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The purpose of this paper is to present and compare alternative theoretical frameworks for understanding entrepreneurship policy: targeted interventions to increase…
The purpose of this paper is to present and compare alternative theoretical frameworks for understanding entrepreneurship policy: targeted interventions to increase venture creation and/or performance. The authors contrast the Standard view of the state as a coherent entity willing and able to rectify market failures with an Individualistic view that treats policymakers as self-interested individuals with limited knowledge.
The authors draw on the perspective of “politics as exchange” to provide a taxonomy of assumptions about knowledge and incentives of both entrepreneurship policymakers and market participants. The authors position extant literature in relation to this taxonomy, and assess the implications of alternative assumptions.
The rationale for entrepreneurship policy intervention is strong under the Standard view but becomes considerably more tenuous in the Individualistic view. The authors raise several conceptual challenges to the Standard view, highlighting inconsistencies between this view and the fundamental elements of the entrepreneurial market process such as uncertainty, dispersed knowledge and self-interest.
Entrepreneurship policy research is often applied; hence, the theoretical rationale for intervention can be overlooked. The authors make the implicit assumptions of these rationales explicit, showing how the adoption of “realistic” assumptions offers a robust toolkit to evaluate entrepreneurship policy.
While the authors agree with entrepreneurship policy interventionists that an “entrepreneurial society” is conducive to economic development, this framework suggests that targeted efforts to promote entrepreneurship may be inconsistent with that goal.
The Individualistic view draws on the rich traditions of public choice and the entrepreneurial market process to highlight the intended and unintended consequences of entrepreneurship policy.
It is suggested that mentor teachers engage in reflective conversations with preservice teachers to develop formative assessment as a teaching skill. However, there is…
It is suggested that mentor teachers engage in reflective conversations with preservice teachers to develop formative assessment as a teaching skill. However, there is minimal evidence documenting this process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process and impact of reflective conversation on preservice teachers’ learning about implementing formative assessment in the classroom.
This study draws on two dyads of mentor and preservice teachers to examine the role of conversation in helping preservice teachers learn to use formative assessment in elementary classrooms in the USA. A comparative case study method is used to analyze and synthesize the similarities, differences and patterns across both cases.
Qualitative data indicate that reflective conversations enable preservice teachers to reflect on their teaching practices and learn how to conduct formative assessment. However, a lack of critical reflection in the conversations results in generic solutions that do not focus on specific aspects of student learning.
This study suggests that mentor teachers using reflective conversation to guide preservice teacher’s critical analysis of their prior assumptions and teaching practices while referencing actual student learning is an essential element in learning to use formative assessment in the classroom.
This study contributes to the line of research that explores conversation between mentor and preservice teachers and provides an empirical analysis of conversations focused on learning to use formative assessment in elementary classrooms.
Existing scholarship indicates that more research is needed to explore beneficial spillovers from public entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in…
Existing scholarship indicates that more research is needed to explore beneficial spillovers from public entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in that literature by examining a case of public entrepreneurship by a corporation. While political engagement by private firms frequently reduces to rent-seeking, this paper explores an instance in which public entrepreneurship by a private firm lead to beneficial spillovers – specifically, positive externalities resulting from the engagement of Cummins Engine Company with city government in Columbus, Indiana. In the case study, these spillovers consist of improved infrastructure, altered norms, and the reintroduction of economic calculation.
This case study uses publications in popular outlets, newspapers, and historical documents to understand the relationship between Cummins Engine Company and its local government.
Contrary to the presumption that public engagement by private firms necessarily reduces to rent-seeking, the activities of the Cummins Engine Company lead to beneficial public spillovers by way of improved infrastructure and norms, as well as by restoring a degree of economic calculation to the production of public buildings in Columbus, Indiana.
The authors illustrate the precise mechanisms that generate the potential spillovers from public entrepreneurship that Klein et al. (2010) explore theoretically.
Outlines a new method of discovering original documents related to management history. Uses seemingly insignificant statements in books, articles or original documents to…
Outlines a new method of discovering original documents related to management history. Uses seemingly insignificant statements in books, articles or original documents to locate documents not listed on any computer database or public archive records, but which are undiscovered in attics or basements. The method involves the use of sources not commonly used by management scholars: obituaries, wills, cemetery records, deeds, land‐ownership maps, city directories and court records. Provides two examples to illustrate the discovery of actual documents: (1) the discovery of ten years of correspondence between F.W. Taylor and S. Thompson on the time required to do work, and (2) new evidence on F.W. Taylor’s interest in high‐heat treatment of tool steel leading to high‐speed steel and in shovels and shovelling. Finally presents new evidence on Taylor’s secret agreement with Bethlehem Steel to give favourable testimony in a patent case in exchange for a free licence for the high‐speed steel process Taylor had sold to Bethlehem for more than $50,000 in 1901.
