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Book part
Publication date: 16 July 2015

Amaya Gilson, Susan R. Hemer, Anna Chur-Hansen and Shona Crabb

Risk notification is part of a focus on preventive medicine that is dominant in contemporary Western biomedicine. Genomics has forecasted great advances in alleviating…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk notification is part of a focus on preventive medicine that is dominant in contemporary Western biomedicine. Genomics has forecasted great advances in alleviating disease and prolonging human life, moving from a reactive to a preventative practice. However, in doing so, genomics redraws boundaries, potentially classifying all people as possible carriers of malfunctioning genes. This chapter presents a critical review of the practice of ‘risk notification’ as undertaken by familial cancer genetic testing services, focusing on the right to be informed or not to be informed and implications of knowing.

Methodology/approach

With backgrounds in anthropology, psychology and public health, the authors draw upon literature around risk notification from a range of disciplines.

Findings

In the context of familial cancer, clients may be asked to provide contact information for biological family members to inform them of their potential genetic risk. Through these processes a number of tensions and issues may emerge that relate to fundamental bioethical principles. The ability and decision whether to know, or conversely, to not know, is ethically fraught. We consider the roles and rights of family members and clients, as well as the broader goal of population health.

Originality/value

While much attention has been devoted to clients’ right to know in the context of medical research and treatment, relatively little work has examined the right not to know and adverse consequences of knowing. This review addresses concerns which have rarely been critically examined and debated in the context of risk notification of biological family members.

Details

Genetics, Health and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-581-4

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

Details

Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Suvasish Das Shuvo, Tanvir Ahmad, Dipak Kumar Paul and Md. Ashrafuzzaman Zahid

Breast cancer is the most increasing female cancer worldwide, including Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns…

Abstract

Purpose

Breast cancer is the most increasing female cancer worldwide, including Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and knowledge perception of breast cancer risk patients in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey about 27 frequently consumed food items was conducted among 140 patients in Amader Gram Cancer Care & Research Center. A logistic regression was applied to estimate breast cancer risk. Dietary patterns were analyzed by the principal component analysis: the fat-rich foods (meat, oil, etc.), fruits, vegetables, sugar, tea, coffee, eggs and fish patterns.

Findings

The marginal effect of the logit model estimated an increased risk of breast cancer for a“Fatty Diet”, characterized by a higher consumption of milk (1.2 per cent, p < 0.01), vegetable oils and fats, butter (3.7 per cent, p < 0.05) and red meat (4.9 per cent, p < 0.05), but a decreased risk of breast cancer for a “Fruity and Vegetable Diet”, characterized by a higher consumption of fish (1.3 per cent, p < 0.01), chicken and eggs (5.1 per cent, p < 0.05), fruits (0.05 per cent, p < 0.01) and vegetables (2.9 per cent, p < 0.05). The findings of this study also suggested that weight (0.07 per cent, p < 0.01) and age (19 per cent, p < 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but exercise (13 per cent, p < 0.05) reduced breast cancer risk. The findings also showed that maximum patients had inadequate knowledge on dietary and clinical factors of breast cancer risk, in addition to poor cancer screening practice. Poor knowledge and practice of breast screening were likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer.

Originality/value

The authors found an association between the prudent dietary patterns and breast cancer risk and poor knowledge on nutrition and breast cancer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Tracy Williams, Valerie A. Clarke and Sally Savage

Women’s understanding of familial aspects of breast cancer was examined using both focus groups and interviews. The studies covered issues related to perceptions of breast…

Abstract

Women’s understanding of familial aspects of breast cancer was examined using both focus groups and interviews. The studies covered issues related to perceptions of breast cancer risk factors, perceived breast cancer risk, understanding of risk information, and family history of breast cancer as a risk factor. Study 1 consisted of four focus group discussions with women from the general community. Study 2 comprised ten face‐to‐face interviews with women who had a family history of breast cancer. The results in combination indicate a fairly high level of awareness of family history as a risk factor for breast cancer. However, the definition of a familial history of breast cancer differed between the groups, with those without a family history being more inclusive than those with such a history. The paper concludes with suggestions for use by those developing resources materials for those with a familial history of breast cancer.

