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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2021

Juhi Gupta and Smita Kashiramka

Systemic risk has been a cause of concern for the bank regulatory authorities worldwide since the global financial crisis. This study aims to identify systemically…

Abstract

Purpose

Systemic risk has been a cause of concern for the bank regulatory authorities worldwide since the global financial crisis. This study aims to identify systemically important banks (SIBs) in India by using SRISK to measure the expected capital shortfall of banks in a systemic event. The sample size comprises a balanced data set of 31 listed Indian commercial banks from 2006 to 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have used SRISK to identify banks that have a maximum contribution to the systemic risk of the Indian banking sector. Leverage, size and long-run marginal expected shortfall (LRMES) are used to compute SRISK. Forward-looking LRMES is computed using the GJR-GARCH-dynamic conditional correlation methodology for early prediction of a bank’s contribution to systemic risk.

Findings

This study finds that public sector banks are more vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks owing to their capital inadequacy vis-à-vis the private sector banks. This study also emphasizes that size should not be used as a standalone factor to assess the systemic importance of a bank.

Originality/value

Systemic risk has attracted a lot of research interest; however, it is largely limited to the developed nations. This paper fills an important research gap in banking literature about the identification of SIBs in an emerging economy, India. As SRISK uses both balance sheet and market-based information, it can be used to complement the existing methodology used by the Reserve Bank of India to identify SIBs.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2009

Douglas Snow and Gerasimos Gianakis

This article summarizes findings of a survey designed to obtain perceptions of municipal finance officers in Massachusetts regarding stabilization fund management…

Abstract

This article summarizes findings of a survey designed to obtain perceptions of municipal finance officers in Massachusetts regarding stabilization fund management strategies. Responses indicate that stabilization funds have become embedded components of municipal revenue management strategies, that municipalities are reluctant to tap stabilization fund balances, and that chief financial officers perceive these balances to be important to bond ratings. Some finance officers report active use of stabilization funds, generally because their communities either rely on the stabilization fund to finance capital projects or because they are currently vulnerable to revenue emergencies. A small number of communities report that they rely on voters to override statutory property tax levy limits, while maintaining stabilization fund balances above the statewide median.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2018

Thomas Gehrig and Maria Chiara Iannino

This paper aims to analyze systemic risk in and the effect of capital regulation on the European insurance sector. In particular, the evolution of an exposure measure…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze systemic risk in and the effect of capital regulation on the European insurance sector. In particular, the evolution of an exposure measure (SRISK) and a contribution measure (Delta CoVaR) are analyzed from 1985 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of multivariate regressions, the main drivers of systemic risk are identified.

Findings

The paper finds an increasing degree of interconnectedness between banks and insurance that correlates with systemic risk exposure. Interconnectedness peaks during periods of crisis but has a long-term influence also during normal times. Moreover, the paper finds that the insurance sector was greatly affected by spillovers from the process of capital regulation in banking. While European insurance companies initially at the start of the Basel process of capital regulation were well capitalized according to the SRISK measure, they started to become capital deficient after the implementation of the model-based approach in banking with increasing speed thereafter.

Practical implications

These findings are highly relevant for the ongoing global process of capital regulation in the insurance sector and potential reforms of Solvency II. Systemic risk is a leading threat to the stability of the global financial system and keeping it under control is a main challenge for policymakers and supervisors.

Originality/value

This paper provides novel tools for supervisors to monitor risk exposures in the insurance sector while taking into account systemic feedback from the financial system and the banking sector in particular. These tools also allow an evidence-based policy evaluation of regulatory measures such as Solvency II.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Indranarain Ramlall

Abstract

Details

Tools and Techniques for Financial Stability Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-846-4

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Hato Schmeiser, Caroline Siegel and Joël Wagner

The purpose of this paper is to study the risk of misspecifying solvency models for insurance companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the risk of misspecifying solvency models for insurance companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a basic solvency model, the authors examine the sensitivity of different risk measures with respect to model misspecification. An analysis considers the effects of introducing stochastic jumps and linear, as well as non‐linear dependencies into the basic setting on the solvency capital requirements, shortfall probability and expected policyholder deficit. Additionally, the authors take a regulatory view and consider the degree to which the deviations in risk measures, due to the different model specifications, can be diminished by means of requiring interim financial reports.

