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Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2012

Piers Thompson, Caleb C.Y. Kwong and Dylan Jones-Evans

Enterprise education has been regularly cited as a tool which can be utilised to not only increase the level of entrepreneurship within an economy, but also the success of…

Abstract

Enterprise education has been regularly cited as a tool which can be utilised to not only increase the level of entrepreneurship within an economy, but also the success of those enterprises created. This chapter explores the extent to which participation in enterprise education is associated with the adoption of new technology within new businesses since this is one way that businesses can remain competitive, not only within their own countries, but when competing internationally. Using data from the UK Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, the study finds evidence that those firms undertaking enterprise education in the form of university-based schemes or government sponsored training programmes are more likely to be using newer technology. However, this relationship is relatively weak, and brings into question whether many enterprise courses offer effective value for money.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-118-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Caleb C.Y. Kwong, Piers Thompson, Dylan Jones‐Evans and David Brooksbank

The purpose of this paper is to compare the entrepreneurial activity, attitudes and social connections of four groups of ethnic minority females in the UK, with the aim of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the entrepreneurial activity, attitudes and social connections of four groups of ethnic minority females in the UK, with the aim of examining the extent of gender and ethnic background effects on nascent start‐up activities and the attitudes of women belonging to these ethnic minority groups.

Design/methodology/approach

A two‐stage approach is adopted to examine the situations of four main female ethnic minority groups using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) adult population survey for the UK. The first stage adopts a binary logistic approach to determine the importance of social networks, opportunity perception and risk aversion to the probability of being involved in nascent entrepreneurial activities. The second stage of analysis examines the differences in these perceptual variables to determine the extent to which different female ethnic minority groups are embedded in different social environments when attempting to start a business.

Findings

There are considerable differences amongst different ethnic groups in the level of entrepreneurial activity by women, their attitudes towards entrepreneurship, and the social capital available to them when starting a business.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that policy makers should take the differences by ethnic groupings into account when developing bespoke development policies designed to alleviate the barriers faced by women.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first comparative studies focusing on women from different ethnic backgrounds. Rather than assuming homogeneity, or examining specific groups in isolation it allows the different conditions faced by prospective entrepreneurs from each group to be examined.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2012

Abstract

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-118-3

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Cherry W.M. Cheung, Caleb Kwong, Humera Manzoor, Mehboob Ur Rashid, Charan Bhattarai and Young-Ah Kim

Although scholars have investigated how social entrepreneurs create and develop social enterprises in the penurious stable environment, how they are created in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Although scholars have investigated how social entrepreneurs create and develop social enterprises in the penurious stable environment, how they are created in the penurious unstable environment has yet been overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by exploring how internally displaced individuals, despite the lack of resources, create and develop a social enterprise to serve the other displaced population in the war and conflict zones.

Design/methodology/approach

Underpinned by a biographical research design, in-depth interviews with internally displaced individuals who have created social enterprises in the war and conflict zones were undertaken. Three social entrepreneurs were chosen for this study from three different social enterprises that are created by internally displaced individuals to serve the other internally displaced people of three different countries, namely, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria.

Findings

The single and cross-case analysis found that internally displaced individuals deploy bricolage strategy, for example, reconfiguration of pre-existing resources and competencies (both internal and external), to start up a social venture in the war and conflict zones. They utilise pre-existing internal resources, mainly human capital, and external resources, through a frugal approach towards resources acquisitions. The authors also found that the displaced social entrepreneurs utilise resources of other displaced individuals, for example, networks, volunteers, local knowledge and financial supports mainly from older arrivals, and develop their own enterprise ecosystem within the host location to co-create and co-develop social enterprise and social values for all of them.

Research limitations/implications

The findings show that internally displaced individuals utilise bricolage strategies to create and develop socially entrepreneurial venture to serve other internally displaced individuals in the war and conflict zones. As the findings are based on three case studies, for confirmatory approach, a quantitative study with a large sample size is necessary. Furthermore, as the differences in economic, cultural and linguistic in between the home and host locations can have impact on the creation and the development of a social venture, they should be considered in the future studies.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited literature and studies on social entrepreneurship, specifically, to the context of unstable penurious environment. It also contributes to the literature on bricolage by extending its application from penurious stable environment to the penurious unstable environment. By exploring what and how internal and external resources are utilised to create and develop a socially entrepreneurial venture in a war and conflict zones, this study has added value to the literature on not only bricolage but also entrepreneurship in war and conflict zones.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Cherry Wun Mei Cheung and Caleb Kwong

Our study explores the use of historical cases in assisting students to understand some of the managerial issues faced by entrepreneurial multinational organisations. We…

Abstract

Purpose

Our study explores the use of historical cases in assisting students to understand some of the managerial issues faced by entrepreneurial multinational organisations. We argue that historical cases can be an effective tool to acquire management skills, with its main advantage being its ability to induce critical thinking which allows strategic decisions to be made in a variety of contexts. Of course there is the question of relevancy of using past behaviour to guide the future.

Design/methodology/approach

To answer this main criticism, we review the use of history in the study of business and management disciplines, before examining the way in which a historical case related to the entrepreneurial history of colonial Hong Kong can be constructed for the teaching of an international management subject. We then examine the impact of the use of such a historical case in the understanding and satisfaction of teaching.

Findings

We discuss the ways in which a historical case can be constructed. We found that overall students enjoy learning through a historical case.

Originality/value

This is the first paper examining how a historical case of multinational enterprises can be constructed for the teaching of international management.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Caleb Kwong, Dylan Jones‐Evans and Piers Thompson

The purpose of this study is to examine whether being female increases the probability that an individual feels difficulty in obtaining finance is a barrier to starting a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether being female increases the probability that an individual feels difficulty in obtaining finance is a barrier to starting a business. The study aims to extend this to examine if a pure gender effect exists or whether it is the interaction of gender with demographic, economic and perceptual characteristics that plays the most important role in the perception of financial constraint.

Design/methodology/approach

The data within this study are drawn from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) adult population survey between 2005 and 2007. The first stage of the study splits male and female respondents into separate sub‐samples and runs individual regressions on each portion of the sample. The second stage of the study combines the male and female portions of the sample to directly examine the differences in perceived financial constraint between genders.

Findings

The findings suggest that a greater proportion of women are solely constrained by financial barriers than their male counterparts. The gender of the respondent was also found to interact with a number of other personal characteristics in a significant manner.

Practical implications

This finding suggests that policymakers should be encouraged to market the availability of start‐up finance from various sources to encourage women to attempt to obtain the necessary finance rather than being discouraged at the first hurdle.

Originality/value

Although actual financial barriers faced by female entrepreneurs have been extensively studied, this is one of the first studies to focus on the concept of perceived financial constraints faced by potential female entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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