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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Viachaslau Filimonau

This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of online carbon calculators, assesing their accuracy and ability to provide holistic carbon impact appraisals of different…

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1286

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to conduct a critical analysis of online carbon calculators, assesing their accuracy and ability to provide holistic carbon impact appraisals of different elements of holiday travel. It seeks to identify the major data sources for estimates and establish the interrelatedness between them. The determinant factors for the variance in the magnitude of the carbon footprint appraisals between calculators are critically reviewed.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the key online carbon calculators to better understand how estimates of carbon footprint are made, what background information is available to tool users and which factors affect the accuracy and comprehensiveness of appraisals.

Findings

The study concludes that the applicability of existing carbon calculators to carbon impact assessment in tourism is limited. Moreover, poor accesibility of the background data, inconsistencies in the multiplying factors used and inhomogeneity in the appraisal methods employed question the accuracy, credibility and transparency of carbon calculators. Suggestions are made on how to improve the overall quality and reliability of carbon calculators in order to enhance their consistency, transparency and applicability in the tourism domain.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a better understanding of assessment approaches available in the tourism domain to produce reliable estimates of the carbon impacts from holiday travel.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

John Tzilivakis, Kathleen Lewis, Andrew Green and Douglas Warner

In order to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential that all industry sectors have the appropriate knowledge and tools to contribute. This…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is essential that all industry sectors have the appropriate knowledge and tools to contribute. This includes agriculture, which is considered to contribute about a third of emissions globally. This paper reports on one such tool: IMPACCT: Integrated Management oPtions for Agricultural Climate Change miTigation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

IMPACCT focuses on GHGs, carbon sequestration and associated mitigation options. However, it also attempts to include information on economic and other environmental impacts in order to provide a more holistic perspective. The model identifies mitigation options, likely economic impacts and any synergies and trade-offs with other environmental objectives. The model has been applied on 22 case study farms in seven Member States.

Findings

The tool presents some useful concepts for developing carbon calculators in the future. It has highlighted that calculators need to evolve from simply calculating emissions to identifying cost-effective and integrated emissions reduction options.

Practical implications

IMPACCT has potential to become an effective means of provided targeted guidance, as part of a broader knowledge transfer programme based on an integrated suite of guidance, tools and advice delivered via different media.

Originality/value

IMPACCT is a new model that demonstrates how to take a more integrated approach to mitigating GHGs on farms across Europe. It is a holistic carbon calculator that presents mitigation options in the context other environmental and economic objectives in the search for more sustainable methods of food production.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Katherine Ibbotson and Peter Farrell

Low carbon solutions in infrastructure have been well documented and promoted in most areas of the UK except in the context of public sector Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk…

Abstract

Purpose

Low carbon solutions in infrastructure have been well documented and promoted in most areas of the UK except in the context of public sector Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management (FCERM) infrastructure. With the UK Government providing £2.5bn capital investment to reduce risk of flooding and coastal erosion between 2015 and 2020, the carbon impact of this construction programme will have a significant impact on the UK’s carbon targets. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review focusing on the effect of carbon on climate change, the role of UK public sector FCERM construction and organisational cultural challenges in promoting low carbon.

Design/methodology/approach

An electronic survey of practising professionals in a leading government agency that procures major FCERM construction projects has been undertaken. The survey covers participants from the whole value chain within the project life cycle, since many authoritative sources call for integration, and for change to be implemented in partner organisations.

Findings

The survey shows that although carbon is considered, it is not yet at the level of importance nor is it prioritised to the extent at which cost is. This is for both public and private sector supply chain organisations. Low carbon, although included in discussions, does not feature as prominently throughout all project stages.

Research limitations/implications

The utilisation of a survey for this research is limited as it merely supports current industry findings, albeit having focused on a specific infrastructure area. Further qualitative research is required to fully explore the findings within the survey, and to establish whether the implementation of a new whole life carbon calculator within FCERM construction will have an impact on the organisational culture and future successful implementation of low carbon construction.

Practical implications

The results of this research identify the specific areas in which industry practitioners involved in promoting and prioritising low carbon could focus on to facilitate the change required to fully embed low carbon into FCERM construction.

Social implications

This research supports industry knowledge specifically for public sector FCERM construction, and the changes to organisational culture required to fully embed low carbon solutions in public sector construction. These changes may have an impact on the amount of carbon being used, which can positively affect climate change as a whole.

