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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Marc van Veldhoven and Luc Dorenbosch

The purpose of this study is to shed more light on the role of employee proactivity (self‐starting, action‐orientated behaviours aimed at greater organisational…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to shed more light on the role of employee proactivity (self‐starting, action‐orientated behaviours aimed at greater organisational effectiveness) in relation to aging and career development. It aims to do this in two ways. First, by investigating how age and HR practices for development initiated by the organisation influence proactivity. Here, proactivity it seeks to study as a career‐relevant outcome. Second, by examining how age, proactivity and HR practices for development influence employee experiences of career opportunities. Here, it aims to use proactivity as career‐relevant predictor.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 619 employees from 47 departments completed a questionnaire, including two scales on proactivity (on‐the‐job and developmental proactivity) as well as a scale on career opportunities. HR and line managers in these departments were interviewed about HR practices directed at career development of the employees. The data combine information from two levels (employee, department) as well as three different sources (employee, line manager, HR manager), and are analysed using multi‐level analysis.

Findings

First, the paper presents the results on proactivity as an outcome: age is positively related to proactivity on‐the‐job but has no association with proactivity towards development. HR practices targeted at career development are positively associated with both types of proactivity. Second, the results on proactivity as a predictor show that career opportunities have a negative association with age, a positive association with proactivity, and a positive association with career development‐orientated HR practices. An additional negative effect on career opportunities is found for the cross‐level interaction between HR practices and age.

Originality/value

This study is original as it combines individual, psychological, and HR perspectives in researching age‐related career issues. It contributes to the literature by showing that age has no negative, but rather a positive impact on proactivity. Proactivity furthermore is sensitive to HR practices for development, implying that organisations can influence the proactivity of their employees. For older employees the study implies that, although organisations tend to offer them fewer HR practices for development, they can offset this disadvantage to some extent by increased proactivity, and thus retain career opportunities.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Jonathan C. Morris

Looks at the 2000 Employment Research Unit Annual Conference held at the University of Cardiff in Wales on 6/7 September 2000. Spotlights the 76 or so presentations within…

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28420

Abstract

Looks at the 2000 Employment Research Unit Annual Conference held at the University of Cardiff in Wales on 6/7 September 2000. Spotlights the 76 or so presentations within and shows that these are in many, differing, areas across management research from: retail finance; precarious jobs and decisions; methodological lessons from feminism; call centre experience and disability discrimination. These and all points east and west are covered and laid out in a simple, abstract style, including, where applicable, references, endnotes and bibliography in an easy‐to‐follow manner. Summarizes each paper and also gives conclusions where needed, in a comfortable modern format.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 23 no. 9/10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2018

Maral Darouei and Helen Pluut

Recent evidence from glass cliff research suggests that women are more willing than men to accept risky leadership positions. The purpose of this paper (based on three…

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2948

Abstract

Purpose

Recent evidence from glass cliff research suggests that women are more willing than men to accept risky leadership positions. The purpose of this paper (based on three studies) is to reveal and resolve the apparent paradox that women are more risk averse than men yet end up in risky leadership positions.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study I, risk attitudes of 125 participants were surveyed to understand gender differences in risk taking. In two experimental vignette studies, 119 university students (Study II) and 109 working adults (Study III) were offered a leadership position in either a risky or successful company and asked to rate their willingness to accept the job.

Findings

Together, the results showed that although women are generally more risk averse than men, women who scored low on career self-efficacy were more likely to perceive a risky job as a promotional opportunity and were therefore more willing to accept such a job. These findings shed light on the role of women’s career decision making in the glass cliff phenomenon.

Originality/value

Glass cliff research has focused almost exclusively on organizational decision makers. The authors aim to better understand the glass cliff phenomenon by incorporating the perspective of job seekers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Jon P. Briscoe and Lisa M. Finkelstein

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether positive or negative relationships exist between boundaryless and protean career attitudes (respectively) and…

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7839

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether positive or negative relationships exist between boundaryless and protean career attitudes (respectively) and organizational commitment and whether such relationships can be moderated by development opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys from 212 part‐time MBAs were analyzed using correlation, regression, or moderated multiple regression to explore relationships between boundaryless career attitudes (boundaryless mindset, organizational mobility), protean career attitudes (self‐directed career management, values‐driven career management), organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative), and development opportunities.

