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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Macie N. Baucum and Robert M. Capraro

The purpose of this paper is to report the change in students' STEM perceptions in two different informal learning environments: an online STEM camp and a face-to-face…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the change in students' STEM perceptions in two different informal learning environments: an online STEM camp and a face-to-face (FTF) STEM camp.

Design/methodology/approach

For this quasi-experimental study, 26 students participated in an online STEM summer camp and another 26 students participated in the FTF STEM camp. Students from each group took the same pre- and post-STEM Semantics Survey documenting their perceptions of the individual STEM fields and of STEM careers. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests, Mann–Whitney U tests and corresponding effect sizes were used to compare the pre- and post-scores within and between the camps.

Findings

Results indicate that both camps produce similar outcomes regarding STEM field and career perceptions. However, analysis of all statistical values indicates that the online STEM camp can produce a larger positive influence on STEM field perceptions and the FTF camp can produce a larger positive influence on STEM career perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

This suggests that STEM camps, both online and in-person, can improve students' perceptions of the STEM fields and of STEM careers. Implications from this study indicate that modifications of informal learning environments should be based on the type of learning environment.

Originality/value

This manuscript discusses the development and impact of an online STEM camp to accommodate for the sudden onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the inability to hold an in-person STEM camp. These results may influence the curriculum and organization of future online and FTF STEM camps.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Book part
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Noël Bezette-Flores and Karine Parker

This chapter summarizes a therapeutic art-based education project in Houston and two United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees resettlement camps in Burkina Faso, a…

Abstract

This chapter summarizes a therapeutic art-based education project in Houston and two United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees resettlement camps in Burkina Faso, a small landlocked country in West Africa. The project, which was developed and led by the authors, Be the Peace – Be the Hope, was born from a spirit of hope and concern for the plight of children; particularly, for the mounting numbers of children displaced by war and conflict. Many of these children now live in resettlement camps. The ages of the participating students ranged from 8 to 22 in the camps. Many participating Houston middle and high school students had arrived recently in the United States and several had been refugees themselves.

Details

Refugee Education: Integration and Acceptance of Refugees in Mainstream Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-796-6

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Sotirios N. Denekos, Nikitas-Spiros Koutsoukis, Efstathios T. Fakiolas, Ioannis Konstantopoulos and Nikolaos P. Rachaniotis

Refugee camps are not easily welcomed by local communities. The purpose of this paper is to outline a structured approach to support the decision-making process for siting…

Abstract

Purpose

Refugee camps are not easily welcomed by local communities. The purpose of this paper is to outline a structured approach to support the decision-making process for siting refugee camps in mainland Greece using multiple criteria, including local opposition. A suitability analysis generates a list of potential sites and a multiple criteria evaluation is applied. The motivation is the development of a methodology that can support choices and policies regarding the refugee camps siting problem, incorporating the need to address local opposition.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed methodology combines geographic information systems (GIS) with multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. These are used to develop a location classification and ranking model based on related criteria and subcriteria, attributes and weights. The region of Peloponnese in Greece is selected as a case study to validate the approach.

Findings

The lack of predefined candidate sites for refugee camps necessitates, initially, tackling a site search problem to generate a pool of potential sites through a suitability analysis. Subsequently, using the GIS the pool yields a subset of potential sites, satisfying all the criteria to setup a refugee camp. Through the current analysis the suitability of the single existing refugee camp site in Peloponnese can be evaluated. Finally, a “with and without” analysis, excluding the social criterion, depicts the changes in the candidate sites pool and their scores.

Research limitations/implications

There is a lack of relevant literature taking into account the local opposition or sociopolitical implications as decision criteria. The selection of the appropriate criteria is a complex process that involves the cooperation of many experts. The main criteria, subcriteria and their attributes were determined according to existing literature and authors' informed judgment.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology can help decision-makers to setup a decision-making system and process for identifying refugee camps' sites using multiple criteria, including local opposition.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Sandi Kawecka Nenga and Lauren A. Apgar

Purpose – To examine how youth appropriate and resist elements of the developmental discourse as they construct and enforce dating norms.Methodology – In 2007, we…

Abstract

Purpose – To examine how youth appropriate and resist elements of the developmental discourse as they construct and enforce dating norms.

Methodology – In 2007, we conducted participant observation at a middle school summer camp for youth in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Youth ranged in age from 11 to 17 years old.

Findings – Youth borrowed the idea of a normative sequence of behaviors arranged by age from the developmental discourse to establish a set of age-appropriate dating norms for all campers, regardless of chronological age. Youth enforced these norms by treating other dating actions as too young or too old. By tying this linear trajectory to social age instead of chronological age, youth creatively altered the apparently rigid developmental discourse and established dating norms which addressed their own values and concerns. Youth established dating norms and maximized opportunities for pleasurable, collective discussions about dating and romantic relationships. Although the developmental discourse influenced the norms in this peer culture, we argue that the small, heterogeneous composition of the camp facilitated youths' ability to appropriate, refashion, and resist the developmental discourse.

