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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Judy Buttriss

The USA in 1997 raised the reference dietary intakes of calcium for adults and children. These include estimated average requirements (EARs), recommended dietary…

339

Abstract

The USA in 1997 raised the reference dietary intakes of calcium for adults and children. These include estimated average requirements (EARs), recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), adequate intakes (AIs) and tolerable upper intake levels (ULSs). These new values were designed to optimise health and minimise risk of major chronic disease. For children they aim to maximise calcium retention, for adults 31‐50 they aim to achieve a calcium retention. The US recommendations are significantly higher than the British. Emphasises the need for high calcium intakes during phases of rapid growth; stresses how deficits in calcium accretion may never be reversed. Research supports the benefits of increased calcium intake.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 98 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Amy Jennings, V. Costarelli, G.J. Davies and P.W. Dettmar

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an…

546

Abstract

Purpose

Several recent observational studies detected inverse associations between dietary calcium intake and body weight. It was demonstrated that low calcium diets lead to an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations, which in turn act to promote body fat deposition, reduce lipolysis and reduce thermogenesis. Most of the studies have been conducted on adults, however, it was recently demonstrated that longitudinal calcium intake is negatively associated with children's body fat levels. The purpose of the current study is to investigate possible associations between habitual calcium intake and body weight in a group of 7–10 years old children.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty‐five children, 21 boys and 64 girls (mean age: 9.2±0.9) were recruited from 12 primary schools in the London area. Dietary intake was measured using the 7‐day weighed inventory method. Body weight and height measurements were also recorded.

Findings

Data suggested that girls have significantly lower intakes of calcium than boys and that 48 per cent of boys and 38 per cent of girls were overweight (above the 91st centile). However, there were no significant correlations between body weight or body mass index (BMI) and habitual intake of dietary calcium in this age group, which is in contrast with the results of similar studies conducted in adults.

Originality/value

One explanation could be that the possible effect of calcium on adiposity and body weight is more pronounced in adulthood than in childhood. It is important for future studies to measure levels of body fat in children together with body weight in conjunction with calcium intake in order to elucidate the original hypothesis.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Emma Derbyshire

Emerging evidence indicates that there may be a link between calcium intake and body composition . However, few review papers to date appear to collate this information…

388

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging evidence indicates that there may be a link between calcium intake and body composition . However, few review papers to date appear to collate this information. This paper aims to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and large observational studies published between 1998 and 2009 were identified using Medline scientific database. Studies had a minimum duration of 30 days and included all sources of calcium (dairy and supplemental).

Findings

Twenty‐one studies were identified; including 14 RCTs and seven large observational studies. Twelve studies (seven of the RCTs) reported that regular consumption of dietary or dairy calcium may reduce fat mass in adults. Nine studies (seven of the RCTs) found no association between calcium intake and body composition. Two studies reported that fat loss was augmented when a calcium‐rich diet was combined with energy restriction. Overall, results from reviewed studies yield conflicting findings. Further intervention studies are needed to “separate out” the effects of habitual, supplemental and dairy calcium. More studies also need to investigate the combined effects of a calcium‐rich diet and energy restriction. Only then can calcium‐rich diets be used alongside conventional treatments for obesity.

Originality/value

This paper gives a concise, up‐to‐date review of literature investigating the link between calcium intake and adult body composition.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

John J.B. Anderson

The intent of this review is to provide a nutritional background for the hypothesis that excessive intakes of calcium and, possibly, vitamin D in adults and the elderly…

817

Abstract

Purpose

The intent of this review is to provide a nutritional background for the hypothesis that excessive intakes of calcium and, possibly, vitamin D in adults and the elderly may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent scientific reports and literature reviews on the linkage between excessive dietary calcium consumption and cardiovascular calcification have been assessed. Prospective human data on this health concern is limited to one recent report from New Zealand of elderly women on calcium supplements for five years. Other supporting evidence is derived from experimental studies over the years and from observations of subjects with gastric ulcers who consumed excessive amounts of milk along with antacids and of “worried well” subjects who took excessive calcium supplements or yogurt.

