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Article

Jin Zhang, Xiaoming Qian and Jing Feng

Under the global climate change, carbon footprint has become a hot issue at home and abroad. However, there is no consensus on the concept, measurement and application of…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the global climate change, carbon footprint has become a hot issue at home and abroad. However, there is no consensus on the concept, measurement and application of carbon footprint.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, first, the concept and connotation of carbon footprint are reviewed; then, different methods of carbon footprint measurement are compared, and it is found that “bottom-up” life cycle assessment and “top-down” input–output analysis are applicable to different research scales.

Findings

Finally, the problems in the process of carbon footprint assessment in textile industry are analyzed and further research directions are proposed.

Originality/value

Analyzed and further research directions are proposed.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article

Viachaslau Filimonau

This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of online carbon calculators, assesing their accuracy and ability to provide holistic carbon impact appraisals of different…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of online carbon calculators, assesing their accuracy and ability to provide holistic carbon impact appraisals of different elements of holiday travel. It seeks to identify the major data sources for estimates and establish the interrelatedness between them. The determinant factors for the variance in the magnitude of the carbon footprint appraisals between calculators are critically reviewed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the key online carbon calculators to better understand how estimates of carbon footprint are made, what background information is available to tool users and which factors affect the accuracy and comprehensiveness of appraisals.

Findings

The study concludes that the applicability of existing carbon calculators to carbon impact assessment in tourism is limited. Moreover, poor accesibility of the background data, inconsistencies in the multiplying factors used and inhomogeneity in the appraisal methods employed question the accuracy, credibility and transparency of carbon calculators. Suggestions are made on how to improve the overall quality and reliability of carbon calculators in order to enhance their consistency, transparency and applicability in the tourism domain.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a better understanding of assessment approaches available in the tourism domain to produce reliable estimates of the carbon impacts from holiday travel.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article

Eric S.W. Chan

The term “carbon footprint” emerged during the early 2000s, but many hotels remain unaware of what they should do to implement a comprehensive programme to reduce carbon

Abstract

Purpose

The term “carbon footprint” emerged during the early 2000s, but many hotels remain unaware of what they should do to implement a comprehensive programme to reduce carbon footprint despite having some environmental measures. This study aims to investigate the barriers to reducing hotel carbon footprint and to explore why many hotel managers remain bystanders.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with hotel executives to understand what hinders hotels’ implementation of comprehensive programmes to reduce their carbon footprint. The NVivo 11 software package was used to organise data and code the transcribed interviews to identify patterns and themes.

Findings

The findings identified several main barriers. They were (1) a lack of understanding, (2) a lack of owner initiative, (3) difficulty with measurements, (4) a lack of stakeholder coordination and support, (5) a lack of a strong mediator, (6) balancing interests and (7) risky investment. The findings of this study suggest some specific strategies for overcoming these barriers.

Research limitations/implications

The study sample was restricted to the Hong Kong hotel executives interviewed; therefore, the findings will not reflect the full picture of managerial perceptions. Drawing on the foundations laid by this study, researchers could collect quantitative data from hotels in other countries to conduct a cross-cultural study.

Originality/value

Very few studies have investigated barriers to carbon-footprint reduction programmes. Specifically, none have been published in the hotel environmental management literature. This study represents a preliminary step towards understanding the barriers that prevent hotels from implementing the programmes.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Gemma Bridge, Beth Armstrong, Christian Reynolds, Changqiong Wang, Ximena Schmidt, Astrid Kause, Charles Ffoulkes, Coleman Krawczyk, Grant Miller, Stephen Serjeant and Libby Oakden

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content, food safety, carbon footprint and animal welfare across 29 foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Two versions of an online survey were developed on the citizen science platform, Zooniverse. The surveys explored citizen estimations of energy density (kcal) or carbon footprint (Co2) and food safety or animal welfare of 29 commonly eaten foods. Survey recruitment was conducted via paid promotions on Twitter and Facebook and via paid respondent invites on Qualtrics. The study included approximately 500 participants (Facebook, N˜11 (ratings 358), Twitter, N˜85 (ratings 2,184), Qualtrics, N = 398 (ratings 11,910)). Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square analyses compared citizen estimations with validated values and assessed the impact of the variables on estimations.

Findings

Citizens were unable to accurately estimate carbon footprint and energy content, with most citizens overestimating values. Citizen estimates were most accurate for meat products. Qualtrics was the most successful recruitment method for the online survey. Citizen estimates between platforms were significantly different, suggesting that Facebook and Twitter may not be suitable recruitment methods for citizen online surveys.

