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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Benedikt Gerst and Christian Grund

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different…

Abstract

Purpose

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different compensation components are explored, as bonus payments frequently complement fixed salaries for many employees, making various channels of lower compensation possible. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a yearly salary survey among a rather homogeneous group of professionals and middle managers from the German chemical sector, which contains detailed information on compensation components next to individual and job characteristics. The incidence and duration of past career interruptions act as the most important independent variables. Mincer-type wage regressions are complemented by estimations on wage increases.

Findings

The results show that career interruptions are more related to lower subsequent bonus payments than they are to fixed salaries. Furthermore, interruptions caused by unemployment are associated with higher interruption pay gaps than those resulting from other reasons such as parental leave. The results even hint for catch-up effects following parental leave with regard to higher wage increases compared to individuals without interruptions. Career interruptions are more prevalent for female managers offering an explanation for a considerable part of gender pay gaps. Wage losses after career interruptions are more pronounced for male employees than they are for females, though.

Originality/value

This study extents the literature by disentangling the relation of career interruptions and different compensation components, bonus payments next to fixed salaries in particular. The role of interruption type and gender are also taken into account so that the paper deepens the understanding of the role of past career interruptions for employees’ remuneration.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Xinyi Bian and Jia Wang

The purpose of this integrative literature review was three-fold: to explore the phenomenon of women’s career interruptions as revealed by publications in the past two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this integrative literature review was three-fold: to explore the phenomenon of women’s career interruptions as revealed by publications in the past two decades, to propose a new career decision tree model (CDTM) and to outline an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted the integrative literature review approach proposed by Torraco (2005, 2016) and used a mind mapping application called MindMeister to synthesize 64 identified articles.

Findings

The proposed CDTM can assist those who are interested in exploring individuals’ career decisions to think systematically about career influencers at different levels.

Originality/value

The CDTM is significantly different from existing career models and theories in that it explains women’s career interruptions in a context-sensitive manner. This model can assist human resource development professionals in analyzing the influencers of women’s career decisions and tackling individual problems level by level.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 13 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Marie Evertsson and Daniela Grunow

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de‐familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de‐familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those with discontinuous careers due to: parental leave or homemaking; unemployment; or other reasons, the authors explore the support for the skill depreciation hypothesis and signalling theory. Depending on the type of welfare state regime, the authors expect women to be subject to varying degrees of career punishment for time spent out of the labour market.

Design/methodology/approach

Cox proportional hazard regression models of the transition rate of an upward or downward occupational move among women in the labour market were estimated.

Findings

Focusing on upward career moves, the results show no significant relationship between a career interruption and upward occupational moves in Germany. In Sweden, the longer the accumulated duration of family leave, the lower the transition rate to an upward move. Overall occupational mobility is higher in Sweden, and in a policy regime where almost all women work, extended leaves may have a more negative effect on career prospects than in Germany, where many mothers drop out of the labour force altogether. In Germany, on the other hand, the authors find traces of unemployment to be scarring, as the risk of downward moves increases with increased unemployment experience.

Originality/value

The paper explores the impact of policies in shaping women's career trajectories and critically examines the often‐cited skill depreciation hypothesis.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 32 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Abstract

Details

International Perspectives on Gender and Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-886-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Susan Dann

That women are less well‐paid than men is well‐documented. Howwomen perceive their apparent lack of “success” in thelabour force is less discussed. Examines how a sample…

Abstract

That women are less well‐paid than men is well‐documented. How women perceive their apparent lack of “success” in the labour force is less discussed. Examines how a sample of Australian women perceive their levels of success relative to their male counterparts and one another. A sample of 284 public sector employees was surveyed as part of a broader study into career success in the Australian public sector. Overall it was found that, despite having significantly lower levels of pay and positions within the organization, the women in the study felt as successful as the men. When compared with one another, however, women who had experienced career interruptions felt significantly less successful than women who had continuous careers. This was despite the fact that the women with continuous careers were still significantly less well‐paid than the men.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 10 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Frieda Reitman and Joy A. Schneer

The career path once promised to good managers was an uninterrupted, upward climb on a corporate ladder. When environmental forces caused organizations to downsize and…