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 May 2008

Kyungmi Kim, Zaher Hallab and Matthew Smith

The purpose of this study was to measure the economic benefits generated from equine camping and to increase awareness of tourism development in southern Illinois. A total…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to measure the economic benefits generated from equine camping and to increase awareness of tourism development in southern Illinois. A total of 370 survey questionnaires were collected at equine camping sites. Descriptive analysis revealed that most respondents had at least a high school education with an average annual household income of $64,000. The largest group of respondents by occupation was professionals. About 40% of respondents traveled to southern Illinois with five individuals in a group. The local expenditure model illustrated that non-local equine campers brought about 16 million dollars to southern Illinois in 2004. The economic benefits as measured suggested the potential of further developing equine camping as a major tourism activity in this area.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1489-8

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Book part
Publication date: 2 January 2019

Kathy O’Hare

European policy on migration does not safeguard the rights of refugees as they travel into and across European State borders (Rygiel, Ataç, Köster-Eiserfunke, & Schwiertz

Abstract

European policy on migration does not safeguard the rights of refugees as they travel into and across European State borders (Rygiel, Ataç, Köster-Eiserfunke, & Schwiertz, 2015). Furthermore, refugees currently in transit through Europe have little or no access to media platforms. Mainstream media frames the current migration flow into Europe with narratives of charity, sympathy, and criminality (Rettberg & Gajjala, 2016). Myths about refugees being smuggled into Europe and committing acts of violence are exaggerated by mainstream media and contribute toward shaping societies’ perceptions. Little research is available in relation to how digital and social media tools can play a role in facilitating educational training for refugees in informal refugee camp settings in Europe.

The premise of this research is to explore how, if given access to a digital and social space, camp residents can develop their own digital community-led radio station. In this way, camp residents can have editorial control to create their own narratives, thus directly challenging mainstream media. Participants faced many barriers when attempting to develop digital and communication skills. The learning itself became a form of activism for participants and facilitators. The French government uses a politics of control to disrupt and prevent social development in the camp and prevent the community from becoming a resource (Rygiel, 2011).

Details

Language, Teaching, and Pedagogy for Refugee Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-799-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Angeliki Paidakaki, Rani De Becker, Yana De Reu, Febe Viaene, Shareen Elnaschie and Pieter Van den Broeck

This paper explores social resilience through the lenses of migration. It specifically studies the role of community architects in building socially resilient refugee camps

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores social resilience through the lenses of migration. It specifically studies the role of community architects in building socially resilient refugee camps which are human settlements characterized by a transient and heterogeneous community with unique vulnerabilities. These settlements are managed through exceptional governance arrangements between hegemonic and counter-hegemonic humanitarian organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidences are drawn from the Office of Displaced Designers (ODD), a design-focused creative integration organization active on Lesvos island. During one-month ethnographic research with ODD, empirical data were harvested through an extensive review of project archive materials including transcripts and audio files of interviews with project participants and collaborators conducted by ODD, architectural drawings and teaching materials, photo and video archives and administrative documents. The ethnographic research was complemented with semi-structured interviews with the founding members and former volunteers and partners of ODD; key site visits to the Moria Hotspot and the surrounding Olive Groves; as well as a desk study on European Union (EU) policies and legislative papers and legal information regarding the asylum seeker application procedure in Europe and Greece.

Findings

Reflecting on the potential and limitations of community architects in building socially resilient refugee camps, the paper concludes that in order for community architects to make long lasting improvements they must think holistically and design flexible structural solutions for the entire camp, leverage existing expertise within communities and assist other organizations through administrative, financial and design consultancy support. Community architects are also expected to take active roles in forming pro-equity governance structures and steering pro-resilient humanitarian trajectories by acting as mediators, lobbying their partners, advocating for inclusive practices and social spaces and documenting their projects to build an evidence base across practices and contexts and to strengthen their voice as a collective of community architects.

