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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Candida G. Brush, Patricia G. Greene and Friederike Welter

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief history of the evolution of the Diana Project and the Diana International Research Conference. The authors examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief history of the evolution of the Diana Project and the Diana International Research Conference. The authors examine the impact of the publications, conferences and research contributions and consider key factors in the success of this collaborative research organization. They discuss the ongoing legacy, suggesting ways to extend this into the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses an historical narrative and a citation analysis.

Findings

The Diana Project was founded by five women professors in 1999 with the purpose of investigating women’s access to growth capital. Following a series of academic articles, and numerous presentations, the first Diana International Conference was held in Stockholm, Sweden. At this convening, 20 scholars from 13 countries shared their knowledge of women’s entrepreneurship, venture creation and growth, culminating in the first volume of the Diana Book Series. Since then, 14 international conferences have been held, resulting in 10 special issues of top academic journals and 11 books. More than 600 scholars have attended or participated in Diana conferences or publications.

Research limitations/implications

Contributions from the Diana International Conferences’ special issues of journals and books have advanced theory across topics, levels, geographies and methods. Articles emerging from Diana scholars are some of the top contributions about women’s entrepreneurship and gender to the field of entrepreneurship. Future research directions are included.

Practical implications

This analysis demonstrates the success of a unique woman-focused collaborative research initiative and identifies key success factors, suggesting how these might be expanded in the future.

Social implications

To date, more than 600 scholars have participated in the Diana International Conferences or publications. Diana is the only community dedicated to rigorous and relevant research about gender and women’s entrepreneurship. Going forward, efforts to expand work on education for women’s entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurship faculty and careers, and women entrepreneurs, gender and policy will take place to extend this legacy.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in that it is the first to show the substantial legacy and impact of the Diana project since its inception in 1999. Further, it demonstrates how a feminist approach to entrepreneurial principles can yield insights about this unique research initiative and collaborative organization.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2018

Linda F. Edelman, Róisín Donnelly, Tatiana Manolova and Candida G. Brush

Women-led companies receive less than 5 per cent of early-stage equity investment. This paper aims to explore the disparity in equity funding between men- and women-led…

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Abstract

Purpose

Women-led companies receive less than 5 per cent of early-stage equity investment. This paper aims to explore the disparity in equity funding between men- and women-led companies, using a social identity perspective, complemented by insights from signaling theory. We argue that in the angel group context, which is male-dominated, gender stereotypes may bias angels’ interpretation of the signals sent by entrepreneurs, so that entrepreneurial ventures led by men are more favorably evaluated, thus excluding women entrepreneurs from funding. The ideas are tested on a sample of 358 entrepreneurs who applied for funding from a northeast US angel group using perceptual data from both sides of the investment dyad. Findings suggest that angel investors view women-led entrepreneurial ventures as having less legitimacy, even though we see no difference in actual legitimacy across ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

The ideas are tested on a sample of 358 entrepreneurs who applied for funding from a northeast angel group using perceptual data from both sides of the investment dyad.

Findings

The findings suggest that, in the context of angel investing, there is a subtle bias that follows from the perceived stereotype between being female and the ability to lead a legitimate new venture. Thus, this study tests the tenets of the social identity theory by finding that mostly male angel investors act in accordance to their gender prescribed roles when they evaluate businesses presented by women entrepreneurs providing some evidence of “in-group” and “out-group” effects and stereotypes.

Research limitations/implications

The findings continue the conversation about biases toward women in early-stage financing by using a social identity lens to look at the way in which adopted identities lead to particular outcomes and stereotypes. The authors have used the context of angel investing to test these ideas, finding some support for their contention that gender is pivotal when angels are making investment decisions. For researchers, this study suggests that gender should not be used solely as a control variable, but instead should be the focus of the inquiry itself.

Practical implications

For practitioners, this study reminds women seeking angel investment that they are not playing on a level field and so they should do all that they can to enhance the legitimacy of themselves and their ventures.

Originality/value

The authors contend that within an angel group that is composed of predominantly men, role stereotypes of entrepreneurs as masculine will be expected, therefore creating gender biases against women. The authors expect these biases, whether conscious or unconscious, will lead the angel investors to evaluate men entrepreneurs more favorably than women entrepreneurs as they move through the angel investment process. Therefore, for women entrepreneurs in the early stages of investment funding, the authors posit that the dearth of funding is a function of gender identity stereotypes which may be manifested in hidden and often unconscious biases on the part of the angel investor.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Shahrokh Nikou, Malin Brännback, Alan L. Carsrud and Candida G. Brush

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior…

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1338

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior use causal statistical approaches to entrepreneurial intentions. This methodological approach, leads to the conclusion that there is a single pathway for all groups of people to achieve business start-up. Even though theory suggests approaches by women entrepreneurs to start a business may be influenced by different factors from those influencing men, results are inconclusive in these analyses. The authors argue that methodological preferences for linear, causal analytical approaches limit the understanding of gender similarities and differences in the business start-up process. The authors propose that when considering diverse samples, it is unreasonable to assume there is only a single pathway leading to business start-up.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) and data set of 2,038 respondents, the authors investigate factors predicting the intentions to start a business and evaluate the alternative conjunctive paths that emerge.

