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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Jesús Miguel Chacón, Miguel Ángel Caminero, Pedro José Núñez, Eustaquio García-Plaza and Jean Paul Bécar

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technologies due to its ability to build thermoplastic parts with complex…

Abstract

Purpose

Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technologies due to its ability to build thermoplastic parts with complex geometries at low cost. The FFF technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping owing to the poor mechanical and geometrical properties of pure thermoplastic parts. However, both the development of new fibre-reinforced filaments with improved mechanical properties, and more accurate composite 3D printers have broadened the scope of FFF applications to functional components. FFF is a complex process with a large number of parameters influencing product quality and mechanical properties, and the effects of the combined parameters are usually difficult to evaluate. An array of parameter combinations has been analysed for improving the mechanical performance of thermoplastic parts such as layer thickness, build orientation, raster angle, raster width, air gap, infill density and pattern, fibre volume fraction, fibre layer location, fibre orientation and feed rate. This study aims to assess the effects of nozzle diameter on the mechanical performance and the geometric properties of 3D printed short carbon fibre-reinforced composites processed by the FFF technique.

Design methodology approach

Tensile and three-point bending tests were performed to characterise the mechanical response of the 3D printed composite samples. The dimensional accuracy, the flatness error and surface roughness of the printed specimens were also evaluated. Moreover, manufacturing costs, which are related to printing time, were evaluated. Finally, scanning electron microscopy images of the printed samples were analysed to estimate the porosity as a function of the nozzle diameter and to justify the effect of nozzle diameter on dimensional accuracy and surface roughness.

Findings

The effect of nozzle diameter on the mechanical and geometric quality of 3D printed composite samples was significant. In addition, large nozzle diameters tended to increase mechanical performance and enhance surface roughness, with a reduction in manufacturing costs. In contrast, 3D printed composite samples with small nozzle diameter exhibited higher geometric accuracy. However, the effect of nozzle diameter on the flatness error and surface roughness was of slight significance. Finally, some print guidelines are included.

Originality value

The effect of nozzle diameter, which is directly related to product quality and manufacturing costs, has not been extensively studied. The presented study provides more information regarding the dependence of the mechanical, microstructural and geometric properties of short carbon fibre-reinforced nylon composite components on nozzle diameter.

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

M. Balasubramanian and S. Madhu

The purpose of this study is to bring out the machining characteristics of abrasive jet machining on carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites utilized in aerospace…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to bring out the machining characteristics of abrasive jet machining on carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites utilized in aerospace and biomedical applications. Biocompatibility materials such as carbon fibres and polyether thermoplastics, like polyether ether ketone (PEEK) are widely used in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Due to the heterogeneity, layered construction of reinforcing phase bonds with a resin matrix and abrasiveness of the reinforcing fibre, traditional drilling of carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRPs) are always challenging task.

Design/methodology/approach

An investigation is carried out using abrasive jet machine for drilling PEEK filled with 30 Wt.% carbon fibre (CF 30) using threaded and unthreaded nozzle to study the effect of abrasive jet process variables on surface roughness (Ra) and delamination factor (DF). Pressure (P) and stand-off distance (SOD) as important technological abrasive jet factors were evaluated. It is found that higher abrasive jet pressure and minimum SOD maybe selected to achieve minimum delamination.

Findings

The study further reported that the threaded nozzle minimized the surface roughness by 43% and delamination factor up to 12%.

Originality/value

This study of experimenting and observing the machining characteristics of CF30 by using a threaded nozzle is being tried for the first time and the results are deliberated.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Salvatore Brischetto

The main idea is the comparison between composites including natural fibres (such as the linoleum fibres) and typical composites including carbon fibres or glass fibres…

Abstract

Purpose

The main idea is the comparison between composites including natural fibres (such as the linoleum fibres) and typical composites including carbon fibres or glass fibres. The comparison is proposed for different structures (plates, cylinders, cylindrical and spherical shells), lamination sequences (cross-ply laminates and sandwiches with composite skins) and thickness ratios. The purpose of this paper is to understand if linoleum fibres could be useful for some specific aerospace applications.

Design/methodology/approach

A general exact three-dimensional shell model is used for the static analysis of the proposed structures to obtain displacements and stresses through the thickness. The shell model is based on a layer-wise approach and the differential equations of equilibrium are solved by means of the exponential matrix method.

Findings

In qualitative terms, composites including linoleum fibres have a mechanical behaviour similar to composites including glass or carbon fibres. In terms of stress and displacement values, composites including linoleum fibres can be used in aerospace applications with limited loads. They are comparable with composites including glass fibres. In general, they are not competitive with respect to composites including carbon fibres. Such conclusions have been verified for different structure geometries, lamination sequences and thickness ratios.