Abstract

The career path once promised to good managers was an uninterrupted, upward climb on a corporate ladder. When environmental forces caused organizations to downsize and restructure, the promise was broken. A protean path emerged, one that was self‐directed rather than company‐directed, and involved changes in employment. The study assesses whether managers have achieved the promised path and whether demographic and career factors differ for those on promised versus protean paths. Longitudinal data from MBAs surveyed three times over a 13‐year period demonstrated that the promised career path still exists for one‐third of the MBAs. Managers on promised paths were somewhat older and worked in larger companies. However, they did not have greater income, managerial level, career satisfaction, company loyalty, or job security than those on protean paths. Women followed both paths but career advancement was more accessible on protean paths. This study makes a unique contribution as the longitudinal data, controlled educational background, and controlled time period enhance understanding of managerial career paths.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Irène Lépine

Examines the career patterns of a sample of 49 francophone womenwho graduated between 1974 and 1981 from an undergraduate programme inbusiness administration. A typology…

Abstract

Examines the career patterns of a sample of 49 francophone women who graduated between 1974 and 1981 from an undergraduate programme in business administration. A typology of career paths is established. Analyses these career paths taking into account some of the features of organizational environments, the events in individuals′ personal lives and the decisions that are the outcome of the interactions between these sets of variables.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Lauren M. Zimmerman and Malissa A. Clark

The purpose of this paper is to highlight an emerging and evolving area within women’s careers literature – women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences. Highlights from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight an emerging and evolving area within women’s careers literature – women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences. Highlights from several career theories, extant research, and a framework for women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences are discussed as well as future research considerations for women’s career breaks.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study provides the first synthesis of the theoretical and empirical work on women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences, by providing a framework that integrates existing research with the kaleidoscope career model. Published works from 1986 until the present were considered from psychology, management, sociology, and economics literatures.

Findings

This paper provides information about how women’s experiences of opting-out and opting-in to the workforce have emerged and evolved over the past few decades. Theoretical foundations, quantitative and qualitative research findings, and considerations for future research are discussed.

Practical implications

This paper is a useful source of information regarding an emerging and evolving area of studying within the women’s career literature. The paper discusses considerations for scholars and practitioners regarding developing, supporting, and retaining female talent amidst women’s career break experiences.

Originality/value

This paper provides an integrative framework that provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on the changing nature of women’s career values and choices, which influences their experiences of opting-out and opting-in to the workforce. Given both the changing demographics of the current workforce (e.g. increased women’s participation in the workforce) and women’s career values, research on women’s career breaks is warranted.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Helena Knörr

The purpose of this paper is to provide better understanding of women's career advancement to top management and their future aspirations to become entrepreneurs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide better understanding of women's career advancement to top management and their future aspirations to become entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper's approach is qualitative research hermeneutic phenomenology.

Findings

Women's career experiences predisposed them to find an alternate route, entrepreneurship, despite having achieved top management.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding factors that successfully contribute to the development of women entrepreneurs from a career development perspective is a critical endeavor for any type of organization. This qualitative research is limited to US for‐profit organizations.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it provides a unique way to look at the career development for women from those who reached top management and their motivations to become entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Hassan I. Ballout

Despite widespread acknowledgement that work‐family conflict and career success are salient issues that impact individual wellbeing and organizational effectiveness, there…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite widespread acknowledgement that work‐family conflict and career success are salient issues that impact individual wellbeing and organizational effectiveness, there is little research that studies how the two concepts are related. The purpose of this paper is to develop and present a tentative framework for understanding the relationships among antecedents of interrole conflict between work and family and career success.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on existing theoretical and empirical evidence the paper develops and presents a conceptual framework of the relationships between domain‐specific variables, work‐family conflict, and career success. The paper also presents propositions based on the relationships suggested by the framework.

Findings

The framework suggests that individual‐specific variables will be more likely to predict family‐to‐work conflict and perceived career success, while work‐specific variables will be more likely to predict work‐to‐family conflict and perceived career success. It also suggests that such domain‐specific variables influence both work‐family conflict and career success.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine empirically the linkages suggested by this framework, along with other domain‐specific and, perhaps, cultural‐specific variables that may explain or predict dimensions of organizational cultures that are most relevant to the types of work‐family conflict and to indicators of career success. The paper suggests that employees and employers would be well advised to identify appropriate strategies for balancing work and non‐work domains in such a way that employees strive to perform work and family roles successfully, and employers ensure that employees have the necessary “infrastucture” and tailored‐made family supportive programs to encourage them to achieve dual‐success: success in family relationships and success in careers.

Originality/value

This paper makes a valuable contribution to both the work‐family conflict and career success literatures by being one of the first to examine the effects of domain‐specific characteristics on the relationships between these important organizational concepts and by revealing that managing work‐family conflict and career decision making is relevant for employees, employers, and career consultants.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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