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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2014

Kathryn H. Dekas and Wayne E. Baker

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions…

Abstract

Purpose

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions the person holds about the work domain. Research has suggested that adults tend to favor one of three primary work orientations: job, career, or calling. Empirical studies have shown that adults with different primary work orientations tend to experience different work and career outcomes; however, scholars have not analyzed how or why an individual first develops a work orientation. In this study, we take a first step toward investigating the origins of adults’ work orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose hypotheses drawing on extant literature on the development of work values and occupational inheritance. We test hypotheses using a retrospective research design and survey methodology, with a sample of working adults.

Findings

Work orientations are developed through socialization processes with parents during adolescence. There are different patterns of development across the three work orientation categories: stronger calling orientations are developed when both parents possess strong calling orientations; stronger career orientations develop in accordance with fathers’ career orientations; and job orientations are related more to the nature of the adolescent’s relationship with parents than with parents’ own work orientations.

Originality/value

This research provides the first empirical study of the origin and development of work orientations.

Research limitations/implications

This research offers insight into ways generations are connected through the perceived meaning of their work, even as the nature of work changes. We encourage future scholars to use this as a starting point for research on the development of work orientations, and to continue exploring these questions using additional methods, particularly longitudinal study designs.

Details

Adolescent Experiences and Adult Work Outcomes: Connections and Causes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-572-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Linna Zhu and Lan Wang

This study investigated the joint impact of organizational and individual career management on employees' ideal self-discrepancy. Drawing on the identity literature, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the joint impact of organizational and individual career management on employees' ideal self-discrepancy. Drawing on the identity literature, the authors aimed to uncover the mechanism and boundary condition of this impact, focusing on how organizations influence ideal and actual selves of employees with different protean career orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a four-wave time-lagged study over eight months, with a sample of 331 employees from various organizations.

Findings

Perceived organizational career management negatively influenced ideal self-discrepancy via organizational identification, and such relationship was strengthened by protean career orientation. Employees with stronger protean career orientation saw a stronger moderating effect of individual career management on the relationship between organizational identification and ideal self-discrepancy, whereas their counterparts saw an opposite effect.

Practical implications

This study highlighted the essential role of organization in narrowing employees' ideal self-discrepancy in the protean career era. It suggested that organizations should set differentiated career practices depending on employees' protean career orientation levels.

Originality/value

By integrating vocational psychology and organizational scholarship, this study extended the ideal self-discrepancy literature by offering a nuanced understanding of the mechanism and boundary condition of the role of organizational career management in narrowing ideal self-discrepancy in the protean career era. It identified the joint efforts of organization and employee as a fascinating avenue for future studies.

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

Leisa D. Sargent and Shelley R. Domberger

The purpose of this study is to examine the development of a protean career orientation. In doing so, the paper also aims to assess how work experience, parents and peer…

7021

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the development of a protean career orientation. In doing so, the paper also aims to assess how work experience, parents and peer networks co‐influence the development of a protean career orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses semi‐structured interviews with young adults and explores their past, present and future work and career experiences. They were also asked them to explain what career success meant to them. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded based on two main categories representing protean orientation: self‐directed career management and the expression of personal values as a mechanism for career decisions. The paper also process mapped how a protean career orientation developed in the interviewees. Those who reported a protean career orientation were interviewed two‐and‐a‐half years later so as to further explore their career experiences and the extent to which self‐directedness and value congruence influenced career decisions.

Findings

Results suggest that some reported a protean career orientation and of those that did they reported experiencing an image violation based on their personal values. Two types of personal values appeared important to the protean group, they were, making a contribution to society and maintaining work‐life balance. Those that were categorised as having a protean orientation also engaged in critical reassessment by interrogating the basis of their career values and strategies and this distinguished them from the rest of the interviewees who exhibited a more traditional career orientation. These findings are consistent with image theory's concept of a progress decision. This concept encapsulates the idea that individuals decide whether a career plan is moving them towards achievement of a career goal and if it is not, new or modified plans need to be taken up.