Originality/value

The proposed general exact 3D shell model allows the analysis of different geometries (plates and shells), materials and laminations in a unified manner using the differential equilibrium equations written in general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These equations written for spherical shells degenerate in those for cylinders, cylindrical shell panels and plates by means of opportune considerations about the radii of curvature. The proposed shell model allows an exhaustive comparison between different laminated and sandwich composite structures considering the typical zigzag form of displacements and the correct imposition of compatibility conditions for displacements and equilibrium conditions for transverse stresses.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Navin Kumar, R.S. Walia and Surjit Angra

The aim of the present study is to find the tribological properties of newly developed polyester-based hybrid glass-jute fibre reinforced plastic composites loaded with…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to find the tribological properties of newly developed polyester-based hybrid glass-jute fibre reinforced plastic composites loaded with different weight per cent of hybrid filler particles were investigated under a dry sliding medium from room temperature to 75°C.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out using a pin-on-disc wear test set-up. The design of experiments was carried out in a controlled way using a central composite design based on response surface methodology to observe the effect of various parameters i.e. sliding velocity, sliding distance, the temperature of counterface and different applied load conditions during dry-sliding.

Findings

The maximum wear resistance was found at 9 Wt% loading of filler, 4 ms-1 sliding velocity, 30 N applied load, 54°C temperature of the counterface and 1,100 m sliding distance condition. Optimum values of hybrid filler loading, sliding velocity, applied load, the temperature of the counterface and sliding distance for the minimum coefficient of friction value and minimum friction force are 9 Wt%, 4 ms−1, 30 N, 54° C, 1,100 m and 12 Wt%, 3 ms−1, 20 N, 59°C and 1,100 m, respectively. The worn surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope, for wear dominant mechanisms.

Originality/value

The tribological properties of newly developed polyester-based hybrid glass-jute fibre reinforced plastic composites loaded with different weight % of hybrid filler particles, were investigated under dry sliding medium from room temperature to 75°C has not been attempted yet.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Martin Kadlec, Robin Hron and Liberata Guadagno

The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanical and morphological characterization of new multifunctional carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRCs) that are able…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanical and morphological characterization of new multifunctional carbon fibre-reinforced composites (CFRCs) that are able to overcome two of the main drawbacks of aeronautical composite materials: reduced electrical conductivity and poor flame resistance. Multiwall carbon nanotubes and glycidyl POSS (GPOSS) were used to simultaneously enhance electrical conductivity and flame resistance. The effect of these two combined components on the mechanical and morphological properties of the manufactured CFRCs was analysed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the mechanical test results obtained for interlaminar shear strength, three-point bending, and tensile and fracture toughness in mode I tests. Carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin plates were manufactured in two series with blank resin and CNT+flame retardant GPOSS-enhanced resin.

Findings

The mechanical properties were decreased by no more than 10 per cent by combined influence of CNTs and GPOSS. Agglomerates of CNTs were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The agglomerates were large enough to be visible to the naked eye as black spots on the delaminated fracture surface. The decrease of the mechanical properties could be caused by these agglomerates or by a changed fibre volume content that was affected by the difficult infusion procedure due to high resin viscosity.

Originality/value

If we consider the benefit of CNTs as a nanofiller to increase electrical conductivity and the GPOSS as a component to increase the flame resistance of the resin, the decrease of strength seems to be insignificant.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

M.P. Jenarthanan and R. Jeyapaul

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for the surface delamination through response surface methodology (RSM) and analyse the influences of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for the surface delamination through response surface methodology (RSM) and analyse the influences of the entire individual input machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on the responses in milling of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with solid carbide end mill cutter coated with polycrystalline diamond.

Design/methodology/approach

Three factors, three level face-centered central composite design in RSM was employed to carry out the experimental investigation. The “Design Expert 8.0” software was used for regression and graphical analysis of the data collected. The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the regression equation and by analyzing the response surface contour plots. Analysis of variance was used to check the validity of the model and for finding the significant parameters.

Findings

The developed second-order response surface model is used to calculate the delamination of the machined surfaces at different cutting conditions with the chosen range with 95 per cent confidence intervals. Using such model, one can obtain remarkable savings in time and cost.

Originality/value

The effect of machining parameters on surface delamination during milling of CFRP composites using RSM has not been previously analysed.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Rajkumar D, Ranjithkumar P, M.P. Jenarthanan and Sathiya Narayanan C

The purpose of this paper is to develop a statistical model for delamination and thrust forcing during drilling of carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a statistical model for delamination and thrust forcing during drilling of carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites using response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the input parameters (drill speed, drill diameter and feed rate) that influences the output response (delamination and thrust force) in the machining of CFRP composite using solid carbide drill cutter.

