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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Teressa M. Keenan

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one library’s role in the development of a new collaborative captioning service to provide accessible media for classroom use…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one library’s role in the development of a new collaborative captioning service to provide accessible media for classroom use. This pilot project created a new workflow for on-demand captioning of videos.

Design/methodology/approach

Through collaboration and iteration, university and library personnel addressed the challenges involved in building new and improved services related to accessible media resources. Circulation and acquisition data were collected via Alma Analytics.

Findings

Working collaboratively enabled the expansion and improvement of specialized services to the deaf and hard of hearing community on campus.

Originality/value

While many libraries provide captioning for their communities, little is found in the literature to help others establish a similar service. This study demonstrates how collaborative planning can efficiently and effectively use resources and expertise to create a sustainable service, and it may provide an example that could be followed by other institutions with limited budgets.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Harvey Gover

With the start of a new decade in 1980, the public witnessed the arrival of a significant new technology, closed‐captioned television. The culmination of nearly a decade…

Abstract

With the start of a new decade in 1980, the public witnessed the arrival of a significant new technology, closed‐captioned television. The culmination of nearly a decade of research and development, closed‐captioned television opened up a new world for the hearing‐impaired. Closed captioning provides a line of on‐screen, written messages co‐ordinated with the sound of the television program. These captions are “closed” in that they are visible only to viewers who have specially designed adapters, known as decoders, to make the words appear on the screen. More than just subtitles, captioning transcribes narration and sound effects as well as dialog. At last, over sixteen million hearing‐impaired individuals in the United States can read what they cannot hear on television.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Yuhki Shiraishi, Jianwei Zhang, Daisuke Wakatsuki, Katsumi Kumai and Atsuyuki Morishima

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues on how to achieve crowdsourced real-time captioning of sign language by deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) people, such that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues on how to achieve crowdsourced real-time captioning of sign language by deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) people, such that how a system structure should be designed, how a continuous task of sign language captioning should be divided into microtasks and how many DHH people are required to maintain a high-quality real-time captioning.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first propose a system structure, including the new design of worker roles, task division and task assignment. Then, based on an implemented prototype, the authors analyze the necessary setting for achieving a crowdsourced real-time captioning of sign language, test the feasibility of the proposed system and explore its robustness and improvability through four experiments.

Findings

The results of Experiment 1 have revealed the optimal method for task division, the necessary minimum number of groups and the necessary minimum number of workers in a group. The results of Experiment 2 have verified the feasibility of the crowdsourced real-time captioning of sign language by DHH people. The results of Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 have shown the robustness and improvability of the captioning system.

Originality/value

Although some crowdsourcing-based systems have been developed for the captioning of voice to text, the authors intend to resolve the issues on the captioning of sign language to text, for which the existing approaches do not work well due to the unique properties of sign language. Moreover, DHH people are generally considered as the ones who receive support from others, but our proposal helps them become the ones who offer support to others.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

Greg Downey

To explore the historical construction of the US broadcast television closed‐captioning system as a case study of debates over “public service broadcasting” during the

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the historical construction of the US broadcast television closed‐captioning system as a case study of debates over “public service broadcasting” during the late twentieth century.

Design/methodology/approach

Historical.

Findings

Neither the corporate voluntarism promoted by the FCC in the 1970s nor the “public‐private partnership” of the National Captioning Institute (NCI) in the 1980s proved able to sustain a closed‐captioning system; instead, a progressive round of re‐regulation on both the demand side (universal decoder distribution) and the supply side (mandatory program captioning) was necessary to bring the promise of broadcast equality to all deaf and hard‐of‐hearing (D/HOH) citizens.

Originality/value of paper

The decades‐long legal, technological, and institutional battle to define the “public interest” responsibilities of broadcasters toward non‐hearing viewers was fraught with contradiction and compromise.

Details

info, vol. 9 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Erica Getts and Katie Stewart

This paper aims to review existing literature on distance library services for individuals with disabilities with a specific focus on deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) users…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review existing literature on distance library services for individuals with disabilities with a specific focus on deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) users and provide strategies for creating an online library that is accessible to this community.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed articles covering distance library services for D/HH users and then identified specific parts of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 that are applicable to the D/HH community. By using the literature, strategies for developing and purchasing accessible electronic library resources are presented.

Findings

While there is a breadth of literature focused on creating accessible resources for online libraries, there is a gap when it comes to D/HH users. Libraries can cater to this community by providing text-based alternatives for all library instructional materials and working closely with vendors to ensure that library databases are accessible.

Practical implications

The authors present strategies for creating and converting electronic resources and services that are accessible to D/HH users.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in literature by addressing fully online library services for users with disabilities with a particular focus on meeting the needs of D/HH users in a distance-learning environment.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Koraljka Golub and Marianne Lykke

The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate whether it is meaningful to use the Engineering Index (Ei) classification scheme for browsing, and then, if proven…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: to investigate whether it is meaningful to use the Engineering Index (Ei) classification scheme for browsing, and then, if proven useful, to investigate the performance of an automated classification algorithm based on the Ei classification scheme.

Design/methodology/approach

A user study was conducted in which users solved four controlled searching tasks. The users browsed the Ei classification scheme in order to examine the suitability of the classification systems for browsing. The classification algorithm was evaluated by the users who judged the correctness of the automatically assigned classes.

Findings

The study showed that the Ei classification scheme is suited for browsing. Automatically assigned classes were on average partly correct, with some classes working better than others. Success of browsing showed to be correlated and dependent on classification correctness.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should address problems of disparate evaluations of one and the same web page. Additional reasons behind browsing failures in the Ei classification scheme also need further investigation.