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory findings have important implications for understanding the career strategies of protean careerists. Specifically, they elucidate how violations of values, goals and plans lead to career reappraisals. This paper provides important insights into reframing career choice and change in terms of image violations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a process map of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of a protean career orientation. Specifically, it focuses on image violations that appear to distinguish protean careerists from the remainder of the interviewees. Thus, the paper links protean careers with image theory as a means of understanding the underlying processes involved in early career decision making.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Namhee Kim

Investigates how Korean women employees define their success at work, and how those definitions differ by demographic variables, such as age, years of work experience…

2893

Abstract

Investigates how Korean women employees define their success at work, and how those definitions differ by demographic variables, such as age, years of work experience, marital status, and education level. The instrument used is the modified Career Success Map Questionnaire, which was originally developed to measure people's career success orientation. A sample survey was conducted with a sample of Korean women employees in a large Korean bank. Implies, when comparing the results with other studies sampling both men and women (or women only) in either a US or Korean context, that women's career perceptions and career success in a specific culture could differ from those in the same culture, as well as in another culture. Therefore, it is advised that theories should not make the same assumptions regarding career phenomena cross‐culturally, in addition to cross‐gender. Moreover, the managerial implications of this study indicate that organizations can motivate employees with different incentives and options according to their internal orientations, which may differ by gender and cultural background.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Olusegun Babalola and Nealia Sue Bruning

Contemporary careers research suggests that individuals are more likely to be proactive about their careers when they possess an internal, rather than an external locus of…

Abstract

Purpose

Contemporary careers research suggests that individuals are more likely to be proactive about their careers when they possess an internal, rather than an external locus of control (LOC). The purpose of this paper is to adopt the view that individuals can be both external and proactive depending on whether or not they possess an incremental implicit theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered surveys were completed by 127 employed individuals in Nigeria. These surveys were used to gather information on individuals’ external LOC, protean and boundaryless career orientations and implicit theory beliefs.

Findings

Results indicated partial support for positive relationships between external LOC and contemporary career orientations and that an incremental implicit theory can have a positive moderating effect on the relationship between an external LOC belief in chance and the values-driven protean career orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a cross-sectional study in one time period and all information was self-report.

Practical implications

The results suggest that HR managers that operate in global environments should consider the importance of individual implicit theory and on career orientations and take a broader view of the role of internal and external LOC.

Social implications

The study questions whether predominant perspectives of the relationship between proactive career orientations and internal LOC applies to contexts where external LOC predominate.

Originality/value

This study is unique in the examination of positive relationships between implicit theory, external LOC and contemporary career orientations. Furthermore, the study examines these relationships in an unstable and unpredictable work environment context, Nigeria, where such positive relationships are highly necessary to improve the career self-management of individuals.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Jack W. Kostal and Brenton M. Wiernik

The protean and boundaryless career concepts have dominated recent career research. Demographic groups are posited to differ on these “new career orientations,” with…

1507

Abstract

Purpose

The protean and boundaryless career concepts have dominated recent career research. Demographic groups are posited to differ on these “new career orientations,” with implications for career development and social equity. The purpose of this paper is to test these hypotheses by systematically reviewing research on demographic differences in new career orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper meta-analyzes demographic differences in protean, boundaryless, and proactive career orientations using data from 29,605 individuals (74 samples).

Findings

Demographic differences in new career orientations are generally negligible to small, with organizational mobility preferences showing the largest differences across demographic characteristics. Age showed curvilinear relations with new career orientations. National economic development moderated new career orientation-educational level relations.

Research limitations/implications

Results support the construct validity of “proactive career orientation” as a unifying construct encompassing protean and psychological mobility boundaryless orientations (cf. Wiernik and Kostal, 2017). Future research should continue to explore career development in diverse economic/cultural contexts.

Practical implications

Small demographic differences suggest that potential benefits of new career orientations are not limited to members of particular groups. Age and education relations were large enough to indicate that large population segments may benefit from additional interventions to support career mobility and development.

