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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Jonathan Chenoweth

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbondioxide emissions resulting from…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a range of different travel and tourism options, and quantifies the carbondioxide emissions resulting from international vacations, breaking down emissions categories into those resulting from transport, accommodation and recreation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses summary data to review a range of possible vacation scenarios and examines their relative carbondioxide emissions in order to compare the relative climatic impact of different forms of tourism and vacation options.

Findings

The paper concludes that intercontinental flights and cruise ship travel are particularly carbon‐intensive, which suggests that these two forms of tourism will be particularly vulnerable to any policy initiative to curb or price carbon emissions. Ends by considering whether climatically responsible international tourism is possible, and outlines some low‐carbon options.

Originality/value

The paper relates data on carbon emissions to the implications for tourism arising from climate change.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Pierre van Tonder and Malcolm Shaun Low

There is an increase in greenhouse gasses and global climate change is frequently reported on. What can be done? Certainly to try and reduce the carbon footprint, which is…

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Abstract

Purpose

There is an increase in greenhouse gasses and global climate change is frequently reported on. What can be done? Certainly to try and reduce the carbon footprint, which is not a new topic, by encouraging applications and activities for concrete during its lifetime (Portland Cement Association, 2019). This study aims to focus on introducing CO2 to normal and fly ash concrete and thus investigating the effect on the carbon footprint of the samples and the effectiveness of the CO2 introduction methods, namely, carbonated water addition during the mixing process and by means of an infusion pipe directly into the concrete when the samples are casted and have been casted.

Design/methodology/approach

The feasibility of carbon dioxide storage within concrete is determined by investigating the effects of introduced carbon dioxide into concrete samples and the effectiveness of the concrete at storing carbon dioxide. The concrete was mixed in a 1:3:3 ratio for the OPC or blended 52.5 R cement:sand:stone (22 mm) with a 28 day strength of 50 MPa. Samples were also prepared containing low-grade fly ash cement contents ranging from 15% to 60%. CO2 was introduced to the concrete via carbonated mixing water and an infusion pipe system directly to the hardening concrete cubes. In total, 16 g CO2 bicycle carbon dioxide inflators and valve system were used to infuse the concrete over a period of a week until the canister was emptied with valve release on the lowest setting. A compression test was carried out to determine the strength of the concrete cubes with, and without, the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results were also obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) to determine how the carbon dioxide changed the microscopic composition and chemical composition of the concrete. A microcontroller with carbon dioxide sensors was used to gather carbon dioxide emission data for a period of three months.

Findings

The compressive strength tests show by introducing carbon dioxide to the concrete, the compressive strength has increased by as much as 13.86% as expected from the literature. Furthermore, by infusing carbon dioxide with the fly ash blended cement, will give a higher strength compared to the control with ordinary portland cement. This correlates to an overall reduction in cost for the structure. The optimal fly ash content for the control with minimal strength degradation is 30%. Where the optimal fly ash content for the concrete with carbon dioxide stored within, is 45%. The SEM analysis showed the concrete with sequestered carbon dioxide has significantly more calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel formation, thus the strength increase. Furthermore, the carbon dioxide emission test showed the concrete with infused carbon dioxide stores carbon dioxide more efficiently compared to the control sample. With the data showing the infused sample releases 11.19% less carbon dioxide compared to the control sample. However, the carbonated water sample releases 20.9% more carbon dioxide when compared to the control sample. Thus the introduction of carbon dioxide by means of infusion is more effective.

Practical implications

This is a practical pilot investigation of carbon dioxide introduction via two methods, one being infusion of CO2 into normal concrete and fly ash concrete and two, mixing normal and fly ash concrete with carbonated water. These results show, cheaper cement can be used to achieve equivalent or better strength. This can help in the reduction of the construction industry’s carbon footprint.

Originality/value

By reducing the construction industry’s carbon footprint with this research results, a saving can not only be made financially in the construction industry, but this will help to preserve our environment for future generations.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

R. Sathiendrakumar

Society has to find ways and means to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, to prevent global warming when considering inter‐generational equity…

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Abstract

Society has to find ways and means to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, to prevent global warming when considering inter‐generational equity with respect to environmental quality. The aim of the carbon dioxide emission control is to keep the level of carbon dioxide below a certain threshold level. This paper deals with the various policy instruments that are available to control greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The criteria that should be used in selecting the appropriate policy instruments in controlling carbon dioxide emissions are: efficiency, equity and flexibility. Based on these criteria, the author is of the view that in the short‐run it is important for all the countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. However, in the long‐run, it may be possible to use the Kyoto targets to achieve an international carbon dioxide emission tradable permit system.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 30 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Martin Freedman and Bikki Jaggi

