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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Becky Chandler

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides an overview on the links among diet, obesity and cancer prevention. It also highlights a study which confirms that following specific diet and health recommendations can help prevent cancer.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature searches were conducted to find the most up‐to‐date and relevant literature on diet, obesity and cancer to be included in this paper.

Findings

The World Cancer Report predicts that worldwide new cases of cancer will increase by 50 per cent by 2020 and will present a huge challenge for health and cancer support services. However, it is estimated that eating healthily, staying physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight could reduce cancer risk by 30–40 per cent. Evidence suggests that a plant‐based diet including fibre rich foods and a wide range of vitamins and minerals may offer cancer protection, while obesity and low levels of physical activity may increase cancer risk. In 1997 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) produced a pioneering international report: Food Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. The report drew attention to several links between diet and cancer prevention, and made diet and health recommendations to guide health policy and help reduce cancer risk. Adhering to these guidelines has now been shown to predict risk of and mortality from cancer. WCRF/AICR are compiling a second report which will systematically review published research on food, nutrition (including obesity), physical activity and cancer prevention. Also included will be the new and emerging area of nutrition and lifestyle factors for cancer survivors.

Originality/value

Information is presented to give non‐experts a general, up‐to‐date overview on the links between diet, obesity and cancer prevention.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Funda Evcili and Mine Bekar

Gynecological cancers are preventable and treatable diseases in case of early diagnosis. However, lack of knowledge is one of the factors preventing women from benefiting…

Abstract

Purpose

Gynecological cancers are preventable and treatable diseases in case of early diagnosis. However, lack of knowledge is one of the factors preventing women from benefiting from early diagnosis. Increasing women's knowledge of gynecological cancers contributes to improving the health of both women and the community. The purpose of this research study was to determine the affecting factors and knowledge level of Turkish women-related gynecological cancer prevention.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and was carried out at a state hospital's outpatient clinic between May and June 2019. The sampling included 496 women who are not diagnosed with gynecological cancer in the individual or in the family. Data were collected using the personal information form and Gynecological Cancer Prevention Information Scale (GCPIS). Data were evaluated using the SPSS 22.0 software program. Frequencies, mean and standard deviation were used for the descriptive variables. For the data that met the parametric conditions, those with two groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and those with more than two groups were analyzed using F-test.

Findings

In this study, the GCPIS total mean score of women was found 16.22 ± 8.21 (min: 0, max: 35). A statistically significant difference was found between the women's level of knowledge according to the age group of the participants, education level, economic status perception, regular pap-smear test, regular vulva examination and getting information about prevention from gynecologic cancers (p < 0.05).

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted on a group of Turkish women and cannot be generalized to other cultures.

Practical implications

This study can be beneficial for determining the Turkish women's knowledge levels about gynecological cancers of women and for providing data for health education programs planning to be created.

Social implications

The data of this study can be used to improve women's knowledge and examination skills of gynecological cancers. Thus, the quality of life of women can be improved.

Originality/value

Healthcare professionals can play vital roles in presenting needed knowledge about gynecological cancers and raising awareness in women. It is extremely important for women to be informed about gynecological cancers for prevention of gynecological cancers and health improvement.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Lauren D. Arnold and Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international levels.

Design/methodology/approach – The literature, cervical cancer prevention guidelines, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention resources were culled to aggregate information on epidemiology, racial/ethnic disparities, and knowledge and attitudes related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Original data supplement information about HPV and HPV vaccination knowledge and attitudes.

Findings – Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of female death worldwide, with substantial racial/ethnic and geographic disparities. In the United States, African American and Hispanic women suffer disproportionate cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Globally, the greatest burden of cervical cancer (and HPV infection) is shouldered by developing regions. Prevention efforts, such as HPV vaccination and adaption of screening programs to resource-poor areas, have the potential to reduce such disparities, but cultural context is critical to successful development and implementation of such interventions.

Research limitations/implications – As this is not a systematic review, but rather a viewpoint on issues related to disparities in cervical cancer, the literature review is not exhaustive.

Practical implications – This chapter provides a context for examining cervical cancer disparities domestically and globally and serves as a starting point for formulating future research.

Originality – This perspective on HPV and cervical cancer presents disparities both within the United States and worldwide. The chapter supplements the literature with new data that provide additional insight into knowledge and attitudes about these health issues.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Willa J. Thomas

To gain a better understanding of the importance of the control of cancer, one must first know and understand certain basic facts about the disease. Cancer is the…

Abstract

To gain a better understanding of the importance of the control of cancer, one must first know and understand certain basic facts about the disease. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells. Cancer detection tests determine whether neoplasms (new, abnormal cells) are benign (non‐cancerous) units, or malignant, health‐threatening growths. Of the hundreds of known cancers, there are four types principally affecting humans: sarcoma, cancer of connective tissue and muscles; carcinoma, cancer of lining tissues; leukemia, cancer of blood‐forming tissue; and lymphoma, cancer of lymphatic tissue. Detailed scientific and medical information on cancer can be found in texts written by authorities such as Ruddon (1981).