Findings

Calcium loading in arterial walls occurs under these conditions, even among those with healthy renal function, because atherosclerotic plaques in arterial intimal layers readily permit calcium uptake from blood and the formation of bone in inappropriate locations throughout the body, especially in coronary arteries, heart valves, and arteries of other major organs. Arteriosclerotic damage in affluent populations, such as the USA, is common. Bone health seems to benefit little from excessive calcium in late life compared to the damage to arterial function.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies are needed to advance understanding of this diet‐disease linkage.

Originality/value

This review supports recent data that indicates an important relationship between excessive calcium intakes and arterial calcification in adults and the elderly.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Hadith Tangestani, Maryam Ghaseminasab-Parizi, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Mesbah Shams, Afsane Ahmadi and Mohammad Fararouei

Osteoporosis is increasingly affecting the young female adults of the Iranian population. The role of nutrition and physical activity on bone mineral content (BMC) and…

Abstract

Purpose

Osteoporosis is increasingly affecting the young female adults of the Iranian population. The role of nutrition and physical activity on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in young female students has not been fully examined. This study aims to assess the dietary intake of several nutrients, such as calcium, phosphorus and protein; serum concentrations of vitamin D; and physical activity and their relationship with BMC and BMD in young female students.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-day dietary intakes of 67 female students were measured via duplicate portion sampling (DPS) method. Calcium and phosphorus content of the food samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Protein intake was determined by Kjeldahl method. Serum 25(OH) D concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).

Findings

The mean ±SD dietary intake of protein, calcium and phosphorus was 58.8 ± 16.9 g/day, 388 ± 135 mg/day and 1884 ± 682 mg/day, respectively. Significant positive correlation was found between serum vitamin 25(OH) D concentrations and BMC of lumbar spine (r = 0.28, p = 0.016) and BMD of femoral neck (r = 0.29, p = 0.016). Moreover, the authors observed a significant positive correlation between physical activity and femoral neck BMC (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) and BMD (r = 0.28, p = 0.02). This study found no significant associations between dietary intakes of protein, calcium and phosphorus and bone density measurements.

Originality/value

In this study, the authors measured the dietary intake of protein, calcium and phosphorus using DPS method. This study highlights the role of physical activity and serum vitamin 25(OH) D concentrations in female students’ bone health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Ariun Ishdorj, Helen H. Jensen and Justin Tobias

WIC, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is a widely studied public food assistance program that aims to provide foods, nutrition…

Abstract

WIC, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is a widely studied public food assistance program that aims to provide foods, nutrition education, and other services to at-risk, low-income children and pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women. From a policy perspective, it is of interest to assess the efficacy of the WIC program – how much, if at all, does the program improve the nutritional outcomes of WIC families? In this paper, we address two important issues related to the WIC program that have not been extensively addressed in the past. First, although the WIC program is primarily devised with the intent of improving the nutrition of “targeted” children and mothers, it is possible that WIC may also change the consumption of foods by nontargeted individuals within the household. Second, although WIC eligibility status is predetermined, participation in the program is voluntary and therefore potentially endogenous. We make use of a treatment–response model in which the dependent variable is the requirement-adjusted calcium intake from milk consumption and the endogenous variable is WIC participation, and estimate it using Bayesian methods. Using data from the CSFII 1994–1996, we find that the correlation between the errors of our two equations is strong and positive, suggesting that families participating in WIC have an unobserved propensity for high calcium intake. The direct “structural” WIC parameters, however, do not support the idea that WIC participation leads to increased levels of calcium intake from milk.

Details

Bayesian Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-308-8

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Noor Sharifatul Hana Yeop, Zaleha Md Isa, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Khor Geok Lin, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy, Haslinda Hassan and Hasanain Ghazi

The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among first-trimester pregnant women and its contributing factors.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among first-trimester pregnant women and its contributing factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was carried out among first-trimester pregnant women who were recruited during their first antenatal visit. A total of 396 respondents of age 18-40 years completed the self-administered questionnaire (socio-demographic, socio-economic, obstetric information), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for calcium (FFQ-calcium), anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and blood test for serum calcium during their first trimester.