Findings

The simulation results suggest that the sensitivity of solvency capital as a risk measure – as it is in regulatory practice – underestimates the actual misspecification risk that policyholders are exposed to. It is also found that semi‐annual mandatory interim reports can already reduce the model uncertainty faced by a regulator, significantly. This has important implications for the design of risk‐based capital standards and the implementation of internal solvency models.

Originality/value

The results from the Monte Carlo simulation show that changes in the specification of a solvency model have a much greater impact on shortfall probabilities and expected policyholder deficits than they have on capital requirements. The shortfall risk measures react much more sensitively to small changes in the model assumptions, than the capital requirements. This leads us to the conclusion that regulators should not solely rely on capital requirements to monitor the solvency situation of an insurer, but should additionally consider shortfall risk measures. More precisely, an analysis of model risk focusing on the sensitivity of capital requirements will typically underestimate the relevant risk of model misspecification from a policyholder's perspective. Finally, the simulation results suggest that mandatory interim reports on the solvency and financial situation of an insurance company are a powerful tool in order to reduce the model uncertainty faced by regulators.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Trung Hai Le

The authors provide a comprehensive study on systemic risk of the banking sectors in the ASEAN-6 countries. In particular, they investigate the systemic risk dynamics and…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors provide a comprehensive study on systemic risk of the banking sectors in the ASEAN-6 countries. In particular, they investigate the systemic risk dynamics and determinants of 49 listed banks in the region over the 2000–2018 period.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the market-based SRISK measure of Brownlees and Engle (2017) to investigate the systemic risk of the ASEAN-6's banking sectors.

Findings

The authors find that the regional systemic risk fluctuates significantly and currently at par or higher level than that of the recent global financial crisis. Systemic risk is generally associated with banks that have bigger size, more traditional business models, lower quality in their loan portfolios, less profitable and with lower market-to-book values. However, these relationships vary significantly between ASEAN countries.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on the systemic risk of ASEAN-6 countries. Therefore, the research results may lack generalizability to other countries.

Practical implications

The authors’ empirical evidence advocates the use of capital surcharges on the systemically important financial institutions. Although the region has been pushing to higher financial integration in recent years, the authors encourage the regional regulators to account for the idiosyncratic characteristics of their banking sectors in designing effective macroprudential policy to contain systemic risk.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first study on the systemic risk of the ASEAN-6 region. The empirical evidence on the drivers of systemic risk would be of interest to the regional regulators.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Shatha Qamhieh Hashem and Islam Abdeljawad

This chapter investigates the presence of a difference in the systemic risk level between Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. The authors compare systemic…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the presence of a difference in the systemic risk level between Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. The authors compare systemic resilience of three types of banks: fully fledged Islamic banks, purely conventional banks (CB), and CB with Islamic windows. The authors use the market-based systemic risk measures of marginal expected shortfall and systemic risk to identify which type is more vulnerable to a systemic event. The authors also use ΔCoVaR to identify which type contributes more to a systemic event. Using a sample of observations on 27 publicly traded banks operating over the 2005–2014 period, the authors find that CB is the least resilient sector to a systemic event, and is the one that has the highest contribution to systemic risk during crisis times.

