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Article

Barbara Mullan, Cara Wong, Emily Kothe and Carolyn Maccann

Breakfast consumption is associated with a range of beneficial health outcomes including improved overall diet quality, lower BMI, decreased risk of chronic disease, and…

Abstract

Purpose

Breakfast consumption is associated with a range of beneficial health outcomes including improved overall diet quality, lower BMI, decreased risk of chronic disease, and improved cognitive function. Although there are many models of health and social behaviour, there is a paucity of research utilising these in breakfast consumption and very few studies that directly compare these models. This study aims to compare the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health action process approach (HAPA) in predicting breakfast consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

University students (N=102; M=19.5 years) completed a questionnaire measuring demographics, TPB and HAPA motivational variables, and intentions. Behaviour and HAPA volitional variables were measured four weeks later.

Findings

Using structural equation modelling, it was found that the TPB model was a superior fit to the data across a range of model indices compared to the HAPA. Both models significantly predicted both intentions and behaviour at follow up; however, the TPB predicted a higher proportion of the variance in breakfast consumption (47.6 per cent) than the HAPA (44.8 per cent). Further, the volitional variables did not mediate the intention-behaviour gap, and the data were not an adequate statistical fit to the model compared to the TPB.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the use of the TPB and show that some aspects of the HAPA are useful in predicting breakfast consumption, suggesting that risk perception and self-efficacy be targeted in interventions to increase behaviour. The volitional variables did not appear to mediate breakfast consumption indicating that intention is still the strongest predictor, at least in this behaviour.

Originality/value

The current study is the first to compare the TPB and HAPA in predicting breakfast consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Barbara Mullan, Cara Wong, Jemma Todd, Esther Davis and Emily Jane Kothe

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the comprehensive Food Safety Knowledge Instrument to compare food hygiene knowledge across a population of high school and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the comprehensive Food Safety Knowledge Instrument to compare food hygiene knowledge across a population of high school and university students in Australia and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 475 students from secondary schools and universities in Australia and the UK took part in a survey, which included a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument and demographic items.

Findings

Food safety knowledge was generally very low. High school students had a mean score of only 38 per cent, while university students just reached a “pass” with a mean of 54 per cent. Demographics accounted for 41 per cent of variance in food knowledge scores. Female gender, being at university rather than high school, and living out of home rather than with parents were associated with greater food knowledge. Residing in Australia rather than the UK and being older were also associated with greater knowledge; however, these findings were subsumed by education group. Socio-economic status was not a significant predictor of food knowledge.

Practical implications

Identifying demographic and cultural differences in food knowledge can help to identify at-risk populations to better target in theory and knowledge-based interventions.

Originality/value

This study is the first to apply the knowledge instrument in an Australian population. Understanding the baseline knowledge in this population is an important first step at developing effective interventions for food safety.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Barbara A. Mullan, Cara L. Wong and Kathleen O'Moore

The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the determinants of hygienic food handling behaviour using the health action process approach (HAPA) and to examine if…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the determinants of hygienic food handling behaviour using the health action process approach (HAPA) and to examine if the volitional components of the model or the addition of past behaviour could explain additional variance in behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A prospective four‐week study investigating the predictive ability of HAPA variables and past behaviour was used. At time 1, 109 participants completed self‐report questionnaires regarding their action self‐efficacy, risk awareness, outcome expectancies and intentions to hygienically prepare food and past behaviour. At time 2, participants returned a follow‐up questionnaire, which measured behaviour, planning, maintenance and recovery self efficacy. Structural equation modelling was used to compare three versions of the HAPA model.

Findings

The first model showed that intention was a significant predictor of behaviour explaining 40 per cent of the variance and was the best fit. The second model, which included the volitional components of the HAPA model, did significantly increase the proportion of behaviour explained. The third model, which included past behaviour, increased the variance explained but was not a superior fit to the previous two models.