Findings

Only organizational mobility preference was correlated (negatively) with each type of commitment. Boundaryless mindset was moderated in its relationship to normative commitment in that lower development opportunities resulted in lower commitment for those with higher levels of boundaryless mindset.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited due to sample nature and the lack of longitudinal design. Also, it does not provide implications for other types of commitment that may be impacted by career attitudes and development opportunities (occupational commitment, for example).

Practical implications

A counterintuitive finding but important implication from this research is that employers should not assume that protean and boundaryless employees (respectively) will be less committed to the organization. Another practical finding is that developmental opportunities, while important to all employees, did not generally make employees with protean and boundaryless attitudes more committed to their organization.

Originality/value

The paper is the first, to one's knowledge, to assess organizational commitment with specific measures of boundaryless and protean career attitudes. While the results are simple, they refute many stereotypes of the new career and, in that sense, add an important perspective to the career literature.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2018

Laura E.M. Traavik

The purpose of this study is to investigate inclusion, perceived opportunities and discrimination between men and women, across career levels, in a professional service…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate inclusion, perceived opportunities and discrimination between men and women, across career levels, in a professional service firm in Norway.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional design with a survey was used. Employees across six different career levels in a large Norwegian professional service firm responded, resulting in a sample size of 912.

Findings

Men report higher levels of inclusion and more opportunities and less discrimination in the work place than women do. Patterns of differences between men and women vary across career levels. At early mid-career, men and women have the largest differences in opportunities and inclusion experiences.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation with this study is the cross-sectional design and data collected from one company. This could limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research should include longitudinal designs. The empirical data demonstrate that men and women continue to have dissimilar experiences in the professional services, with women facing more career obstacles than men.

Practical implications

Organizations can implement policies that foster inclusive environments and ensure career equality by providing development opportunities for both men and women. It is important that professional service firms recognize that at different career levels, perceptions of inclusiveness can vary.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence that women continue to face different types of treatment in professional service firms, and offers suggestions for addressing these inequalities by introducing the concept of inclusiveness.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Reimara Valk, Mandy Van der Velde, Marloes Van Engen and Betina Szkudlarek

The purpose of this exploratory, empirical study is to gain insight into repatriation experiences and repatriate turnover intention of employees from India and The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory, empirical study is to gain insight into repatriation experiences and repatriate turnover intention of employees from India and The Netherlands who either were or had been on international assignments in the respective countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 25 Dutch and 30 Indian international assignees (IAs) and repatriates in both India and The Netherlands. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes: met and unmet expectations of career advancement opportunities; knowledge transfer and labour marketability; economic growth versus economic recession and alternative employment opportunities; and boundaryless careers: adventure and entrepreneurship.

Findings

Repatriate expectations about the use of knowledge, skills and abilities gained in the host country moderate the relationship between the macro-economic situation of the home country and repatriate attrition/retention, such that met expectations of Indian respondents decreased their intention to leave the organisation, even in a conducive macro-economic context with ample alternative employment opportunities. Unmet expectations of Dutch respondents increased their intention to leave the organisation, even in an unfavourable macro-economic context with few alternative employment opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

The sample of Indian and Dutch IAs and repatriates may limit generalisation of the findings to samples from other countries with distinct cultural contexts and macro-economic conditions.

Practical implications

Global organisations that set realistic expectations about re-entry career opportunities for repatriates, facilitate knowledge transfer after repatriation, and adequately respond to boundaryless career ambitions of repatriates, can reduce repatriate turnover intention and attrition.