Originality/value

The role of community architects in building socially resilient human settlements in post-disaster place-based recovery processes has been widely discussed in the disaster scholarship. These studies have primarily emphasized permanent and in situ reconstruction efforts in disaster-affected areas. What remains limitedly discussed is the resilience-building potential of community architects in extraterritorial temporary human settlements characterized by displacement and temporality such as in refugee camps. In light of these observations, the aim of this paper is to push the boundaries of knowledge on post-crisis recovery by re-approaching the notion of social resilience from a migratory perspective and revealing the potential and limitations of community architects in fostering socially resilient refugee camps in new (national) territories.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2014

Eva Nwokah, Susan Cupito and Deana McQuitty

This study examined the impact of an early childhood community-outreach summer camp on teaching single adolescent mothers early communication tools and strategies to…

Abstract

This study examined the impact of an early childhood community-outreach summer camp on teaching single adolescent mothers early communication tools and strategies to support interaction with their infants and toddlers who were language delayed or at risk for language delay. Twenty-two mothers and their children were taught communication strategies through the use of baby signs and Hanen techniques for parents. Pre-post knowledge and skills were assessed. Mothers also completed a post-camp satisfaction questionnaire. Overall, mothers learned the information on baby signs and communication strategies. They were positive about the impact of the camp program activities on the social-emotional and communicative relationship between themselves and their child.

Details

Early Childhood and Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-459-6

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Felix Blank

Refugee camps can be severely struck by pandemics, like potential COVID-19 outbreaks, due to high population densities and often only base-level medical infrastructure…

Abstract

Purpose

Refugee camps can be severely struck by pandemics, like potential COVID-19 outbreaks, due to high population densities and often only base-level medical infrastructure. Fast responding medical systems can help to avoid spikes in infections and death rates as they allow the prompt isolation and treatment of patients. At the same time, the normal demand for emergency medical services has to be dealt with as well. The overall goal of this study is the design of an emergency service system that is appropriate for both types of demand.

Design/methodology/approach

A spatial hypercube queuing model (HQM) is developed that uses queuing-theory methods to determine locations for emergency medical vehicles (also called servers). Therefore, a general optimization approach is applied, and subsequently, virus outbreaks at various locations of the study areas are simulated to analyze and evaluate the solution proposed. The derived performance metrics offer insights into the behavior of the proposed emergency service system during pandemic outbreaks. The Za'atari refugee camp in Jordan is used as a case study.

Findings

The derived locations of the emergency medical system (EMS) can handle all non-virus-related emergency demands. If additional demand due to virus outbreaks is considered, the system becomes largely congested. The HQM shows that the actual congestion is highly dependent on the overall amount of outbreaks and the corresponding case numbers per outbreak. Multiple outbreaks are much harder to handle even if their cumulative average case number is lower than for one singular outbreak. Additional servers can mitigate the described effects and lead to enhanced resilience in the case of virus outbreaks and better values in all considered performance metrics.

Research limitations/implications

Some parameters that were assumed for simplification purposes as well as the overall model should be verified in future studies with the relevant designers of EMSs in refugee camps. Moreover, from a practitioners perspective, the application of the model requires, at least some, training and knowledge in the overall field of optimization and queuing theory.

Practical implications

The model can be applied to different data sets, e.g. refugee camps or temporary shelters. The optimization model, as well as the subsequent simulation, can be used collectively or independently. It can support decision-makers in the general location decision as well as for the simulation of stress-tests, like virus outbreaks in the camp area.

Originality/value

The study addresses the research gap in an optimization-based design of emergency service systems for refugee camps. The queuing theory-based approach allows the calculation of precise (expected) performance metrics for both the optimization process and the subsequent analysis of the system. Applied to pandemic outbreaks, it allows for the simulation of the behavior of the system during stress-tests and adds a further tool for designing resilient emergency service systems.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Karen Milner

The purpose of this paper is to document and analyse the processes underpinning the Southern African Social Innovation Camp (the Camp). This paper details the theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document and analyse the processes underpinning the Southern African Social Innovation Camp (the Camp). This paper details the theoretical basis on which the Camp was designed and assesses the ways in which the participants experienced the camp in light of these theoretical principles.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design was used with four sources of data: participant reviews of the Camp, in-depth interviews with stakeholders, the researcher’s field notes and a reflective blog posted online by one of the participants. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis.

Findings

Three themes emerged from the analysis. The Camp as a foreign but safe space that moves people out of their comfort zones, enabling innovative thinking; the importance of discipline and rigour in self-organising groups; and the interplay of diversity feedback and trust/mistrust. The theoretical principles which informed the design of the Camp were clearly evident in these themes.

Research limitations/implications

No evaluation of the degree of innovativeness/quality of the prototypes. While the focus of the study was on participants’ experiences, a clearer indicator of the innovativeness and usefulness of the prototypes would have provided greater insight.

Originality/value

The study describes a theoretical framework for designing innovation groups and establishes the usefulness of the framework for analysing the group processes. Based on the results, recommendations for effective functioning in innovation groups are proposed: group diversification; discipline and rigour in group facilitation; vigilance in eliminating hierarchy; and managing the interplay between diversity, feedback and trust.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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