In this chapter, we report findings from a three-year, survey- and interview-based study involving 538 families bringing up children with disabilities in Alberta, Canada…
In this chapter, we report findings from a three-year, survey- and interview-based study involving 538 families bringing up children with disabilities in Alberta, Canada. The focus of the study was on the everyday challenge and accomplishment of sustaining a routine of daily life. The families who participated in this study were diverse, yet they struggled with many of the same questions and challenges. Four over-arching and inter-related challenges emerged from our analysis of the interview data. These are difficulty balancing the competing needs and wants of their children; tension between wanting to protect and wanting to integrate their child and family into the community; conflict between earning and care giving activities; and, trouble accessing and navigating supports and services. This chapter includes a small sample of illustrative family stories. The study findings suggest that parents are striving but struggle to meet normative expectations, that is, to simultaneously do all they can to help their disabled child and create a routine that balances the needs and interests of all their children. One conclusion is that service systems and professionals can help and or hinder families as they strive to create and maintain a daily routine that is fitted to the local ecology and family resource-base, and congruent with their values and goals, and with the needs, interests, and competencies of family members.
As interest in the “politics of education” continue to mount in the United States it becomes important to try to explicate the fundamental political ideology which…
As interest in the “politics of education” continue to mount in the United States it becomes important to try to explicate the fundamental political ideology which continues to shape current developments in school finance in that country. In this article it is argued that there is an identifiable “democratic theory of school finance” and that the roots of this political theory can be found in the works of such “classical” authors as Aristotle, Thucydides, Thomas Jefferson, Alex de Tocqueville, Caleb Mills, and others. A body of current professional educational literature and some court opinions are then summarized and illustrations are provided to show that the basic political values of the “classical” authors are still very much present in the newer professional literature and in the court opinions. Finally a postscript is provided to bring the reader even closer to additional school finance literature in the United States. Students of the politics of education might be interested to learn that this was a bipartisan effort. Professors Hickrod and Hubbard are normally associated with the Democratic Party in the United States, while Professor Laymon customarily finds himself on the Republican side of the aisle. The article thus provides some evidence that there can be agreement on principles of democracy and constitutional government that transcends political party affiliation.
Religiousness is evident in every aspect of life, and its impact on construction project performance is undeniable. However, little has been done to fully understand the…
Religiousness is evident in every aspect of life, and its impact on construction project performance is undeniable. However, little has been done to fully understand the influences one's religiosity has on performance factors. This paper aims to explore the influence of religious elements on performance factors in the Ghanaian construction industry (GCI).
Using a desk survey and closed-ended questionnaire, data were obtained from the three religious' bodies (Christianity, Islamic and Traditionalist) in Ghana. The analysis of the collected data was done using mean score ranking and regression analysis.
It was revealed that most of the religious bodies were aware of the presence of the seven factors identified for measuring construction project performance. The findings suggested that there was a significant and positive relationship between the religious elements (of all the three religions) and cost as well as schedule performance. Islam recorded the highest relationship in influencing public construction project performance relative to cost performances. Specifically, 1% increase in Islamic elements accounted for an 82.7% increase in cost performance. Traditionalists and the Christian religion had minimal significance in influencing cost performance. Furthermore, a 1% progress in Islamic elements accounted for a 45.8% increase in the schedule performance of construction projects and among construction professionals.
This study has provided better understanding of the religious views on project performance. This research has also provided pragmatic directions to project stakeholders to encourage religious groups to take critical look at the other performance factors that were seen not to be significant.
This paper represents a novel attempt to measure the influence of religious elements on project performance factors in the construction industry. A key contribution to the body of knowledge is that the study has proven that religious element has tendencies to influence cost performance and schedule performance in the construction industry.
International Expansion; Emerging Markets; Corporate Strategy; Strategic Management.
Senior undergraduate; MBA; EMBA.
This case focuses on the international expansion of Hon Chuan Enterprise, a beverage packaging and filling company headquartered in Taiwan. The company has set foot in Africa after its development in mainland China and Southeast Asia. Its 41st factory has just started production in Mozambique, Africa. The African base may help the company reach the turnover milestone of NT$20bn (approximately US$640m) in the next year. This NT$20bn turnover has been a target every year since 2013, but they have so far failed to reach it. As an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) in beverage packaging and filling, Hon Chuan to some extent relies on customers that own brands. After losing a key customer in mainland China, the company has experienced a three-year slump that forced the company’s president, Hish-Chung Tsao, to modify his strategy. Africa was the new battlefield bearing his ambition. His intention was not just to add another manufacturing base, but to develop its own beverage brands as an OBM. Yet, how could this be achieved in Africa? It would be a new journey full of challenges. Africa was more complex than other markets. The company’s first factory there had just been established, and its future was still unknown.
Expected learning outcomes
This case is appropriate for courses in international business, emerging markets, corporate strategy and marketing management. After studying the case, students should be able to understand international expansion of a manufacturing company in emerging markets; understand several key emerging markets of the world and learn what CAGE distances are; identify Hon Chuan’s success factors, challenges and necessary capabilities for future development and then comprehend why it is important to upgrade from OEM to OBM; and learn how to develop beverage brands in emerging markets.
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CSS 5: International Business.