Practical implications

The results of this study confirm that aspects of the HAPA may be useful in determining hygienic food handling behaviour. However, volitional variables do not appear to be important in this behaviour. The implications of this for future research and interventions are elucidated.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the first to use the HAPA model to predict hygienic food handling behaviour.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Book part

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Article

Charles D. Bodkin, Cara Peters and Jane Thomas

Company stores market to their internal employees via the distribution of branded promotional products. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that may…

Abstract

Purpose

Company stores market to their internal employees via the distribution of branded promotional products. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that may influence when an employee is more likely to purchase from a company store.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to the members of a chamber of commerce located in the southeastern USA. Data were analyzed using regression, and post hoc analyses were conducted using an analysis of covariance.

Findings

Organizational identification and job satisfaction significantly impacted employees’ intentions to purchase from a company store. Gender, education, marital status and years of work experience were personal factors that moderated that relationship. Firm size and employee rank were company factors that moderated the relationship between employee work perceptions and employee purchase intentions at a company store.

Originality/value

No research to date exists on company stores. This study is unique in that it proposes internal branding as a theoretical foundation for understanding company stores and examines factors that impact employees’ intentions to purchase from a company store.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Book part

Jane Turner and Clare Warren

In 1976, in a speech at Ruskin College, Oxford, Prime Minister James Callaghan asked ‘Why is it that such a high proportion of girls abandon science before leaving…

Abstract

In 1976, in a speech at Ruskin College, Oxford, Prime Minister James Callaghan asked ‘Why is it that such a high proportion of girls abandon science before leaving school?’ (Gillard, 2018). Little has changed over the last 40 years; a recent report from the National Audit Office (2018, p. 28) stated that only 8% of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) apprenticeships were taken up by women in 2016/2017 and that the shortage of STEM skills in the workforce is a key UK economic problem. However, just as the Aldridge marriage has been the source of considerable interest and the site of significant financial investment in terms of designer kitchens and expensive holidays, so has the issue of ‘girls in science’ been a consistently debated topic and taken up a large chunk of government and industry spending. Research (Archer et al., 2013) suggests that although children enjoy their science experiences in school, too few pupils aspire to a STEM career. It reveals that the pupils most likely to aspire to careers in science are those whose families have high ‘science capital’ which ‘refers to the science-related qualifications, understanding, knowledge (about science and “how it works”), interest and social contacts (e.g. “knowing someone who works in a science-related job”)’ (Archer et al., 2016, p. 3).

Episodes of The Archers are full of scientific talk, from herbal leys to plate meters. This chapter looks at how the science capital in Ambridge is shared. Why is Alice Carter an engineer and not Emma Grundy? Will Kiera Grundy choose physics A level? Who are the female STEM role models? How can the concept of science capital help us to understand the career paths of Ambridge residents? Will the young girls of Ambridge remedy the gender imbalance in STEM careers?

Details

Gender, Sex and Gossip in Ambridge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-948-9

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Article

Tom Beall, Jennifer Wayman, Heidi D'Agostino, Angie Liang and Cara Perellis

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into what social marketers see as trends, issues, and opportunities emerging within social marketing globally.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into what social marketers see as trends, issues, and opportunities emerging within social marketing globally.

Design/methodology/approach

A global online survey was conducted among social marketing professionals who were invitees and pre‐registrants attending the Second World Non‐Profit and Social Marketing Conference. The 15‐minute survey was fielded from March 15‐30, 2011.

Findings

Respondents agree that social marketing is at a critical turning point in driving personal behavior and social change around the world. Many success stories lay the foundation for social marketing, but much remains to be done to realize its promise, including better marketing of its proven capabilities. Social marketers see the immediate future as ripe with opportunities for broadening the focus and applications of social marketing and realizing the promise of a growing and dynamic social marketing movement. Emerging developments also are expected to include the expanded importance of digital and social media, community and audience engagement, and public/private partnerships and corporate participation.

Practical implications

Findings underscore the success of social marketing and its growing importance globally. They point to the need to continue to evolve the science and art of social marketing, reflecting strong standards of practice while encouraging creativity and innovation; broaden its applications; better evaluate, package, and marketing proven benefits; and organize and strengthen professional organizations, training and development opportunities, and integration with and within related disciplines and fields such as environmental studies and public administration.