Carbon dioxide emissions are considered to be one of the main culprits in global warming and the Kyoto Protocol specifically targets reductions in carbon dioxide to reduce…

Abstract

Carbon dioxide emissions are considered to be one of the main culprits in global warming and the Kyoto Protocol specifically targets reductions in carbon dioxide to reduce global warming. Because the fossil burning electric utility plants are the primary industrial source of carbon dioxide emissions, we examine how effective the U.S. electric utility companies have been in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. We evaluate 1998 carbon dioxide emissions in relation to the emissions of the base year of 1990 set by the Kyoto Protocol. We also examine whether adequate disclosures are being made by the utilities to reflect their pollution performance. The findings show that the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions increased by 35% in 1998 compared to 1990, but on a relative basis, they decreased from 205 to 204lbs/MMBTU. Though we detect some support for a positive association between pollution disclosures and pollution emissions, the electric utilities in general do not disclose much about global warming or carbon dioxide.

Details

Re-Inventing Realities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-307-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

Details

Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Abstract

Details

Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

ZhenYu Qiu, Qiang Ma, Ying Zhang and Yiwu Yi

This paper aims to discuss the dynamic adsorption processes of carbon dioxide in a porous fixed bed on the industrial scale, using a multiple-relaxation-time lattice…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the dynamic adsorption processes of carbon dioxide in a porous fixed bed on the industrial scale, using a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple-relaxation-time LB model is developed to predict the dynamic adsorption processes of carbon dioxide in a porous fixed bed on the industrial scale. The breakthrough curves from the simulation results are compared with the experimental data to validate the reliability of this model, and the effects of flow velocity, porosity and linear driving force mass transfer coefficient on the adsorption behaviors of carbon dioxide are explored further.

Findings

The numerical results show that the improved fluid flux leads to the reduction in the time required for completion of adsorption processes nonlinearly, and the differential pressure significantly raises with the decreasing porosity of porous fixed bed for fixed values of Reynolds number and total adsorption capacity. The maximum adsorption ratio of carbon dioxide was found at Re = 12 in this work. In addition, the higher mass transfer resistance of adsorbent particles advances the appearance time of the breakthrough point and delays the completion time of the adsorption processes.

Originality/value

This work will provide a way to study the adsorption technology of carbon dioxide in the fixed-bed using the LB method.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2017

David Hone

Abstract

Details

Putting the Genie Back
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-447-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Andrew Smith and Michael Pitt

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the indoor environmental quality benefits of plants in offices by undertaking trials using live plants.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the indoor environmental quality benefits of plants in offices by undertaking trials using live plants.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two offices in the same building, one with plants and one as a control, daily tests were undertaken for relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results were analysed to identify any differences between the office with plants and the one without.

Findings

Relative humidity increased following the introduction of plants and more significantly following additional hydroculture plants being installed, taking it to within the recommended range. Carbon dioxide was slightly higher in the planted office for the majority of the trial, although there was an overall reduction in both offices. Carbon monoxide levels reduced with the introduction of plants and again with the additional plants. VOC levels were consistently lower in the non‐planted office.

Research limitations/implications

It would be useful to extend this research in a greater range of buildings and with more flexible VOC‐monitoring equipment.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that plants may provide an effective method of regulating the indoor environmental conditions within buildings. This can potentially lead to performance gains for the organisation and a reduction in instances of ill health among the workforce.

Originality/value

The majority of previous studies have relied on laboratory work and experimental chambers. This research aims to apply previous findings to a real working environment to determine whether the air‐purifying abilities of plants have practical relevance in the workplace.

Details

Facilities, vol. 29 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Qerim Qerimi

This chapter investigates the trends in international and European legal and policy regulation of the process related to carbon capture and storage (CCS). The global…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the trends in international and European legal and policy regulation of the process related to carbon capture and storage (CCS). The global endeavor that seeks to limit carbon dioxide emissions has come to recognize CCS as an indispensable ally. This chapter offers an up-to-date and comprehensive commentary to the relatively new and developing area of international regulation of the process of CCS, a dimension that might yield significant effects on the environment and, overall, sustainable development. It reveals a constantly growing trend of an enhanced awareness about the indispensable role and effects of the CCS on wider climate aspirations and, to that effect, also a need for a stable and effective international regulatory framework. The key barriers that are preventing the wider implementation of CCS projects, however, relate primarily to two extra-regulatory processes, which is the policy uncertainty at national levels and financial shortcomings. This background presents a window of opportunity for entrepreneurship and policy invention.

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