Design/methodology/approach

Three factors, three levels central composite face centred (CCFC) design, is used to conduct the experiments on CFRP by carbide drill. The whole quality evaluation (delamination) was done by video measuring system to measure the width of maximum damage of the machined CFRP composite. The thrust forces during drilling are measured using digital multi-component cutting force (Make: IEICOS, Model: 652) dynamometer. The “Design Expert 7.0” is used to analyse the data collected graphically. An analysis of variance is carried out to validate the model and for determining the most significant parameter.

Findings

The response surface model is used to predict the input factors influencing the delamination and thrust force on the drilled surfaces of CFRP composite at different cutting conditions with the chosen range of 95 per cent confidence intervals. The analysis on the influences of the entire individual input machining parameters on the delamination and thrust force has been carried out using RSM. This investigation revealed that the drill diameter is the eminent factor which affects the responses.

Originality/value

In all, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mm holes have been successfully made on CFRP using vertical machining center, whereas the previous researchers have not drilled hole size less than 1 mm in CFRP using vertical machining center.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

I.A. Ashcroft, D.J. Hughes and S.J. Shaw

Fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPs) are finding increasing usage in many industrial sectors. Adhesive bonding is often the most attractive joining technique for…

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Abstract

Fibre reinforced polymer composites (FRPs) are finding increasing usage in many industrial sectors. Adhesive bonding is often the most attractive joining technique for these materials in terms of structural efficiency and cost of manufacture. However, concerns regarding the lack of reliable design methods, the long term ageing behaviour and the difficulties in non‐destructive evaluation and repair of bonded joints has led to a reluctance to use adhesives in primary structures. DERA has been involved in the assessment of adhesive bonding for joining FRPs for many years. This paper focuses on investigations at DERA into the effects that environment and fatigue loading have on the performance of bonded composite joints, and briefly reviews current approaches to strength and lifetime prediction. It is seen that adhesively bonded composite joints can be significantly affected by the service environment, however, this is highly dependent on the joint type and materials involved.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Ankang Liu, Bing Wang and Fei Li

This paper aims to study the effect of elevated temperature on the compression behaviour of carbon fibre polyphenylene sulphide (CF/PPS) laminates notched and unnotched…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of elevated temperature on the compression behaviour of carbon fibre polyphenylene sulphide (CF/PPS) laminates notched and unnotched specimens made by film stacking method (FSM).

Design/methodology/approach

The surface of CF was coated with a silane coupling agent to form an effective transition layer with PPS, so as to enhance the interfacial interaction between CF and PPS. Considering the influence of fabrication pressure, forming temperature and cooling rate on the properties of laminates to obtain a reasonable preparation process. Conducting a compressive experiment of notched and unnotched specimens at different temperatures, which failure modes were examined by scanning electron microscope and stereo microscope.

Findings

The experimental observations highlight that with the increase of temperature, the transition failure mode from fibre broken to kink-band appeared in unnotched specimens, which were closely attributed to the matrix state. The notched specimens appeared more complex failure mode, which can be attributed to the joint effect of temperature and opening hole.

Research implications

A simple way of FSM for composite material laminates has been developed by using woven CF and PPS films.

Originality/value

The outcome of this study will help to understand the compression response mechanism of composite materials made by FSM at different temperature.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Jenarthanan Mugundhu, R. Jeyapaul and Naresh Neeli

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for delamination through response surface methodology (RSM) and analyse the influences of the entire…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for delamination through response surface methodology (RSM) and analyse the influences of the entire individual input machining parameters (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate) on the responses in milling of glass fibre reinforced plastics (GFRP) composites with solid carbide end mill cutter coated with polycrystalline diamond (PCD).

Design/methodology/approach

Three factors, three levels face-centered central composite design matrix in RSM is employed to carry out the experimental investigation. Shop microscope is used to examine the delamination of GFRP composites. The “Design Expert 8.0” software was used for regression and graphical analysis of the data collected. Analysis of variance is used to check the validity of the model and for finding the significant parameters.

Findings

The developed second-order response surface model is used to calculate the delamination of the machined surfaces at different cutting conditions with the chosen range of 95 per cent confidence intervals. Analysis of the influences of the entire individual input machining parameters on the delamination has been carried out using RSM.

Originality/value

Influence of solid carbide end mill coated with PCD on delamination of bi-directional GFRP composite during milling has not been analysed yet using RSM.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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