Findings

The prevalence of hypocalcaemia based on serum calcium level of less than 2.11 mmol/L was 26.0 per cent (n = 103). The median serum calcium level was 2.2 mmol/L (IQR, 25th and 75th percentile – 2.1 and 2.3, respectively). Milk intake of less than two glasses per day during pregnancy showed a twofold increase in developing hypocalcaemia (OR, 2.231; 95 per cent CI, 1.399, 3.588). Other than that, underweight (aOR, 2.038; 95 per cent SK, 1.088, 3.820) and obese before pregnancy (aOR, 1.954; 95 per cent SK, 1.007, 3.790) are also predictors of hypocalcaemia.

Originality/value

The prevalence of hypocalcaemia among first-trimester pregnant women in this study was 26.0 per cent. Intake of two or more glasses of milk per day can help prevent hypocalcaemia at this stage of pregnancy.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Clara R.B. Oguntona, Monsurat Apoyin and Anne‐Marie Olateju

The food and nutrient intake of 250 (135 male, 115 female) adolescent Nigerian high school students have been surveyed to determine the contributions of different food…

656

Abstract

The food and nutrient intake of 250 (135 male, 115 female) adolescent Nigerian high school students have been surveyed to determine the contributions of different food groups to their intakes of protein, calcium and iron. Twenty‐four‐hour dietary recall technique was used to obtain details of food intake and questionnaires administered to obtain social and economic circumstances of subjects’ family. Male subjects had more energy, protein, calcium and iron intake but no significant (p < 0.05) differences when compared with females. Cereal based foods were the most important sources of dietary protein, supplying between 40‐52 per cent for all subjects and 60 per cent or more for 29 per cent of the subjects. Proportions of dietary protein from legumes, meats, vegetables and roots ranged from10‐21 per cent, 3‐13 per cent, 7‐17 per cent, 6.5‐12.9 per cent respectively. Cereals were also the most important source of dietary calcium (56.8 per cent) and iron (33.16 per cent) for most subjects. The contribution of meats and legumes however, approximate that of cereals for 36 per cent of subjects. Apart from gender, residence at home or in boarding house and the socio‐economic status of the subject’s family significantly affect the sources of dietary protein, calcium and iron.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1943

I now pass on to an aspect of calcium metabolism which is more topical, but probably more controversial. I refer to the incidence of calcium deficiency. By what means can…

