Search results

1 – 10 of over 3000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Nana Ama Frimpomaa Agyapong, Reginald Adjetey Annan and Charles Apprey

Cardiovascular diseases threaten the global health system and their prevalence among the incarcerated population poses a huge economic burden to governments. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Cardiovascular diseases threaten the global health system and their prevalence among the incarcerated population poses a huge economic burden to governments. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among prisoners.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was done on published studies that looked at prevalence and risk factors of cardiovascular disease among either male or female prisoners or both. PubMed, PubMed Central, Google scholar, Cochrane and Medline databases were searched from a period of 6 June 2016 to 23 June 2016. Quality assessment was done for all papers based on their methodology.

Findings

Online search yielded a total of 58,587 papers of which 43 were appropriately titled, but 21 were rejected based on their abstracts. Five of the studies could not be included because full texts were not available; 17 studies that met inclusion criteria in terms of abstracts and methodology were included in the study. Majority of the studies assessed weight (64.7 per cent), height (64.7 per cent), body mass index (64.7 per cent) and blood pressure (17.6 per cent) of inmates. Two of the studies used secondary data and one collected qualitative information via focus group discussions. Overall, prevalence of obesity (23.3 per cent), smoking (53.4 per cent) and physical inactivity (57.5 per cent) reported were high among prisoners.

Practical implications

Most of the studies were conducted in developed countries and this implies that there is a paucity of data in developing countries where prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is high. There is the need for more studies to be conducted in this area among developing countries.

Originality/value

This paper informs stakeholders on factors that put inmates at risk of cardiovascular diseases and can initiate timely interventions to be implemented within prisons.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Hamidreza Roohafza, Awat Feizi, Shahnaz Amani Tirani, Masoumeh Sadeghi and Nizal Sarrafzadegan

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of empirically derived dietary patterns with hypertension and hyperlipidemia among a large sample of Iranian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of empirically derived dietary patterns with hypertension and hyperlipidemia among a large sample of Iranian industrial employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional study was done under the framework of Epidemiological Survey of Chronic Diseases on Manufacturing Employees. Major dietary patterns were derived based on a validated short form of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using exploratory factor analysis. Self-administered validated questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic and job-related variables of participants. Multivariable logistic regression was applied for association analyses.

Findings

Higher levels of Western dietary pattern increased significantly the risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% CI [1.36-2.53], P trend <0.001) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.45, 95% CI [1.16-1.81], p = 0.001) even after controlling for confounding variables. The traditional dietary pattern was marginally associated with a significant increase in risk of hyperlipidemia ( = 1.14, 95% CI [0.92-1.41], p = 0.084) in the fully adjusted model. However, higher levels of healthy dietary pattern were significantly associated with a decreased risk of hyperlipidemia in the final model (OR 0.80, 95% CI [0.64-0.90], p = 0.025).

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, an association analysis between dietary patterns and major cardiovascular disease risk in workforce population over the world is scarce and has not yet been conducted among Iranian industrial employees. This study’s findings are especially relevant for the industrial workforce population because they are at high risk of other job-related risks that increase the CVD risk.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Sharan Srinivas, Kavin Anand and Anand Chockalingam

While cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, over 80% of the cases could be prevented through early lifestyle changes. From the perspective…

Abstract

Purpose

While cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, over 80% of the cases could be prevented through early lifestyle changes. From the perspective of quality management in healthcare, this may offer an effective prevention window if modifiable CVD risk factors are identified and treated in adolescence. The purpose of this research is to examine the negative emotions in adolescents and determine if it independently increases CVD risk later in life.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal data from 12,350 participants of the Add Health study, which conducted a multi-wave survey for 14 years from adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4), were used to test the research hypothesis. Four items (perception of life, self-reported depression, perceived loneliness and fearfulness) reflective of adolescent negative emotion were identified from the Wave 1 questionnaire, and factor analysis was conducted to confirm the hypothesized structure. The outcome variable, 30-year adulthood CVD risk category (high or low risk), was estimated using biomarkers, biological data and other factors collected during the 14-year follow-up in Wave 4. A logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the impact of adolescent negative emotions on adulthood CVD risk after adjusting for common risk factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and medical conditions in adolescence.

Findings

The results indicated adolescent negative emotion to be significantly associated with CVD risk category (p-value < 0.0001), even after controlling for common risk factors. A unit increase in the level of adolescent negative emotion increased the chance of being in the high CVD risk group in adulthood by 8% (odds ratio = 1.08 ± 0.03).

Practical implications

Healthcare providers and organizations could capitalize on the research findings by screening for negative emotions early in life through individual and societal interventions. The findings also provide an opportunity for implementing quality improvement initiatives to deliver robust preventive care, which, in turn, could improve the overall population health, reduce healthcare costs and improve care quality.

