and maintain an atmosphere where there is strong vertical and horizontal communication, collaboration, and cooperation among individuals in internal units, as well as among individuals in external units, develop and maintain a bond and a “sense of ownership” among employees; and develop and maintain ongoing training programs.
Discusses the effectiveness of different training approaches in other cultures. Highlights differing learning preferences in different societies. Proposes that traineers…
Discusses the effectiveness of different training approaches in other cultures. Highlights differing learning preferences in different societies. Proposes that traineers in nations which contain a lack of individuality or confucianism prefer more teacher centred methods to those with an emphasis on individualism who require a more hands on approach.
Do feminine cultures really behave more feminine than masculine cultures?. A comparison of 48 countries femininity‐masculineity ranking to their UN human development…
Do feminine cultures really behave more feminine than masculine cultures?. A comparison of 48 countries femininity‐masculineity ranking to their UN human development rankings. Reveals that feminine cultures do apply greater intensity in investing in human development programmes, including care for the weak and gender equity development than masculine cultures. States that both score low on empowerment of females, suggesting that a countrys power distance measurement affects this. Implies that managers of international firms will find greater demand for improved quality of work and female empowerment programmes in feminine/small power distance countries than feminine high power distance countries and masculine countries. Qualifies comparisons by outlining problems within the UN statistical data.
Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low…
Examines the European Union (EU) countries’ uncertainty avoidance measures (based on Hofstede’s work) and proposes the degree of formalization (high, moderate or low) applied by organizations in the EU countries. Proposes that high formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain; that low formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden; and that moderate formalization organizational structures are more prevalent in Finland and The Netherlands. Claims that these propositions can be tested at the organizational level using the Aston study instrument but warns that cultural factors are only an element among a number of other contextual variables such as the subsidiary’s local context (environmental complexity and the amount of local resources available to it), the size and age of the organization, type of organizational function, the way in which organizations confront a crisis, and management preferences for control. Indicates that it should not be assumed that this research can be applied to Confucian‐based Far East cultures. Mentions also that a country’s cultural values can change over time so should be periodically updated using Hofstede’s Value Survey Module.
Four active‐like (A‐like) and six passive‐like (P‐like) business teaching/learning techniques are described. It is proposed that students enrolled and faculty teaching in…
Four active‐like (A‐like) and six passive‐like (P‐like) business teaching/learning techniques are described. It is proposed that students enrolled and faculty teaching in the international business (INTB), marketing (MKT), and management (MAN) business concentrations would rate the A‐like techniques higher than students enrolled and faculty teaching in the management information systems (MIS), finance (FIN), and accounting (ACC) business concentrations. And that students enrolled and faculty teaching in the MIS, FIN, and ACC concentrations would rate the P‐like techniques higher than the students and faculty in the INTB, MKT, and MAN concentrations. Using a survey questionnaire, upper undergraduate and MBA university business students and faculty were asked to indicate the importance level for each technique. Students' ratings do not support the proposition in nine techniques and the faculty ratings do not support it in eight. The conclusion is that the study at least provides a framework that can aid instructors in understanding that different students prefer and different situations require different instructional techniques.
To describe six management thoughts that evolved during the past century in the USA and to link them to the concept of cybernetic‐scanning management (CSM) and to vaguely…
To describe six management thoughts that evolved during the past century in the USA and to link them to the concept of cybernetic‐scanning management (CSM) and to vaguely explore the extent it is practiced in today's organizations.
Employed MBA students were asked to rate the extent their corporations, as they perceive it, practice the CSM framework. The framework was fully discussed in class prior to the ratings. Students were asked to prepare a term paper describing the rationality for their ratings.
Today's organizations pay a lot of attention to the external environment, their organizational structures are still too tall, and the Theory X managerial mindset is still more prevalent than the Theory Y mindset.
The study involved only MBA students enrolled in the writer's management and organization course in the school of business at Montclair State University. Therefore, the study's findings cannot be generalized.
Organizations need to establish a system where there is more internal communication, cooperation and collaboration among their subunits (e.g. 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina).
The study tells us how the past influences the present and the future.
Early last century, for industrially‐developing economies, Fayol offered 14 principles of management aimed to help managers ascertain what to do to manage more…
Early last century, for industrially‐developing economies, Fayol offered 14 principles of management aimed to help managers ascertain what to do to manage more effectively. Currently, service‐based and high‐tech industries are becoming dominant in some economies, such as the United States. Many organizations in these industries interpret the principles quite differently from the way they were interpreted in Fayol’s time. The differences and the cultural challenges managers face in implementing this new framework are presented.