Details

Health Education, vol. 102 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

S. Sarkar

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become widespread pollutants and now represent a global contamination problem. The presence of POPs in human serum and adipose…

Abstract

Purpose

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become widespread pollutants and now represent a global contamination problem. The presence of POPs in human serum and adipose tissues have raised public concern regarding their possible role as important etiologic agents in the development of human cancer. This paper aims to investigate the extent of environmental contamination with pesticides and their association with women's risk of breast cancer.

Design/methodology/approach

Various stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, progression), causes and risk factors associated with breast cancer are delineated. A possible mechanism of xenoestrogen and its association with breast cancer incidences in women is included. Recommendations for reducing breast cancer risks in women are also given.

Findings

Epidemiological studies have revealed that persistent pesticide residues in human serum and adipose tissues may increase women's risk of breast cancer. Women are at a greater risk than men of pesticide exposure. The association between organochlorine compounds and breast cancer is a controversial issue and there exists an exigency to execute extensive worldwide epidemiological studies under identical conditions of detected compounds, blood sampling procedures and analytical techniques to achieve conclusive results.

Practical implications

Women's risk of breast cancer associated with pesticide residues could be subjugated by avoiding prolonged occupational exposures, adopting precautionary measures, and changing lifestyle and dietary habits.

Originality/value

The paper shows that restrictions on the application of POPs and the avoidance of prolonged occupational exposure would result in lower concentrations of POP in blood, serum and adipose tissue, thus minimising women's risk of breast cancer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Becky Chandler

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health recommendations can help prevent cancer.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature searches were conducted to find the most up‐to‐date and relevant literature on diet, obesity and cancer to be included in this paper.

Findings

The World Cancer Report predicts that worldwide new cases of cancer will increase by 50 per cent by 2020 and will present a huge challenge for health and cancer support services. However, it is estimated that eating healthily, staying physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight could reduce cancer risk by 30–40 per cent. Evidence suggests that a plant‐based diet including fibre rich foods and a wide range of vitamins and minerals may offer cancer protection, while obesity and low levels of physical activity may increase cancer risk. In 1997 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) produced a pioneering international report: Food Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. The report drew attention to several links between diet and cancer prevention, and made diet and health recommendations to guide health policy and help reduce cancer risk. Adhering to these guidelines has now been shown to predict risk of and mortality from cancer. WCRF/AICR are compiling a second report which will systematically review published research on food, nutrition (including obesity), physical activity and cancer prevention. Also included will be the new and emerging area of nutrition and lifestyle factors for cancer survivors.

Originality/value

Information is presented to give non‐experts a general, up‐to‐date overview on the links between diet, obesity and cancer prevention.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Sandra C. Jones

Pamphlets are widely used by health authorities to inform the public about diseases, and it is essential that the information therein is accurate. This study reviewed the…

Abstract

Pamphlets are widely used by health authorities to inform the public about diseases, and it is essential that the information therein is accurate. This study reviewed the consistency of information on breast cancer screening in materials produced and distributed by Australian health authorities. The study found that there was a clear lack of consensus in terms of the stated lifetime risk of breast cancer; while most agreed that being a woman and increasing age were the major risk factors, there was far less agreement about other risk factors, and the specific representation of symptoms was one of the areas of greatest inconsistency. It appears that this lack of consensus is not unique to Australia, but exists in other countries. Material produced by health authorities is seen by the general public as “expert” opinion, and should be able to correct inaccurate perceptions generated by exposure to other sources. There is a need to develop and disseminate messages that provide women with an accurate understanding of breast cancer and breast cancer screening.