Originality/value

The survey is believed to be a unique, current assessment of social marketers across the globe, including varied professional backgrounds.

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Article

Juanjuan Wu, Hae Won Ju, Jieun Kim, Cara Damminga, Hye-Young Kim and Kim K.P. Johnson

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of three virtual fashion stores using product display methods dominant by colour, visual texture and style…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of three virtual fashion stores using product display methods dominant by colour, visual texture and style coordination on consumers' retailer interest, retail pleasure, perception of merchandise quality, patronage intention, and purchase behaviour to provide empirically tested, actionable product display methods to visual merchandising researchers and practitioners.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used mixed methods for this exploratory study, combining experimental and focus group methods to gather data. For the experiment, data were collected via a between-subjects design reflecting manipulation of three variables (i.e. colour, style coordination, visual texture). After the experiment, participants completed a self-administered online questionnaire. A segment of the participants also participated in focus group discussions of the virtual stores.

Findings

Participants who shopped in the style coordination store spent significantly more money than those who shopped in colour or visual texture stores. Participants who shopped in the colour store experienced significantly more retail pleasure and showed significantly higher patronage intention than those who shopped in the visual texture and style coordination stores; and they showed more retailer interest than subjects in the visual texture store. Retail pleasure and interest were found to mediate the link between methods of product display and patronage intention. Participants' fashion involvement moderated the relationship between fashion product display methods and retail interest.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to create three virtual stores featuring product display methods dominant by colour, visual texture, and style coordination using 3D technology – a Mockshop software package. The effect of these different display methods on shoppers' reactions and responses was tested, which provided actionable results for visual merchandising practitioners, not only in the physical but also in the virtual store environment.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 41 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Content available
Article

Renata Paola Dameri and Pier Maria Ferrando

The aim of our research is to give empirical and theoretical solutions to some criticalities of the original International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF). Indeed…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of our research is to give empirical and theoretical solutions to some criticalities of the original International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF). Indeed, it takes as value creation only the increase of the capitals triggered by business activities, overlooking the fulfilment of the institutional mission that is the actual value creation lever.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper introduces a case study aimed at implementing the IIRF in an Italian non-profit healthcare organisation. The research is based on theory building from cases, action research and interventionist approach. IIRF was adopted because of its claimed ability to support the communication process to stakeholders and the control of value creation. However, IIRF shows several weaknesses.

Findings

An adjusted version of IIRF is suggested, highlighting the role played by IC in the organisational business model and in the value creation process. The adjusted seems able to foster awareness of the role IC in value creation in healthcare organisations.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper no one of the singles pieces of the adjusted framework is innovative by itself, but jointly they give raise to an innovative solution, able to address the disclosing and managerial needs of the examined organisation. The single case study permits to us to test the weaknesses of the IIRF claimed in the literature, to suggest some adjustments to the original framework and to validate their effectiveness. Thanks to the single case study we then built theoretical constructs developing theory inductively; now the suggested framework can be further tested and validated in other organisations.

Originality/value

The paper introduces an innovative approach to IC reporting and disclosure in healthcare organisations. This is relevant not only for external communication but also for internal aims supporting managers in decision and actions.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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Article

Joseph K. Cheung, Jeong‐Bon Kim and Danny Wong

The paper analyses the differential effect of alternative fixed‐cost allocations on managerial effort and risk sharing. In doing so, two alternative schemes are…

Abstract

The paper analyses the differential effect of alternative fixed‐cost allocations on managerial effort and risk sharing. In doing so, two alternative schemes are considered: (1) the lump‐sum allocation; and (2) the proportional allocation. Analyses are conducted in the context of a principal‐agent relationship where the principal retains the prerogative of fixed input decisions but delegates all other productive actions to the agent. The paper limits its focus to a simple class of linear sharing rules that guarantee the agent a fractional share of payoff and a fixed salary. The following summarises the major results of the paper. First, the lump‐sum allocation is neutral in that it has no impact on the agents' choice of effort and the allocation of risk between the principal and the agent. Second, the proportional allocation is distortionary in that it induces the agent to exert less effort given a sharing rule and causes a shift in risk from the principal to the agent.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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