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Article

Mohammadreza Barzegaran and Osama A. Mohammed

– In this paper, modeling of the XLPE cable for electromagnetic signature study at a far distance is proposed. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, modeling of the XLPE cable for electromagnetic signature study at a far distance is proposed. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the very small ratio of the dimensions of cables to the dimensions of the whole system, using actual geometry of the cables with all layers in this study causes deformation of the cable's model. Therefore, multi-dipole modeling is used for modeling the cables.

Findings

This model includes specific voltages and currents in lines and nodes, respectively. Radiated electric and magnetic fields at a far distance are selected as the index of appropriateness of the model.

Originality/value

In order to investigate the accuracy of the model, various configuration of the cable is studied. Additionally, coupling of the cable with an electrical machine is investigated. They all show that the equivalent models can be used in place of the actual model for signature studies.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

I.M.V. Caminiti, A. Formisano, M.C. Lupoli and R. Martone

The purpose of this paper is to propose the optimal allocation and alignment of probes for current distribution measurement (CDM) in the case of twin cable in conduit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the optimal allocation and alignment of probes for current distribution measurement (CDM) in the case of twin cable in conduit conductor (CICC) cables with equal and opposite current.

Design/methodology/approach

The most effective approach to CDM in CICC cables is to perform indirect measurements starting from magnetic field map measured externally to the cable. A number of approaches have been proposed to optimize the layout of magnetic field probes external to the cable, but all dealing with single cables. In this paper, an approach to the optimized design of measurement system for twin cables will be proposed, based on the minimization of a suitable cost function.

Findings

A method for the optimal allocation of probes both in terms of rejection of the background field and of condition number of the Green matrix has been defined.

Research limitations/implications

The method is valid only in the hypothesis of linear relationship between currents and magnetic field.

Practical implications

The proposed approach allows to design more robust CDM systems, with increased noise and background field rejection capability.

Originality/value

The problem of optimal design of CDM systems has been previously tackled in literature, but typically with reference to single cables. In the paper, an approach able to explicitly deal with twin cables is proposed.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Nebojsa B. Raicevic and Nikola Raicevic

Underground cables can produce higher electromagnetic fields directly above them than an overhead line. The majority of cable failures on distribution system are caused by…

Abstract

Purpose

Underground cables can produce higher electromagnetic fields directly above them than an overhead line. The majority of cable failures on distribution system are caused by defects in the cable accessories. Nowadays, significant research has been carried out worldwide into examining whether electricity, and in particular, the presence of electric and magnetic fields have an adverse impact on health, especially the occurrence of cancer and childhood leukemia. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the electric field distribution in underground cable accessories. This reduces the impact of the harmful effects of the fields on living beings and humans.

Design/methodology/approach

Cable terminations and joints are designed to eliminate the stress concentration at the termination screen to avoid the breakdown of the cable and high values of electric field at these points. Any improvement in the cable termination and joints construction is of great interest. There are several methods for the solution of electric field distribution. These can be summarized as analytical, experimental, free-hand field mapping, analogue methods and numerical methods. In this paper cable accessories are modeled by using multilayer dielectric system and very thin deflector’s cones.

Findings

This model includes specific insulators design and smart choice of electrodes position. Stress-grading nonlinear materials in form of tapes and tubes were used with much success. In order to optimize the cable joint parameters, two criteria were monitored – total electric field magnitude and magnitude of the tangential component. More than 30 percent is reduced impact of cables on the environment.

Originality/value

In order to investigate the accuracy of the applied numerical model, various configurations of the cable accessories are studied. The first time is applied new Hybrid Boundary Elements Method on the protection of the environment.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Anwar Ul-Hamid, Khaled Y. Soufi, Luai M. Al-Hadhrami and Ahsan M. Shemsi

– This paper aims to determine the effect of exposure of underground electrical cables to chemically contaminated water.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the effect of exposure of underground electrical cables to chemically contaminated water.

Design/methodology/approach

Visual inspection and photography were carried out to record the appearance of electrical cables. Failed and un-failed cable samples were collected and analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Sand and water samples were chemically tested for contaminants.

Findings

Underground low-voltage 0.6/1-kV cross-linked polyethene insulated cables belonging to a chemical production plant suffered failure after four years of service. Excavation of the cable trench revealed that the cables were buried in sand polluted with chemically contaminated water. The cables were discolored and covered with corrosion deposits. Experimental results indicated that the cable insulation was heavily degraded and the outer jacket of polyvinyl chloride exhibited cracks that had penetrated through its thickness. Water and sand surrounding the cable were found to have high concentrations of ammonia. Mechanical testing of the cables indicated high values of stiffness that could contribute to the formation of cracks at the surface.