Practical implications

Improvements for browsing were identified: describing class captions and/or listing their subclasses from start; allowing for searching for words from class captions with synonym search (easily provided for Ei since the classes are mapped to thesauri terms); when searching for class captions, returning the hierarchical tree expanded around the class in which caption the search term is found. The need for improvements of classification schemes was also indicated.

Originality/value

A user‐based evaluation of automated subject classification in the context of browsing has not been conducted before; hence the study also presents new findings concerning methodology.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Mike Wald

Lectures can be digitally recorded and replayed to provide multimedia revision material for students who attended the class and a substitute learning experience for…

Abstract

Lectures can be digitally recorded and replayed to provide multimedia revision material for students who attended the class and a substitute learning experience for students unable to attend. Deaf and hard of hearing people can find it difficult to follow speech through hearing alone or to take notes while they are lip‐reading or watching a sign‐language interpreter. Notetakers can only summarise what is being said while qualified sign language interpreters with a good understanding of the relevant higher education subject content are in very scarce supply. Synchronising the speech with text captions can ensure deaf students are not disadvantaged and assist all learners to search for relevant specific parts of the multimedia recording by means of the synchronised text. Real time stenography transcription is not normally available in UK higher education because of the shortage of stenographers wishing to work in universities. Captions are time consuming and expensive to create by hand and while Automatic Speech Recognition can be used to provide real time captioning directly from lecturers’ speech in classrooms it has proved difficult to obtain accuracy comparable to stenography. This paper describes the development of a system that enables editors to correct errors in the captions as they are created by Automatic Speech Recognition.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Susan Gilbert Beck

Beck discusses the need to improve library and information services for the deaf community. The technological support available to libraries to serve the deaf is…

Abstract

Beck discusses the need to improve library and information services for the deaf community. The technological support available to libraries to serve the deaf is identified and described. Turnkey systems are found to be lacking in applications devoted to those who cannot hear or who are hard of hearing. Other technologies, like captioned videos, TDDs, and assistive listening systems, are examined for levels of service and excellence as well as cost. Examples of technology in transition and for the future are offered, along with experiments on speech and sound. These include inner ear implants, the “data glove” experiments, and tactile translators. Technological conflicts that may arise due to one person having multiple disabilities are presented with a discussion on the prevention of dangerous or difficult situations. Possible difficulties and ways to handle opposing technologies are examined briefly. Appropriate sections of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Guidelines are grouped with the technologies that aid compliance. Additional laws are mentioned where their inclusion is appropriate. Suggested guidelines for serving the deaf/disabled community are offered for librarians working in all library types.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 13 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Stewart Dickson

This paper aims to present new work on a topic/which has received very little attention.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present new work on a topic/which has received very little attention.

Design/methodology/approach

Rapid prototyping technology is used to provide access to 3D computer graphics and visualization for people with visual disabilities. Software and techniques for composing DotsPlus(tm) Braille text in a three‐dimensional computer‐aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping system are presented.

Findings

Vision‐limited people and people with cognitive or learning disabilities can benefit from casting the results of scientific computing into physical form using rapid prototyping.

Research limitations/implications

Not much is known about the extent of three‐dimensional spatial cognition in people with the kinds of disabilities who might benefit from this work. The argument for this application of rapid prototyping remains to be tested in a laboratory or classroom environment. The manufacturing principles in a limited test scenario are presented here. Work remains to be done to develop software in order to manufacture polygon mesh models from an arbitrary scientific visualization via rapid prototyping with tactile captions applied.

Practical implications

The CAD modeling and rapid prototyping innovations suggested in this paper will create pedagogical models, which are sufficiently robust to withstand the classroom and will lower the cost of producing and distributing these models.

Originality/value

Rapid prototyping has only been used on three documented occasions in the past to create experimental models of scientific information for the blind. There has been no attempt prior to now to integrate captions with these tactile models. These models have not been in general use for education of persons with visual, cognitive or learning disabilities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Diana K. Wakimoto and Aline Soules

This paper seeks to compare the accessibility features and ease of use of three tutorial creation products – Camtasia® 6 (by TechSmith®), Captivate® 4 (by Adobe®), and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to compare the accessibility features and ease of use of three tutorial creation products – Camtasia® 6 (by TechSmith®), Captivate® 4 (by Adobe®), and VoiceThread® – to determine which product creates the most accessible tutorials.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tested the accessibility of the tutorials created using Camtasia, Captivate, and VoiceThread against the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template® (VPAT®) criteria. The tests were completed using JAWS®, a screen‐reading software application. Results were compared to determine which product(s) created the most accessible tutorials. The products' ease of use and user manuals were also evaluated.

Findings

Camtasia and Captivate exceed VoiceThread in terms of accessibility compliance. In testing the products, the paper concluded that the VPATs were accurate, with minor exceptions. All products provide user manuals and help guides; Camtasia and Captivate have steeper learning curves than VoiceThread.

Research limitations/implications

This study compares only three of the available tutorial creation products. Accessibility features may change with new versions.

Practical implications

The results of the evaluation will enable other librarians to make more informed decisions when purchasing and using tutorial creation products.

Social implications

Ensuring accessibility of online resources is everyone's responsibility. This paper will help readers to meet that goal.

Originality/value

While there are comparison studies of the features of Camtasia, Captivate, and VoiceThread, accessibility features are largely uncovered. This study adds this dimension to the literature, enabling librarians to make more informed decisions when selecting and using these products to create accessible tutorials.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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