Abstract

I now pass on to an aspect of calcium metabolism which is more topical, but probably more controversial. I refer to the incidence of calcium deficiency. By what means can we determine if people are getting enough, too much, or too little calcium? It is the last condition which concerns us. There are four standard methods. Each have their advantages and their disadvantages. They are (i) a clinical examination; (ii) a dietary survey; (iii) a radiographic examination of the skeleton ; (iv) A study of the calcium balance. (i) The clinical examination is the simplest, but it is the least sensitive method for determining either the early or the mild stages of calcium deficiency. The clinical signs are a softening and bending of the bones (osteomalacia), brittle bones liable to fracture, and tetany. These, however, are signs of late or advanced calcium deficiency, and failure to detect them does not imply that the subject is having enough calcium. Nevertheless, in this country osteomalacia and tetany due to a poor calcium intake have been reported. (ii) A dietary survey is the second method. Before the war several surveys were made, in this country and in America. From their findings there was agreement among reliable authorities that calcium deficiency was present in large sections of the population. Orr has divided the population of this country into six groups according to income. The three lower groups with a total population of over 22,000,000, he found, were getting insufficient calcium. It was shown first, that the consumption of the low calcium foods such as bread and potatoes was practically uniform throughout the classes, and secondly, that the consumption of the calcium‐rich foods, milk, eggs, cheese, green vegetables was low in the poorer classes and rose with income. As income increased the following improvements occurred—disease decreased; children grew more quickly; adult stature was greater; general health and physique improved. It may be argued, that the improvement in health in the higher income groups was due not to better food, but to better housing. This is not so. For, if people in the lower income groups are only given better food, their health approaches that of the higher income groups. Then there are the observations of Dr. McGonigle at Stockton‐on‐Tees. A slum clearance resulted in the removal of poor people to better houses and improved living conditions. The sickness rate increased. Why? Because the higher rents of the new houses prevented these people spending as much money on food as they did when they lived in the slums. Dietary surveys before the war, therefore, support the belief that many people in this country were getting too little calcium. As most of our staple foods have a low calcium content, it follows that the absence of hunger does not necessarily mean the absence of calcium deficiency. (iii) Radiographic examination of the skeleton is the third method. Unfortunately X‐rays of the bone density of the trabeculæ do not readily give an indication of its calcium content unless the decalcification is severe. If we may judge by thyrotoxicosis, where there is an increased loss of calcium from the body, X‐rays show the decalcification only in the most severe 25 per cent. of cases. Radiographic studies will detect however an excessive withdrawal of calcium from the skeleton, before such clinical signs as softening of bones, brittle bones, and tetany develop. In this country there is radiographic evidence of decalcification resulting from low calcium intakes. (iv) Finally there are the observations on the calcium balance. Earlier in this paper it was stated that a normal healthy person requires to ingest 0·55 gram of calcium daily to avoid persistently losing calcium from his skeleton. A daily dose of 0·55 gram calcium then produces calcium equilibrium, and intake equals output. It has also been stated that a daily intake of 0·8 gram is the minimum amount of calcium which will bring about the maximum storage. In other words no matter how much in excess of 0·8 gram calcium daily a healthy adult ingests, he will not store any more calcium than he would if he were taking 0·8 gram. These facts provide us with two means of determining whether calcium deficiency is present or not. Calcium deficiency is present if the figure for calcium equilibrium falls significantly below 0·55 gram daily. Calcium deficiency is present if more storage of calcium takes place with intakes above 0·8 gram daily, than at 0·8 gram daily. Is there any evidence from calcium balance studies in this country that calcium deficiency exists? There is evidence. I have just described the methods which are available for determining whether calcium deficiency is present or not. I believe, on the evidence obtained from all four methods, that, before the war, a large proportion of people in this country were taking too little calcium. I would like at this point to digress for a moment. There are certain people who would have us believe that clinical and radiographic evidence is essential to prove the presence of calcium deficiency. As I have explained, these methods only showed the advanced stages. I reply: “ Must we wait for secondary deposits in the liver, extreme emaciation, ascites, before diagnosing cancer ?”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 45 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Emma J.E. Jenkins and Carol Jones

Osteoporosis, defined as abnormally low bone density, results in increased risk of fractures with consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. An important determinant…

596

Abstract

Osteoporosis, defined as abnormally low bone density, results in increased risk of fractures with consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. An important determinant of age‐related fractures is low bone density. Current public health strategies aim to maximize bone mass in elderly people, yet the bone mass obtained in the first three decades of life is a major determinant of bone mass later. Up to half the variation in peak adult bone mass among women is non‐genetic and is influenced by lifestyle factors such as physical activity, calcium nutrition and sex hormone status. These factors were studied in surveys of a school age population of girls in Bournemouth. Using a seven‐day dietary diary, the mean daily calcium intake of 11‐12 year olds was calculated as 692.9mg (SD 209.91mg). Of the total population surveyed, 14.6 per cent had calcium intakes below the UK dietary reference values. Up to 1,500mg calcium per day in adolescence has been recommended to increase peak bone mineral density. Weight bearing activity accounted for approximately 16 per cent of daily activities. Additional information was collected on perception of body weight and dieting habits. An osteoporosis prevention health education package was produced for local teenage school children with the message that “It Pays to Look after Your Bones!” by promoting calcium nutrition and exercise.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000