Originality/value

Although previous studies showed a strong link between adolescent physiological factors (e.g. obesity) and adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD), the association between adolescent outlook/attitude (negative emotion) and CVD risk has not been examined.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Adriana da Silva Leite, Josefina Bressan and Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between food consumption classified by the degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk factors in a population…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between food consumption classified by the degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk factors in a population at risk of cardiovascular disease.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study conducted with 325 adults and elderlies who present a cardiovascular risk factor. The food consumption was evaluated by a 24 h dietary recall, and it was classified according to the NOVA classification.

Findings

Individuals who presented a higher consumption of processed and ultra-processed food had a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR = 1.005; p-value = 0.049), waist circumference (PR = 1.003; p-value = 0.02) and high total cholesterol (PR = 1.008; p-value = 0.047), while ultra-processed had a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR = 1.004; p-value = 0.04), and abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR = 1.005; p-value = 0.04), waist circumference (PR = 1.004; p-value = 0.004) and waist/height ratio (PR = 1.003; p-value = 0.03).

Practical implications

An association was found between the degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk factors, even in a population that already has a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the importance of personalized nutrition orientation that considers the profile of the target population as well as types of meals.

Originality/value

Food processing in itself can influence cardiometabolic risk and, as far as is known, no study has evaluated food processing in individuals who already have some type of cardiovascular risk. Also, consumption was assessed by the degree of processing between meals.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Fatemeh Nouri, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Noushin Mohammadifard, Marjan Mansourian, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Hamidreza Roohafza, Azam Khani and Nizal Sarrafzadegan

The associations between legume consumption and cardiovascular events (CVEs) have extensively been studied. However, there are few studies that considered longitudinal…

Abstract

Purpose

The associations between legume consumption and cardiovascular events (CVEs) have extensively been studied. However, there are few studies that considered longitudinal association between legume consumption (with repeated measurements across time) and CVEs in low-income countries where legume consumption is lower than the Western countries. The authors aimed to investigate the long-term longitudinal relationship between soybean, non-soybean and overall legume consumption and CVEs using repeated measures of legumes and time-varying confounders in a cohort study of the general population.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study was performed within the framework of the Isfahan cohort study among 5,432 healthy participants. The participants were followed-up for fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, fatal and non-fatal stroke and sudden cardiac death for 13 years. Dietary intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2001, 2007 and 2013. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVEs between categories of soybean, non-soybean and overall legumes intake were examined using marginal Cox's regression analysis.

Findings

Long-term consumptions of overall legumes more than three times per week and non-soybean three times or more per week compared with those who had less than once a week were associated with 19.5% (HR = 0.805, 95% CI: 0.650,0.998; p < 0.048) and a 18.5% (HR = 0.815, 95% CI: 0.673, 0.988; p < 0.037) lower risk of CVEs in the general population, respectively. However, our findings revealed no significant reduction in CVEs following a higher intake of soybeans.

Originality/value

In the long run, even modest consumption of legumes, but not soybeans alone, can be effective to reduce CVEs risk in a low-income population. Further studies are warranted to confirm our results in other populations, examine the associations by the type of cardiovascular events and determine any possible threshold effects in this regard.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 April 2012

Kamini Vasudev, Pratish B. Thakkar and Nicola Mitcheson

Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) treated with antipsychotic medication are at increased risk of metabolic side‐effects like weight gain, diabetes mellitus and…

Abstract

Purpose

Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) treated with antipsychotic medication are at increased risk of metabolic side‐effects like weight gain, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study aims to examine the feasibility of maintaining a physical health monitoring sheet in patients' records and its impact on physical health of patients with SMI, over a period of one year.

Design/methodology/approach

A physical health monitoring sheet was introduced in all the patients' records on a 15‐bedded male medium secure forensic psychiatric rehabilitation unit, as a prompt to regularly monitor physical health parameters. An audit cycle was completed over a one year period. The data between baseline and re‐audit were compared.

Findings

At baseline, 80 per cent of the patients were identified as smokers, 80 per cent had increased body mass index (BMI) and 87 per cent had raised cardiovascular risk over the next ten years. Appropriate interventions were offered to address the risks. At re‐audit, the physical health monitoring sheets were up to date in 100 per cent of patients' records. The serum lipids and cardiovascular risk over the next ten years reduced over time. No significant change was noted on the parameters including BMI, central obesity, high blood pressure and smoking status.

Research limitations/implications

This was a pilot study and was limited by the small sample size, male gender only and the specific nature of the ward.

Practical implications

There is a need for improved access to physical health care in long‐stay psychiatric settings. A more robust lifestyle modification programme is required to positively influence the physical health parameters in this cohort of patients.

Originality/value

Introduction of a physical health monitoring sheet in patients' records led to regular screening of cardiovascular risks and subsequent increased prescribing of hypolipidaemic agents in individuals with severe mental illness.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Eduardo Botti Abbade

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between obesogenic severity, the public health situation, environmental impacts, and health care expenditures…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between obesogenic severity, the public health situation, environmental impacts, and health care expenditures in populations worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This ecological study is based on official data available for approximately 140 countries worldwide. This study defines four main variables: obesogenic severity, environmental impact, public health implications (PHI), and health expenditures, all measured through specific indicators. Data were obtained mainly from the WHO, World Bank, and IDF. The indicators were reduced to the main variables through factorial reduction and multiple regression analyses were used to test the main hypotheses.