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Douglas Eadie and Susan MacAskill

Secondary prevention programmes have traditionally employed mass screening approaches to assess for asymptomatic signs of cancer. It has been suggested that early…

Abstract

Purpose

Secondary prevention programmes have traditionally employed mass screening approaches to assess for asymptomatic signs of cancer. It has been suggested that early detection strategies involving public education and self‐referral may prove more cost‐effective with low risk populations for cancers with symptomatic presentation. This study, which was commissioned to inform the development of a cancer awareness campaign, aims to examine public perceptions of the early detection of cancer, the psycho‐social barriers to self‐referral amongst a key at‐risk population and the implications for patient education.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study using qualitative focus groups with an at‐risk population of older people living in deprived communities in west‐central Scotland.

Findings

The findings reveal broad support for initiatives designed to raise symptom awareness. However, fear of cancer can lead to apparently irrational responses to symptoms and subsequent delay, particularly amongst men who are less likely to seek support from lay networks.

Originality/value

Early detection messages need to take account tone and symptom description to allay fears and ensure appropriate presentation. Consideration also needs to be given to the role played by lay and professional opinion formers to informing and supporting patients' decision to present with suspicious symptoms, particularly when targeting harder to reach patients of men, older people, and people living in deprived communities.

Details

Health Education, vol. 108 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Beth Sundstrom, Heather M. Brandt, Lisa Gray and Jennifer Young Pierce

Cervical cancer (CxCa) incidence and mortality remain unacceptably high in South Carolina, USA, presenting an ideal opportunity for intervention. To address this need…

Abstract

Purpose

Cervical cancer (CxCa) incidence and mortality remain unacceptably high in South Carolina, USA, presenting an ideal opportunity for intervention. To address this need, Cervical Cancer-Free South Carolina developed an academic-community partnership with researchers and students at a public university to design, implement, and evaluate a theory-based CxCa communication campaign, It’s My Time. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The goal of this campaign was to decrease CxCa by increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and appropriate screening. This paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a successful theory-based CxCa prevention communication campaign for college women based on formative audience research and targeted messages delivered to audience segments through new and traditional communication channels. The health belief model (HBM) served as a theoretical framework for the campaign throughout development, implementation, and evaluation.

Findings

This campaign demonstrated the effectiveness of the HBM to address CxCa prevention, including HPV vaccine acceptability. The campaign aimed to increase perceptions of susceptibility, which were low, by emphasizing that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection. A community-based grassroots approach to addressing disparities in CxCa prevention increased benefits and decreased barriers. Social media emerged as a particularly appropriate platform to disseminate cues to action. In total, 60 percent of participants who responded to an anonymous web-based survey evaluation indicated that they received the HPV vaccine as a result of campaign messages.

Originality/value

This paper offers practical suggestions to campaign planners about building academic-community partnerships to develop theory-based communication campaigns that include conducting formative research, segmenting target audiences, engaging with young people, and incorporating social media.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Muhanad Ahmed Ali, Farah Ahmad and Marina Morrow

While there is literature that examines factors associated with low participation in cancer screening among Canadian ethnic groups, there is limited understanding of black…

Abstract

Purpose

While there is literature that examines factors associated with low participation in cancer screening among Canadian ethnic groups, there is limited understanding of black visible minorities, particularly Somalis. Thus, the purpose of this study is to synthesize knowledge pertaining to the perceptions, beliefs and barriers of Somali women and men toward screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers in countries such as Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

The scoping review methodology was used to search for peer-reviewed articles that explicitly examined perceptions, beliefs and barriers among Somalis toward screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers in developed countries. The following electronic databases were searched without time frame restrictions, namely, OVID Medline, Embase, CINHAL, PubMed, Scopes and ProQuest. A total of 402 peer-reviewed articles were identified and screened. Three articles were identified through reference list screening (one eligible) and consultation with experts in the networks (two eligible). In total, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for synthesis. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the selected articles for key themes and the synthesis was informed by the socio-ecological model.

Findings

The majority of studies originated from the USA and focused primarily on Somali women and cervical cancer screening. Themes that emerged from the literature include individual-level negative experiences and socio-cultural perceptions/beliefs; community-level barriers in cancer screening; and systemic challenges in navigating the health-care system. Many of the studies focused on individual and community-level determinants of cancer screening, with little attention to systemic level determinants. Other gaps identified include factors influencing Somali men’s low participation in cancer screening; limited studies on colorectal cancer and Somali women; and specific cancer-screening barriers faced by Somalis within the Canadian context.