Originality/value

The literature review shows that carbon has a clear impact on climate change, and organisational culture and leadership can facilitate the successful implementation of new initiatives. However, previous attempts to embed low carbon into infrastructure construction practice have had limited success to date. The survey findings support the view that organisational culture and leadership can influence the successful embedding of low carbon solutions, and why this has been a challenge.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Z. Ren, V. Chrysostomou and T. Price

The purpose of this research project is to reduce the carbon emissions of construction processes by Measuring, Mapping, Modelling and Managing (4Ms) the carbon performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research project is to reduce the carbon emissions of construction processes by Measuring, Mapping, Modelling and Managing (4Ms) the carbon performance of construction activities. This particular paper presents the research work and major findings in the first two stages: measuring the carbon footprint of construction activities in building projects; and mapping the carbon emissions from construction activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A hotel project in South Wales was selected as a case study where the carbon emissions from six categories of construction activities (i.e. management, operations, visitors, deliveries, plant and utilities) were monitored by using carefully designed data collection methods throughout the construction process. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were adopted to distil and map the emissions with construction activities.

Findings

This study provides a benchmark for the carbon emissions from construction processes. The results show that construction activities generate more carbon than expected. Of the CO2 emitted, materials delivery, operational activities and plant operation account for more than 90 per cent of the total emissions. Activities from management, visitors and utilities only contributed 10 per cent of the CO2 emissions. Carbon emissions from construction processes can be best managed through project planning/scheduling where carbon emissions should be considered as a new criterion for project planning along with time, cost and quality.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations with the data collection methods adopted in this study. For example, the fuel/CO2 emission conversion rate for plant was obtained from online sources. This rate needs to be validated and adjusted on‐site with CO2 measurement gauges for different equipment. Similarly, the fuel efficiency adjusting rates for vehicles also need to be checked and verified constantly.

Practical implications

The on‐site carbon emission methods, the mapping approaches between the emission and construction activities, and the online system developed in this study (www.constructco2.com/default.aspx) are all embraced by the industry. So far, 76 projects have already subscripted to the online system.

Originality/value

This study developed a set of systematic and feasible approaches to measuring and analysing carbon emissions from construction activities. Unlike the existing studies which mainly focus on recording the carbon emissions on‐site, this research measured the emissions, and mapped the emissions with construction activities. The online system developed could analyse the data collected and support the contractor to decide in which aspects they should make effort to control the carbon emissions.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Jesper Kronborg Jensen

Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

Over the last decade, multiple initiatives have been undertaken to learn how to capture the carbon footprint of a supply chain at a product level. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the process of standardization to secure consistency of product carbon footprinting (PCF) and to outline how the current developments in PCF support the need for a standardized method to measure and report environmental performance in supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a literature review and a review of international standards for PCF which brings knowledge of PCF to the existing literature of green supply chain management.

Findings

The multiple initiatives for standardization each improve the understanding of standardized methods of conducting PCF. At the same time, however, important differences exist between the standards in terms of the modelling framework to be used when conducting a PCF, and a paradox exists concerning methods for securing future standardization of PCF.

Research limitations/implications

Standards for evaluating emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in supply chains are evaluated without consideration of other environmental impacts. In addition, the research only compares international standards, thereby excluding national initiatives.

Practical implications

Standardization efforts can be expected to shape the future practice of measuring emission of GHGs in companies and supply chains which provides a framework for reducing impacts.

Originality/value

Papers that outline the standardization process for PCF have been examined, but this paper adds value by categorizing the field, outlining the latest standards, and by being the first paper to compare standards for PCF on selected criteria and identify gaps.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Robert P. Sroufe

Abstract

Details

Integrated Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-561-0

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Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Jan Green Rebstock and Hilary Bradbury-Huang

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to discuss managing sustainability across an industry and examine the catalyst, enablers, and challenges for systems-level change…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to discuss managing sustainability across an industry and examine the catalyst, enablers, and challenges for systems-level change through a case study of one organization, the Port of Los Angeles (POLA), and its participation in the Sustainable Enterprise Executive Roundtable (SEER) action learning network.

Methodology/approach – The chapter uses a case study approach, written by reflective practitioners in action.

Findings – The challenges and enablers of achieving organizational change for sustainability within the POLA ecology are addressed as part of a forcefield of enablers and obstacles. Action learning in the context of collaborative projects across the ecology becomes a key process for managing change toward a sustainable goods movement ecosystem.

Research/practical implications – The chapter is addressed to those scholar-practitioners who struggle with issues of organizational change for sustainability outcomes. The core work is to align organizations, within and around the node organization, for sustainability. By analyzing the systems forcefield, we can better perceive the implications for action and identify leverage for change.

Social implications – Organizations are the key unit for culture change for sustainability within society. Engaging with other organizations involved in the work of sustainability is required to create systems-level change.

Originality/value – The scholarly contribution is based on revisiting the usefulness of Lewin's Change Forcefield, which the authors have adapted by integrating the concepts of the learning organization and systems thinking to help understand change and redesign efforts for sustainability within and among organizations.

