Access to higher education for Black men has increased since the 1980s, yet they are not enrolling or graduating from institutions of higher education (IHE) at a rate…
Access to higher education for Black men has increased since the 1980s, yet they are not enrolling or graduating from institutions of higher education (IHE) at a rate comparable to that of their female counterparts. Black males represent a mere 36 percent of the Black college student population in all IHEs and only 32 percent in historically Black colleges and universities. Research shows that the problems on many college campuses can be linked to the status and perceptions of Black men in society as a whole, lack of financial assistance, inadequate learning and supportive environments, and insufficient culturally appealing venues for student engagement. This chapter will delineate the salient factors that affect the success of Black men in higher education and will offer strategies that IHEs can use to increase the success of their Black male students.
This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva…
This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva database reveals variation in depth, breadth, and intensity of BLM coverage in the following newspapers between 2012 and 2016: The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Al Jazeera English. We review contemporary literature on racial inequality and employ Media Framing and Critical Race Theory to discuss the implications of our findings on public perceptions, future policy formation, and contemporary social protest worldwide.
In order to understand how collegiate athletics fits within the wider problem of sexual violence on college campuses, the purpose of this paper is to start with an…
In order to understand how collegiate athletics fits within the wider problem of sexual violence on college campuses, the purpose of this paper is to start with an examination of the overall scope of the issue of sexual violence in the USA and the larger culture that produces it. Next, the relevant laws and adjudication of sexual violence operant in American colleges are outlined. Finally, college athletics is placed into this bigger context by highlighting a number of particular cases to illustrate a broader understanding of collegiate athletes involved in sexual violence.
The author examines the history of rape laws and adjudication and the federal laws relevant to institutions of higher education. The author investigates the debate over adjudication of sexual violence within the criminal justice system or through campus systems. The author read previous literature to determine links between sexual violence and collegiate athletes and highlights particular cases that have gotten significant media attention for clues to the rape prone culture that can be fostered within collegiate athletics.
This analysis highlights how collegiate athletics can be a context that creates a rape prone culture and that universities and the criminal justice system need further reform to overcome long-standing beliefs in rape myths which perpetuate sexual violence, discourage reporting by victims of sexual violence, deter bystander intervention and underplay the impact of sexual violence on victims. Thus, structural changes are needed within collegiate athletic cultures as well as on college campuses to address sexual violence.
College campuses and athletic departments must address climates that create rape prone cultures. There remains a need for systematic data collection of perpetrators of sexual violence, along side data collection of experiences of sexual violence. College campuses and athletic departments must have in place procedures and policy that adhere to federal law, whereby athletes are not treated differently from non-athletes and victims are offered appropriate services that recognize the trauma of sexual violence. Further progress toward a standard of affirmative consent is needed to move toward greater sexual autonomy for everyone.
There is evidence that collegiate athletes are disproportionately represented among the population of sexual violence perpetrators on college campuses. Thus, it is vital to understand this population and that connection. The value of this work is to explicate the complicated adjudication process between university disciplinary processes and the criminal justice system.
Global value chains (GVCs) have become increasingly influential in determining the patterns of international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) and in providing…
Global value chains (GVCs) have become increasingly influential in determining the patterns of international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) and in providing growth opportunities in Asia and the Pacific while small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have been an engine of economic development. The purpose of this paper is to provide effective development strategies and relevant policy approaches to facilitate dynamic insertion of SMEs into GVCs.
This paper was developed based on various Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific works in the fields of the development of SMEs and GVCs in Asia and the Pacific. Sectoral case studies on agribusiness, garment/apparel, automotive and electronics illustrate SMEs’ effective integration into GVCs.
SMEs face multiple obstacles and challenges which may limit the benefits derived from the development of GVCs in Asia and the Pacific. Policymakers are suggested to design and implement appropriate strategies and polices in order to facilitate the development of SMEs under the ongoing globalization.
This paper is mainly based on existing policy papers which were developed by the United Nations Secretariat, its specialized agencies and others. Further empirical and policy studies are expected to be conducted in order to deepen the understanding of the present topics and to come up with practical policy options.
Policymakers are suggested to consider strategies and policy options recommended by this paper for their works on SME development and trade and investment promotion.
This is the first policy paper which proposes a comprehensive framework for SMEs’ effective participation in GVCs, specifically suggesting seven approaches, namely, SME development; trade policy; behind-the-border and cross-border trade facilitation; regional integration frameworks; FDI promotion; SME clusters; and national innovation system.