Findings

Obesogenic severity strongly and positively affects environmental impacts (β=0.6578; p<0.001), PHI-1 (cardiovascular risk factor) (β=0.3137; p<0.001) and PHI-2 (blood glucose and diabetes diagnoses) (β=0.3170; p<0.001). Additionally, environmental impacts strongly and positively affect PHI-1 (β=0.4978; p<0.001) but not PHI-2. Thus, results suggest that environmental impact, PHI-1, and PHI-2 strongly affect health expenditures (β=0.3154; p<0.001, β=0.5745; p<0.001, and β=−0.4843; p<0.001, respectively), with PHI-2 negatively affecting the health expenditures.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that can aid in decision making regarding public and private efforts to better align budgets and resources as well as predict the needs and expenditures of public health care systems.

Originality/value

This investigation finds that the main variables addressed are strongly associated at the worldwide level. Thus, these analytical procedures can be used to predict public health and health care cost scenarios at the global level.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Julia Wong and Shirley Wong

There is a dearth of information on the cardiovascular health of immigrant women. The present study analyzed the dataset from the National Population Health Survey to…

Abstract

There is a dearth of information on the cardiovascular health of immigrant women. The present study analyzed the dataset from the National Population Health Survey to describe the modifiable CVD risk factors of Canadian immigrant women. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in modifiable CVD risk factors with respect to the country of birth, spoken language, and the length of time in Canada. The prevalence of smoking was significantly different across all income groups, with the lowest and middle income groups having the highest prevalence rate. Compared with their non‐white counterparts, the white immigrant women had a greater prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and smoking. Irrespective of race and country of birth, immigrant women tended to have worse CVD risk factors than non‐immigrant women. Age was the most important predictor of heart disease and hypertension. Implications of the study results for evidence‐based practice are discussed.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Olivia Righton, Patrick Egan, Jean M. Russell, Toni M. Cook and Margo Elizabeth Barker

This paper aims to evaluate the dietary advice for cardiovascular health in UK running magazines.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the dietary advice for cardiovascular health in UK running magazines.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative and quantitative content analysis was carried out on 12 issues (2014/2015) of Men’s Running (MR), Runner’s World (RW) and Women’s Running (WR). Coding of content took place into three themes: diet information, format and cardiovascular health.

Findings

Dietary advice comprised 17, 18 and 21 per cent of content in MR, RW and WR, respectively. A Mediterranean dietary pattern (e.g. fruit, vegetables, nuts and seeds, wholegrains and legumes, oily fish) was recommended for cardiovascular health and lowering of BP and plasma cholesterol. Single components of this dietary pattern were emphasised combined with advice to alter fat intake and increase intake of antioxidant nutrients and polyphenols, while advice to restrict salt was scarce. There was minimal emphasis on weight control. Information was often presented as single-page compilations of multiple headlines and snippets. Lexical imperatives and magisterial vocabulary connoted learned expertise and citation of experts and journals was common.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may qualitatively investigate how readers interpret and make use of the nutrition information and dietary advice provided in these magazines. A critical question would be to address whether these dietary messages lead to cardio-protective dietary behaviour.

Practical implications

Improved journalistic reporting of emerging nutritional science is also needed. Magazine editors and journalists need to follow reporting guidelines for science and provide more nuanced information.

Originality/value

This research is the first to describe the content and style of dietary content for cardiovascular health in running magazines.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Tanefa A. Apekey, Anne J.E. Morris, Shamusi Fagbemi and G.J. Griffiths

Healthy diet and lifestyle have been shown to be important for obese patients in the management of diet‐related diseases especially in the improvement of cardiovascular

Abstract

Purpose

Healthy diet and lifestyle have been shown to be important for obese patients in the management of diet‐related diseases especially in the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of a calorie‐restricted low‐fat diet on body weight, cardiovascular disease risk and liver function indicators in an obese, cardiology outpatient with type II diabetes.

Design/methodology/approach

A male, obese cardiology outpatient was assigned to a calorie‐restricted (6,694.4 kJ/d) low‐fat (not to exceed 20 per cent of total energy intake) diet for 12 weeks. His body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, alanine aminotranseferase, aspartate aminotranseferase (AST) concentration and TC/HDL ratio were measured prior to the start of the diet and during weeks four, eight and 12 of the diet.

Findings

The patient found it difficult making changes to his diet and only reduced his weight by 1 kg. He significantly reduced his serum triglyceride by about 20 per cent, TC/HDL ratio by 13 per cent and fasting blood glucose concentration by 31 per cent. However, there was no significant change in his BP, pulse rate, total and LDL cholesterol concentration. He also reduced his AST concentration by 20 per cent and alanine aminotranseferase (ALT) by 19 per cent.

Originality/value

This paper usefully shows how healthier food choices involving increased intake of fruits and vegetables and restricted intake of total and saturated fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular death in a male cardiology outpatient with type II diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000