Practical implications

Qualtrics was the favourable platform for survey recruitment. However, estimates across all recruitment platforms were poor. As paid recruitment methods such as Qualtrics are costly, the authors recommend continued examination of the social media environment to develop appropriate, affordable and timely online recruitment strategies for citizen science.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that citizens are unable to accurately estimate the carbon footprint and energy content of foods suggesting a focus on consumer education is needed to enable consumers to move towards more sustainable and healthy diets. Essential if we are to meet the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals of zero hunger, good health and wellbeing and responsible consumption and production. The study highlights the utility of Zooniverse for assessing citizen estimates of carbon footprint, energy content, animal welfare and safety of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Sanjay Jharkharia and Chiranjit Das

The purpose of this study is to model a vehicle routing problem with integrated picking and delivery under carbon cap and trade policy. This study also provides…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to model a vehicle routing problem with integrated picking and delivery under carbon cap and trade policy. This study also provides sensitivity analyses of carbon cap and price to the total cost.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated to model the vehicle routing with integrated order picking and delivery constraints. The model is then solved by using the CPLEX solver. Carbon footprint is estimated by a fuel consumption function that is dependent on two factors, distance and vehicle speed. The model is analyzed by considering 10 suppliers and 20 customers. The distance and vehicle speed data are generated using simulation with random numbers.

Findings

Significant amount of carbon footprint can be reduced through the adoption of eco-efficient vehicle routing with a marginal increase in total transportation cost. Sensitivity analysis indicates that compared to carbon cap, carbon price has more influence on the total cost.

Research limitations/implications

The model considers mid-sized problem instances. To analyze large size problems, heuristics and meta-heuristics may be used.

Practical implications

This study provides an analysis of carbon cap and price model that would assist practitioners and policymakers in formulating their policy in the context of carbon emissions.

Originality/value

This study provides two significant contributions to low carbon supply chain management. First, it provides a vehicle routing model under carbon cap and trade policy. Second, it provides a sensitivity analysis of carbon cap and price in the model.

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Article

Mario Schmidt

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the growing public interest in climate protection and the desire for climate‐friendly consumption which has led to a previously…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the growing public interest in climate protection and the desire for climate‐friendly consumption which has led to a previously unimagined demand for Carbon Labels on products and various approaches to calculating the carbon footprint of firms or individual products.

Design/methodology/approach

A principal problem in calculating the carbon footprint is the input required to genuinely map the emissions from cradle to grave, in other words the product life path as is customary in a life cycle assessment. Small‐ and medium‐sized companies especially encounter major problems in practice when trying to calculate their footprint and take aspects of upstream CO2 emissions from their suppliers into account as well. The different options regarding how to balance and to include these emissions are compared.

Findings

Such analyses are indispensable against the background of decreasing vertical integration in industrialised countries. This is the classic question concerning the boundaries of balancing, but here with far‐reaching consequences, as incorrect selection of the limits will also falsify the results and conclusions.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that there are new methods that can be used to determine CO2 emissions in supply chains from stage to stage recursively and simply pass the data on to the next actor in the chain. A company then only needs to take the data from its direct trading partners into account and can dispense with comprehensive life cycle analyses. This would make CO2 calculations easier but it requires a discussion about the question for what kind of decisions the different approaches are really helpful.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article

Alan C. McKinnon

Interest in product‐level carbon auditing and labelling has been growing in both business and government circles. The purpose of this paper is to examine the practical…

Abstract

Purpose

Interest in product‐level carbon auditing and labelling has been growing in both business and government circles. The purpose of this paper is to examine the practical problems and costs associated with highly disaggregated analyses of greenhouse gas emissions from supply chains. It then weighs these problems and costs against the potential benefits of the carbon labelling of products.

Design/methodology/approach

The views expressed in this paper are based on a review of relevant literature, informal discussions with senior managers and personal experience with the practices being investigated.

Findings

Stock‐keeping unit‐level carbon auditing of supply chains and the related carbon labelling of products will be fraught with difficulty and very costly. While simplification of the auditing process, the use of data inventories and software support may assist these processes, the practicality of applying them to all consumer products seems very doubtful. The resulting benefits to companies and consumers are also highly questionable. The main conclusion, therefore, is that product‐level carbon auditing and labelling is a “wasteful distraction” and that it would be better to devote management time and resources to other decarbonisation initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

To date relatively few firms have carbon audited their supply chains at a product level and so industrial experience is limited. Market research on the likely behavioural response to carbon labelling is also at an early stage. There is sufficient evidence available, however, to conduct an initial critique of product level carbon auditing and labelling.

Practical implications

Some companies and government agencies should reconsider their plans for the carbon labelling of products.