Originality/value

This study shows that repatriate attrition versus retention is embedded in the macro-economic context of the home country, leading to three types of career mobility upon completion of an international assignment: intra-organisational mobility; organisational boundary-crossing; and geographical boundary crossing.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Wenguang Zhang, Xiaoyu Guan, Xueqin Zhou and Ji Lu

This study investigated employees’ career planning in preparation for the impact of manufacturing transformation triggered by automation technology. Built on career

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated employees’ career planning in preparation for the impact of manufacturing transformation triggered by automation technology. Built on career construction theory, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize career planning as an attempt to integrate oneself into the social environment. In this process of integration, career adaptability is a critical psychological resource for adaptation to anticipated changes.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an online survey, 476 participants answered questions regarding the following aspects: perceptions of the threats and opportunities posed by automation technology; career adaptability, that is, career-related concern, control, curiosity, and confidence in adapting to occupational transitions; and career plans and actions to address the challenge, including short-term job crafting behaviors and long-term career adjustment plan.

Findings

The results showed that opportunity and threat perceptions were associated with one’s job crafting behavior and long-term career adjustment plan and such relationships were moderated by career adaptability and work experience relevant to automation technologies. Specifically, career adaptability is a psychological resource helping individuals deal with perceived challenges, while relevant work experience moderated one’s strategies to catch opportunities.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial determinants for better career planning in the midst of the industrial revolution. Policies that aim to prepare workers for the upcoming social transition may benefit from this study to leverage adaptive and proactive behaviors at a societal level.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of generation Y’s career establishment strategies on the self-directedness of their careers, and also determine the…

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112

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of generation Y’s career establishment strategies on the self-directedness of their careers, and also determine the moderating effects of gender on the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors looked at three types of career strategies – “creating career opportunities”, “seeking career guidance” and “self-nomination.” They tested the correlations of each one with self-directedness in the career establishment stage. The sampling for the study was general Y employees from multinationals in the Malaysian Electrical and Electronic Industry.

Findings

In analyzing the results it was found that 34.5 per cent of the variance of self-directedness in the careers of generation Y workers could be explained by creating career opportunities, seeking career guidance and self-nomination strategies. The best predictor of self-directedness was “creating career opportunities.” The results also revealed that male respondents were more likely than their female counterparts to use career creating opportunity strategies to achieve self-directedness.

Originality/value

The results show that generation Y workers should take care to improve their skills in order to manage their career development. This requires a willingness to take every opportunity to benefit from education, training and job experience. The authors also advise generation Y workers to seek out career guidance from experienced colleagues. It is also important that career counselors understand generation Y’s values in order to set the most suitable goals.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Carol A. McKeen and Ronald J. Burke

Examines the desirability of 21 different career developmentopportunities for managerial and professional women. Data were collectedfrom 245 women in early career stages…

Abstract

Examines the desirability of 21 different career development opportunities for managerial and professional women. Data were collected from 245 women in early career stages using questionnaires. There was considerable variety in their desired developmental opportunities; women with family responsibilities were less desirous of career development activities and geographic moves and more desirous of flexible working hours and working fewer hours; managerial and professional women desirous of flexible work hours or working fewer hours reported less work satisfaction and poorer psychological wellbeing. Offers implications for organizations and managerial women (and men).

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Book part
Publication date: 8 September 2017

James M. Kohlmeyer, Robert J. Parker and Terry Sincich

As proposed in this paper, in public accounting firms, supervisors and managers provide junior accountants with career-related benefits that include: career development…

Abstract

As proposed in this paper, in public accounting firms, supervisors and managers provide junior accountants with career-related benefits that include: career development support; social support; and role modeling. Also, employees who receive such career-related benefits are more likely to believe that the firm provides career growth opportunities and more likely to trust their managers. Career growth opportunities and trust, in turn, positively affect organizational commitment, which reduces turnover intentions. In summary, the relation between career benefits and turnover is mediated by several variables: career growth opportunities, trust in managers, and organizational commitment. Results of a survey of junior employees in public accounting firms support these assertions (with the exception of social support).

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