Findings

The fsQCA results shows that the relationship among conditions leading to entrepreneurial intentions is complex and is best represented as multiple and conjectural causation configurations. In other words, there are multiple significant pathways (refers to equifinality) that predict intentions to start a business start-up, and there are significant differences by gender.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the roll of gender as a sperate condition in the analysis. This paper offers implications for theory and future research and highlights the complexity of this domain.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Candida G. Brush, Susan Duffy and Donna Kelley

The purpose of this short report is to provide a summary of the inaugural webinar session of the Women's Enterprise Committee (WEC), International Council for Small…

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491

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this short report is to provide a summary of the inaugural webinar session of the Women's Enterprise Committee (WEC), International Council for Small Business (ICSB).

Design/methodology/approach

In a live webinar from Babson College, Professors Brush, Duffy and Kelley discussed key findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2010 Women's Report.

Findings

An important finding was that there are over 40 percent more men than women entrepreneurs in all but one of the 59 countries studied. Women entrepreneurs are also more likely than men to engage in entrepreneurship due to necessity.

Research limitations/implications

It is recognised that further studies are required to determine the reasons behind the differences in male‐female entrepreneurship participation rates globally.

Practical implications

It would appear that considerable scope exists to develop the entrepreneurial potential of women across the globe.

Originality/value

The GEM Women's Report is the most comprehensive study ever conducted on women's entrepreneurial activity internationally, and the webinar offered researchers an opportunity to engage directly with the report authors.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Candida G. Brush and Robert D. Hisrich

This study explores the relationship between the antecedentinfluences – composed of personal background, educational andoccupational experiences, motivations, skills and…

Abstract

This study explores the relationship between the antecedent influences – composed of personal background, educational and occupational experiences, motivations, skills and knowledge, of women entrepreneurs and the growth of their ventures. Findings from this longitudinal study shows experience, business skills, and personal factors do affect the future growth of women‐owned enterprises.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Rangamohan V. Eunni, Candida G. Brush and Rammohan R. Kasuganti

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3709

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Moriah Meyskens, I. Elaine Allen and Candida G. Brush

This study builds on an existing framework for hybrid ventures, those that emphasize both social and economic goals and outcomes. We examine the relationship between human…

Abstract

This study builds on an existing framework for hybrid ventures, those that emphasize both social and economic goals and outcomes. We examine the relationship between human capital characteristics and hybrid ventures. The sample is drawn from the 2008 and 2009 US Global Entrepreneurship Monitor dataset. Our findings suggest that start-up traditional ventures are characterized by entrepreneurs with previous work experience, that females are more likely to lead an established hybrid venture, and that there is a u-shaped relationship with regard to age in start-up hybrid ventures. The findings also suggest that all entrepreneurial ventures exhibit some degree of hybridness.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Candida G. Brush, Anne de Bruin and Friederike Welter

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new gender‐aware framework to provide a springboard for furthering a holistic understanding of women's entrepreneurship.

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11262

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new gender‐aware framework to provide a springboard for furthering a holistic understanding of women's entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on an existing framework articulating the “3Ms” (markets, money and management) required for entrepreneurs to launch and grow ventures. Drawing on institutional theory, it is argued that this “3M” framework needs further development and “motherhood” and “meso/macro environment” are added to extend and mediate the “3Ms” and construct a “5M” framework to enable the study of women's entrepreneurship in its own right.

Findings

It was found that “Motherhood” is a metaphor representing the household and family context of female entrepreneurs, which might have a larger impact on women than men. The meso/macro environment captures considerations beyond the market, such as expectations of society and cultural norms (macro), and intermediate structures and institutions (meso).

Practical implications

For the women entrepreneur, this analysis has implications for understanding the sources of the challenges they face by providing insights on the importance of the interplay of both individual and societal factors that impact on their enterprise. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for an integrated approach for fostering female entrepreneurs that is not blind to overarching institutionalised social structures and gender asymmetries.

Originality/value

The framework helps lay a foundation for coherent research on women's entrepreneurship. It is unique in making explicit the social embeddedness of women entrepreneurs and considers the multiple levels of influence on their entrepreneurial actions.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2002

Linda F. Edelman, Candida G. Brush and Tatiana S. Manolova

Smaller less “glamorous” firms are more prevalent in the US economy than high‐technology companies. These small firms are known for their inability to erect barriers to…

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3497

Abstract

Smaller less “glamorous” firms are more prevalent in the US economy than high‐technology companies. These small firms are known for their inability to erect barriers to imitation, making the development of competitive advantage difficult. In our paper, we study the relationship between firm resources and firm strategies. Based on the contention that the quality of a firm’s strategy cannot be judged independently of the firm resources on which it is based, we examine the relationship between firm resources and strategies in a cross‐section of over 250 small firms. Our findings indicate that small less glamorous firms should follow strategies that bring them closer to their customers, rather than innovation strategies that may be more appropriate for their high‐technology counterparts.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Databases for the Study of Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-325-0

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