Originality/value

This is the first paper in the logistics/supply chain literature to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new form of carbon footprinting and labelling. It is intended to stimulate debate among logistics academics and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article

Matti Kuittinen

This study investigates the carbon footprint of the alternative structure types and materials used for the reconstruction of schools in Haiti. Are recycled construction…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the carbon footprint of the alternative structure types and materials used for the reconstruction of schools in Haiti. Are recycled construction materials more environmental than virgin materials? To estimate which alternative construction solution has the smallest carbon footprint, a survey was made for the school model used for the reconstruction programme in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake.

Design/methodology/approach

The carbon footprint was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology for five different concrete structure alternatives and five different cement mixes for the same design of a school building. In addition, the uptake of CO2 through the carbonation of concrete during 50 years was calculated.

Findings

The carbon footprint of recycled materials can be either the best or worst option, depending on how the materials are used. The difference to using virgin materials is not big. This is mainly due to the lower structural performance of recycled materials, which needs to be compensated for by using additional reinforcements. Using cement mixes that have high amounts of substitutes for cement seems to lower the carbon footprint of structures considerably. The uptake of CO2 in carbonation has potential but requires an optimal design and environment.

Originality/value

The findings give information for humanitarian project managers and designers on lowering the carbon footprint of their construction projects.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article

Sudhir Ambekar, Anand Prakash and Vishal Singh Patyal

The purpose of this paper is to propose a low carbon culture (LCC) adoption model for gaining the right carbon capabilities by integrating the dimensions of flexibility or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a low carbon culture (LCC) adoption model for gaining the right carbon capabilities by integrating the dimensions of flexibility or control and external or internal of competing values framework (CVF) with that of level of carbon emission (LCE).

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviewed literature related to low carbon supply chain, CVF and carbon capabilities to synthesize currently available frameworks for assessing culture and carbon-related insights. Based on these insights, this study proposes the carbon culture adoption model and presents some research propositions.

Findings

This study has extended categorization of culture suggested in CVF from four categories to eight distinct categories by adding “LCE” as a third dimension. The new categories of carbon culture are: “Red,” “Antagonist,” “Obligatory,” “Early Adopter,” “Follower,” “Transitive,” “Pragmatist” and “Green.” This categorization of organizations would help in selecting appropriate low carbon practices (LCPs).

Research limitations/implications

This study presents purely conceptual framework with some research propositions which needs to be empirically tested.

Practical implications

Organizations can formulate right policies for low carbon capabilities based on the LCC of their supply chain.

Originality/value

With increasing awareness about environment across stakeholders, organizations around the world are under pressure to reduce their carbon footprints. The extent of reduction in carbon footprints depends on the right capabilities across the supply chain which in turn depends on selection of the right combination of LCPs based on the supply chain culture.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article

Kanwalroop Kathy Dhanda

This paper aims to explore the area of carbon offsets and carbon neutrality within the context of hotels and resorts. In theory, carbon markets assist organizations in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the area of carbon offsets and carbon neutrality within the context of hotels and resorts. In theory, carbon markets assist organizations in reducing their carbon footprint by purchasing carbon offsets. This conceptual paper aims to explore this market, analyze its operations and evaluate the participants. The expectation is that this original research will provide a foundation for analyzing this market to make sense of the widely disparate views about carbon neutrality held by companies in the hospitality sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study aimed to uncover what claims are currently made about carbon neutrality, what properties are making these claims and are these claims legitimate? A broad Internet search was conducted to collect a sample of hotels and resorts that marketed carbon neutrality as a feature of their properties. Next, a five-point Likert type scale was constructed to analyze every hotel and resort in terms of legitimate reflection of market performance challenges or dimensions. In this study, the hotels that claim to be “Carbon Neutral” were scored according to four market performance dimensions: project quality, carbon calculations, quality information of providers and price per ton of carbon offset.

Findings

The paper’s findings offer a twofold contribution. First, hotels and resorts interested in entering the offset market can use the results as strategic information to bolster efforts to achieve legitimacy and viability in this market. Second, the findings offer a benefit to consumers concerned to reduce their carbon footprint, as the results include a determination of the best hotels and resorts in terms of carbon neutrality.

Research limitations/implications

This research found that the claim “carbon neutral” is used often to attract green consumers. The spectrum of claims ranged from hotels presenting comprehensive carbon management plans or online carbon footprint applications, to hotels that had minimal information and used the “carbon neutral” for marketing purposes only. In numerous cases, the claim of carbon neutrality is not substantiated and, in this case, might be construed as greenwashing.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that claims of carbon neutrality can be exaggerated and that the consumers must themselves be educated to be aware of claims that are unfounded.

Originality/value

Given the large and rising number of offset providers in the unregulated carbon offset industry and the hotel industry, this contribution promises to offer value. This study is one of the first formal analyses of carbon offsets in the hospitality market. The author hopes that this study will encourage others to research the growing market of voluntary carbon offsets further.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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