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Larry Lockshin and Armando Maria Corsi

The purpose of this paper is to present seven mega-topics wine business researchers could collaborate on to help the global wine industry better cope with changes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present seven mega-topics wine business researchers could collaborate on to help the global wine industry better cope with changes occurring across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The first six of these topics emerged at a strategy planning session held in Australia in July 2019, and one more topic of concern was decided to be added that will help wine business researchers better model wine buying/wine tourism behaviour.

Findings

The seven topic areas are profitability and sustainability of different wine business models; interrelated risk and opportunities in the wine supply chain; how to stimulate innovation; managing growing social pressure and social license; building regional resilience and managing local growth; conducting research in emerging markets and how to measure the impact of marketing activities there; and accounting for infrequent and non-wine alcohol buyers in research.

Originality/value

Academics in wine business (and other areas) often pursue research of personal interest and convenience. However, this behaviour has often led to the accusation, particularly from industry, that this research does not really provide answers to the questions that really matter to industry. This viewpoint provides an industry-generated set of big picture research areas that have both academic and practical value.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Andrew Green, John Tzilivakis, Douglas J. Warner and Kathleen Anne Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the suitability of free carbon calculators aimed at the agricultural industry, for use in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the suitability of free carbon calculators aimed at the agricultural industry, for use in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission benchmarking, using the European dairy industry as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon calculators which were claimed to be applicable to European dairy farms were identified and tested using six production scenarios based on data from real European farms supplemented using published literature. The resulting GHG emission estimates, together with estimates apportioned using three functional units, were then compared to determine the robustness of the benchmarking results.

Findings

It was found that although there was a degree of agreement between the seven identified carbon calculators in terms of benchmarking total farm emissions, once a suitable functional unit was applied little agreement remained. Tools often ranked farms in different orders, thereby calling into question the robustness of benchmarking in the studied sector.

Research limitations/implications

The scenario-based approach taken has identified issues liable to result in a lack of benchmarking robustness within this sector; however, there remains considerable scope to evaluate these findings in the field, both within this sector and others in the agricultural industry.

Practical implications

The results suggest that there are significant hurdles to overcome if GHG emission benchmarking is to aid in driving forward the environmental performance of the dairy industry. In addition, eco-labelling foods based on GHG benchmarking may be of questionable value.

Originality/value

At a time when environmental benchmarking is of increasing importance, this paper seeks to evaluate its applicability to sectors in which there is considerable scope for variation in the results obtained.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Kanwalroop Kathy Dhanda

This paper aims to explore the area of carbon offsets and carbon neutrality within the context of hotels and resorts. In theory, carbon markets assist organizations in…

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2476

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the area of carbon offsets and carbon neutrality within the context of hotels and resorts. In theory, carbon markets assist organizations in reducing their carbon footprint by purchasing carbon offsets. This conceptual paper aims to explore this market, analyze its operations and evaluate the participants. The expectation is that this original research will provide a foundation for analyzing this market to make sense of the widely disparate views about carbon neutrality held by companies in the hospitality sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study aimed to uncover what claims are currently made about carbon neutrality, what properties are making these claims and are these claims legitimate? A broad Internet search was conducted to collect a sample of hotels and resorts that marketed carbon neutrality as a feature of their properties. Next, a five-point Likert type scale was constructed to analyze every hotel and resort in terms of legitimate reflection of market performance challenges or dimensions. In this study, the hotels that claim to be “Carbon Neutral” were scored according to four market performance dimensions: project quality, carbon calculations, quality information of providers and price per ton of carbon offset.

Findings

The paper’s findings offer a twofold contribution. First, hotels and resorts interested in entering the offset market can use the results as strategic information to bolster efforts to achieve legitimacy and viability in this market. Second, the findings offer a benefit to consumers concerned to reduce their carbon footprint, as the results include a determination of the best hotels and resorts in terms of carbon neutrality.

Research limitations/implications

This research found that the claim “carbon neutral” is used often to attract green consumers. The spectrum of claims ranged from hotels presenting comprehensive carbon management plans or online carbon footprint applications, to hotels that had minimal information and used the “carbon neutral” for marketing purposes only. In numerous cases, the claim of carbon neutrality is not substantiated and, in this case, might be construed as greenwashing.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that claims of carbon neutrality can be exaggerated and that the consumers must themselves be educated to be aware of claims that are unfounded.

Originality/value

Given the large and rising number of offset providers in the unregulated carbon offset industry and the hotel industry, this contribution promises to offer value. This study is one of the first formal analyses of carbon offsets in the hospitality market. The author hopes that this study will encourage others to research the growing market of voluntary carbon offsets further.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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