Originality/value

This paper uses meta-analytic techniques to investigate demographic differences in career orientations with larger samples than possible in a single primary study. The meta-analytic design permitted investigation of a variety of methodological and cultural/economic moderators not previously considered in career orientation research.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Leslie B. Buckley and Michael G. Petrunik

Takes a random sample of 156 respondents from municipal and rural police forces in Canada to examine the relationship between various factors concerning their careers

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Abstract

Takes a random sample of 156 respondents from municipal and rural police forces in Canada to examine the relationship between various factors concerning their careers. Finds that a significant number of officers perceive their career orientation to have changed over time. Presents findings on social activists, enforcers, careerists, specialists and self investors. Differs from previous research linking career orientation to personality type by seeing career orientation as changing with time, stages of career and circumstances. Remarks that policing needs to be technically sophisticated, cost‐effective, community‐based and sensitive to the realities of a multicultural society. Recommends that police departments consider the career orientation of recruits and establish a reward structure suited to the varied career types

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Hanna Moon and Sungpyo Hong

This study aims at analyzing the impact of perceptions of the fourth industrial revolution (crisis and opportunity) in the relationship between workers’ career attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at analyzing the impact of perceptions of the fourth industrial revolution (crisis and opportunity) in the relationship between workers’ career attitudes and future learning intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed the multiple mediating effect of the perception of the fourth industrial revolution in the relationship between career attitudes and future learning intention using data of 305 Korean workers. As career attitude variables, boundaryless and protean career orientation variables were used, and perception of the fourth industrial revolution was analyzed (opportunity and crisis perception).

Findings

Both workers’ boundaryless career orientation and protean career orientation influenced future learning intention through the perception of opportunity for the fourth industrial revolution. This result suggested that flexible career attitudes positively recognized the changes of the fourth industrial revolution and had an effect on promoting attitude toward future learning.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirmed that workers’ flexible career attitudes could promote perception of opportunity rather than crisis in changing situation and strengthen their intention to prepare for the future by mediating this perception. These results suggest that lifelong learning and competency development can be reinforced by facilitating perception of an opportunities for external change for individual career development.

Originality/value

Insights for personal career development were provided by analyzing the relationship between flexible career attitudes, which are increasing in importance in the modern society, and perceptions of changes in external environment.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Antonio Vera and Desdemona Hucke

This article aims to investigate the impact of managerial orientation on the career success of physicians employed in hospitals.

892

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to investigate the impact of managerial orientation on the career success of physicians employed in hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data between August and October 2006 using a written questionnaire that was sent to all 278 physicians employed in two German hospitals. The data was analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression.

Findings

The data indicate that a pronounced managerial orientation has indeed a positive impact on the career success of physicians in hospitals. But the results vary with respect to the different dimensions of managerial orientation.

Practical implications

Some aspects of managerial orientation are more compatible with physicians' professional values and, consequently, more relevant for career success than others. The acquisition and improvement of management skills seems to be a crucial factor.

Originality/value

The impact of managerial orientation on the career success of physicians has been unclear so far. Physicians are trained and socialized according to professional values and norms that are considered to be the antithesis of a managerial orientation. Furthermore, the typical career paths of professionals are different from careers of other occupational groups. However, this paper shows that physicians employed in hospitals need a certain degree of managerial orientation to have a successful and satisfying professional career.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Dhitiporn Chompookum and C. Brooklyn Derr

When the labor market becomes tighter and the economy is uncertain, companies often respond by downsizing and by asking those employees who remain to be more productive…

4546

Abstract

When the labor market becomes tighter and the economy is uncertain, companies often respond by downsizing and by asking those employees who remain to be more productive and dependable. It is, therefore, of interest to both managers and researchers to better understand the dynamics of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). OCB is defined as one's willingness to do more than required, to go the extra mile. This study explores how one's subjective sense of career orientation (the internal career) affects OCB. The research was conducted in eight medium‐to‐large organizations in Thailand and it was discovered, as predicted, that internal career orientations impact the level of OCB. This finding is important because other research shows that the relationship between dispositional variables and OCB is inconclusive.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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