Details

Management of Islamic Finance: Principle, Practice, and Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-403-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2021

Mohamad Hassan and Evangelos Giouvris

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of bank mergers on systemic and systematic risks on the relative merits of product and market diversification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of bank mergers on systemic and systematic risks on the relative merits of product and market diversification strategies. It also observes determinants of M&A deals criteria, product and market diversification positioning, crisis threshold and other regulatory and market factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research examines the impact and association between merger announcements and regulatory reforms at bank and system levels by investigating the impact of various bank consolidation strategies on firms’ risks. We estimate beta(s) as an index of financial institutions’ systematic risk. We then develop an index of the estimated equity value loss as the long-rum marginal expected shortfall (LRMES). LRMES contributes to compute systemic risk (SRISK) contribution of these firms, which is the capital that a firm is expected to need if we have another financial crisis.

Findings

Large acquiring banks decrease systemic risk contribution in cross-border M&As with a non-bank financial institution, and witness profitability (ROA) gains, supporting geographic diversification stability. Capital requirements, activity restrictions and bank concentration increase systemic risk contribution in national mergers. Bank mergers with investment FIs targets enhance productivity but impair technical efficiency, contrary to bank-real estate deals where technical efficiency change accompanied lower systemic risk contribution.

Practical implications

Financial institutions are recommended to avoid trapped capital and liquidity by efficiently using local balance sheet and strengthening them via implementing models that clearly set diversification and netting benefits to determine capital reserves and to drive capital efficiency through the clarity on product–activity–geography diversification and focus. This contributes to successful ringfencing, decreases compliance costs and maximises returns and minimises several risks including systemic risk.

Social implications

Policy implications: the adversative properties of bank mergers in respect of systemic risk require strict and innovative monitoring of bank mergers from the bidding level by both acquirers and targets and regulators and competition supervisory bodies. Moreover, emphasis on regulators/governments intervention and role, as it provides a stabilising factor of the markets and consecutively lower systemic risk even if the systematic idiosyncratic risk contribution was significant. However, such roles have to be well planned and scaled to avoid providing motives for banks to seek too-big-too-fail or too-big-to-discipline status.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the renewing regulatory debate on banks sustainable structures by examining the risk effect of bank diversification versus focus. The authors aim to address the multidimensional impacts and risks inherent to M&A deals, by examining the extent of the interconnectedness of M&A and its implications within and beyond the banking sector.

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Andreas Krause

Financial institutions have been subject to minimum capital requirements for considerable time while other companies do not face any such regulation. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Financial institutions have been subject to minimum capital requirements for considerable time while other companies do not face any such regulation. This paper investigates the capital requirements of companies and how it should relate to the assets of a company.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical approach in this paper integrates aspects of liquidity, asset characteristics and capital requirements into a single setting to address the problem of capital requirements for non‐financial companies.

Findings

The paper develops a framework in which the impact losses have on the future performance of the company are used to develop three categories of capital and suggest a measure for each category. The paper then relates these categories to properties of the assets the capital should be invested in, which include aspects of liquidity as well as the source of this capital. It is finally pointed out how cost considerations can be used to obtain the optimal asset and capital structure of a company.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the conceptual basis for the determination of capital requirements of companies and future research is needed to formalize the ideas presented here more thoroughly and gain additional insights into the relationship to the asset structure.

Practical implications

The results of this paper can be used by companies as a first guide towards deciding on their capital requirements, taking into account the properties of the assets they invest their capital in and how to optimize their capital structure.

Originality/value

The paper provides a first insight into the relationship between capital requirements, asset structure, and risks for non‐financial companies.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 32 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

ANDREA CONSIGLIO, FLAVIO COCCO and STAVROS A. ZENIOS

Insurance liabilities are converging with capital markets products (e.g. derivatives and securitizations), thereby increasing the demand for integrated asset and liability…

Abstract

Insurance liabilities are converging with capital markets products (e.g. derivatives and securitizations), thereby increasing the demand for integrated asset and liability management strategies. This article compares the value‐added by an integrative approach‐based on scenario optimization modelling‐relative to traditional risk management methods. The authors present some examples of products offered by the insurance industry in Italy, and apply the results of the analysis to the design of competitive insurance policies.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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