Details

Health Education, vol. 103 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Amir Bagheri, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Hadi Abdollahzad and Farzad Mohammadi

Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, an index that determines the quality of a diet, was created to predict the risk of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, an index that determines the quality of a diet, was created to predict the risk of chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether this index can predict the risk of prostate cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers among men around the world. The study aims to investigate the association between adherence to the AHEI-2010 and the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

Design/methodology/approach

The case–control study was conducted in Kermanshah, Iran in the year 2016. The study included 50 cases of Iranian men with prostate cancer and 150 healthy controls. Anthropometric indices were measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). The AHEI-2010 included 11 food components that were assessed by using a 147-item food frequency questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the association of the AHEI-2010 (expressed as a dichotomous variable) with prostate cancer.

Findings

As per the analysis, there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) between case and control groups, statistically. After adjustment for potential confounders, the higher AHEI-2010 scores were associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer (OR AHEI > 55 vs ≤ 55 = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.63). Moreover, the Mean of AHEI scores was higher in controls than in the cases (p <0.001).

Originality/value

The authors’ findings suggest that adherence to the dietary patterns with high scores of AHEI-2010 is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, so this index may be used as an effective measure to predict prostate cancer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

Rose Chalo Nabirye and Adriane Kamulegeya

The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about oral cancer, its causes and or risk factors among Ugandan patients seeking oral healthcare.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about oral cancer, its causes and or risk factors among Ugandan patients seeking oral healthcare.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional study on adult patients who attended a free dental camp. An assistant-administered questionnaire either in English or Luganda was provided to every even-numbered registered adult who consented to participate in the study. Information on demographics and known risk factors for oral cancer were captured. The two knowledge questions on oral cancers were scored by adding up all the correctly identified causes, non-causes and risk factors then scored out of the total. Data analysis was done by calculating proportions, Student’s’ t-tests and χ2 tests with significant p-value set at 0.05.

Findings

The results showed a low level of awareness/knowledge about oral cancer in studied population. In total, 60 percent and less than 50 percent of respondents identified smoking and alcohol use as risk factors for oral cancer, respectively. Majority of respondents (88.8 percent) would seek help from medical personnel if diagnosed with oral cancer. Screening for cancer was low despite awareness and knowledge that it improves the chances of successful treatment.

Research limitations/implications

Emphasis on risk factors including alcohol use in public health messages, use of mass media, religious and community leaders to disseminate messages to the communities and further research were recommended.

Practical implications

We need to emphasize the role of alcohol in oral cancer causation just as we do for tobacco consumption.

Originality/value

No study has been conducted in Uganda on the level of awareness yet the incidence of the disease and use of high-risk products are rising.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2012

Elena Frank

The discovery of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has facilitated the construction of a new group of women referred to as “previvors” – individuals who are survivors of a…

Abstract

The discovery of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has facilitated the construction of a new group of women referred to as “previvors” – individuals who are survivors of a predisposition to cancer but who are not presently ill. These “previvors” constitute the first generation of women faced with the option to make preventative health choices based on this kind of genetic information. Therefore, this research examines how young BRCA positive women negotiate the medicalization of their bodies based on their new “potentially ill” status. Analyzing the posts in an online forum specifically for “young previvors,” the findings indicate that the majority share an “anything's better than cancer” mantra, suggesting that fear of death largely outweighs all other fears or concerns. Consequently, asserting control by taking preventative action is considered a mechanism for quelling the fear, uncertainty, and stress associated with being a BRCA gene carrier. Constructed as a medical diagnosis, carrying the BRCA mutation is consequently perceived as requiring a corresponding medical treatment. As such, despite the connection these women describe feeling with the “parts that make them a woman,” they appear to believe that they must undergo prophylactic surgery and disassociate from their bodies in order to save their lives. Ultimately, they convince themselves to view their breasts and ovaries simply as nonessential organs, rather than as core components of their feminine, sexual, and reproductive identities.

Details

Issues in Health and Health Care Related to Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, SES and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-125-0

Keywords

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