Originality/value

The findings of the review reveal multiple cancer screening challenges for Somali communities and the gained insights should inform both health and social care practitioners and policymakers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2011

Eva Kahana, Boaz Kahana, Loren Lovegreen, Jeffrey Kahana, Jane Brown and Diana Kulle

This chapter discusses challenges faced by older adult health-care consumers in obtaining access to responsive care from physicians relevant to a broad spectrum of health…

Abstract

This chapter discusses challenges faced by older adult health-care consumers in obtaining access to responsive care from physicians relevant to a broad spectrum of health issues ranging from prevention to chronic illness and end-of-life care. Based on our prior research with community-dwelling elders (E. Kahana & B. Kahana, 2003, 2010), we propose a conceptual model of consumer self-advocacy for better access to effective health care in late life. We argue that older adults who are well informed and confident health-care partners and who involve their physicians in active dialogue will experience better care, and will be more satisfied with their health care. We present findings from our studies of cancer prevention and from our research focused on end-of-life care relevant to patient self-advocacy. We also discuss the role of educational interventions and of patient empowerment in facilitating greater access to responsive health communication and health care, particularly among elders who are disadvantaged and who have low health literacy.

Details

Access to Care and Factors that Impact Access, Patients as Partners in Care and Changing Roles of Health Providers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-716-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Tre Wentling, Carrie Elliott, Andrew S. London, Natalee Simpson and Rebecca Wang

Purpose: We respond to a call for studies of “embodied experiences of stigma in context” by investigating how transgender embodiment shapes perceived needs for access to…

Abstract

Purpose: We respond to a call for studies of “embodied experiences of stigma in context” by investigating how transgender embodiment shapes perceived needs for access to and experiences of “sex-specific” cancer screenings (SSCS) (e.g., breast and prostate exams, Pap smears) in the North American healthcare system.

Design/Methodology/Approach: We analyze data from semistructured interviews with a diverse sample of 35 transgender-identified adults. Based on thematic narrative analysis, we explore four themes in relation to embodiment: discrimination; discomfort and hyperawareness of genitalia; strategic reframing and active management; and SSCS health care encounters as positive and gender affirming.

Findings: In relation to SSCS, transgender individuals experience discrimination, do emotion work, and actively manage situations to obtain needed health care, and sometimes forego care because barriers are insurmountable. Health care providers' responses to transgender embodiment can disrupt health care encounters, but they can also facilitate access and create opportunities for affirmation, agency, advocacy, and new forms of interaction. Embodiment- and gender-affirming interactions with health care providers, which varied by gender, emerged as key influences on participants' experiences of SSCS.

Research Limitations/Implications: Our sample primarily includes binary gender-identified individuals, and while our interview guide covered many topics, the SSCS question did not explicitly reference testicular exams.

Practical Implications: Cancer prevention and detection Cancer prevention and detection require health care professionals who are prepared for differently embodied persons. Preventive cancer screenings are not “sex-specific”; they are relevant to individuals with medically necessary needs regardless of gender identity or embodiment.

Social Implications

Originality/Value: Few medical sociologists have focused on transgender embodiment. Findings enhance our understanding of how transgender embodiment and minority stress processes influence access to needed SSCS.

Details

Sexual and Gender Minority Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-147-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Cheryl L. Holt, Theresa A. Wynn, Ivey Lewis, Mark S. Litaker, Sanford Jeames, Francine Huckaby, Leonardo Stroud, Penny L. Southward, Virgil Simons, Crystal Lee, Louis Ross and Theodies Mitchell

Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African‐American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an…

Abstract

Purpose

Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African‐American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an intervention in which barbers were trained to educate clients about early detection for prostate and CRC.

Design/methodology/approach

Working with an advisory panel of local barbers, cancer survivors and clients, educational materials are developed and pilot tested through use of focus groups and cognitive response interviews.

Findings

The advisory panel, focus groups, and interviews provide key recommendations for core content, intervention structure, and evaluation strategies. The men suggest a variety of things they want to know about prostate cancer, however the perceived need for CRC information is much broader, suggesting a knowledge gap. The men prefer print materials that are brief, use graphics of real African‐American men, and provide a telephone number they can call for additional information.

Research limitations/implications

Community involvement is key in developing a well‐accepted and culturally‐relevant intervention.

Originality/value

The paper usefully describes the process of developing and pilot testing educational materials for use in an intervention in which barbers would be trained as community health advisors, to educate their clients about CRC screening and informed decision making for prostate cancer screening.

Details

Health Education, vol. 109 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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