Practical implications

It was concluded that contamination in the water had degraded the cable, resulting in the development of a network of branched cracks within the cable insulation through which water could permeate, leading to eventual failure of the cable. Accelerated degradation took place due to exposure to the contaminated environment, which promoted aging and brittleness. Continued exposure of electric cables to contamination would lead to power failures and plant shutdowns.

Originality/value

This paper provides an account of a failure investigation of low-voltage electrical cable buried underground. It discusses the role of contaminated environment in the eventual failure of electrical cable due to corrosion. This information will be useful for plant engineers and project managers working in any industry that makes use of chemicals.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Jun Luo, Shaorong Xie, Zhenbang Gong and Tiansheng Lu

In order to replace the conventional human maintenance of cable‐stayed bridges, a robot is designed and constructed for tasks such as cleaning, painting and rust‐detecting.

Abstract

Purpose

In order to replace the conventional human maintenance of cable‐stayed bridges, a robot is designed and constructed for tasks such as cleaning, painting and rust‐detecting.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a modular approach, two kinds of climbing mechanisms, plus a painting mechanism and a rust‐detecting method are designed.

Findings

A robot that can climb and maintain the cables of cable‐stayed bridges has been designed and constructed. It has been proved by experiment that the robot can overcome many disadvantages of conventional human bridge‐maintenance, and drastically improve efficiency, cost, and safety.

Research limitations/implications

The robot is of industrial size, but a new mechanism requiring less installing time will be designed for the future.

Practical implications

The robot has been applied to cables of the Nanpu Bridge and Xupu Bridge in Shanghai. More than 80 cable‐stayed bridges and six suspension bridges have been built or are being constructed across large rivers in China alone. This gives an enormous potential market.

Originality/value

The cable maintenance robot developed in this paper is the world's first special robot for the cables of cable‐stayed bridges.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Pengfei Zheng and Gonglian Dai

This paper aims to obtain the further and overall generation about the static characteristics of the structure for the better application of the structure.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to obtain the further and overall generation about the static characteristics of the structure for the better application of the structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Through nonlinear finite element simulation, serials of comparative analyses are performed on this structure and other three assumed structures, which illustrate the effect of the main part of the structure on the structural static properties. Meanwhile, adopting the first order method, spatial cable force optimization makes the structural mechanic more rational.

Findings

Under same level stress, this three‐main‐truss and three‐cable‐plane bridge could save almost 38.8 percent vertical chords materials consumption at least. In contrast, this bridge has a lower lateral torsional stiffness, considering the key to raise the lateral and torsional stiffness is enhancing axial stiffness of plane bracing, the suitable plane bracing members area is twice as the original area. After rational optimization, the cable tension ratio between the mid‐cable plane and the two side‐cable planes ranges from 1.09 to 1.14.

Originality/value

The work in this paper of the comparative analysis could give other engineers a way to a deep analysis method for the structural analysis, especially in civil engineering. The conclusions would provide other designers some applied advice.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article

With proposals being made in this country for the development of cable TV, perceptive retailers will not have failed to see the opportunities it opens up to them. In…

Abstract

With proposals being made in this country for the development of cable TV, perceptive retailers will not have failed to see the opportunities it opens up to them. In America, currently 55% of all homes are passed by a cable link, and some 34% connected. But the vast majority of these are one‐way, which is limiting. In March RMDP held a conference on “Cable TV and the Retailer” which explored the ways in which cable TV might impact on the retailer, looking at developments in the United States and in Europe. RDM was at the conference.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Article

David Golding

This article describes the design and application of underwater cable location systems.

Abstract

This article describes the design and application of underwater cable location systems.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

G.F. BROUWER

THE Spacelab Scientific (CPSE) Airlock is equipped with an experiment table to transfer experiments from the Module into space environment. In the table drive system…

Abstract

THE Spacelab Scientific (CPSE) Airlock is equipped with an experiment table to transfer experiments from the Module into space environment. In the table drive system multi‐stranded steel cable is used, running over small‐diameter pulleys. For cleanliness requirements the original cable lubricant was replaced by a fluorinated fluid. Cable cleaning and relubrication methods have been established. The coating thickness can be chosen. Tests were run with and without lubrication. The cables were tested at ESTL on a test rig, based upon the experiment table design, in a thermal vacuum test. The performance has been improved by: • a more flexible cable • increase of lubricant thickness • decrease of contact stresses Testing in air has been included as it appeared to be an aggressive environment, where a failure occurred.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Book part

Fredrik von Corswant

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization…

Abstract

This paper deals with the organizing of interactive product development. Developing products in interaction between firms may provide benefits in terms of specialization, increased innovation, and possibilities to perform development activities in parallel. However, the differentiation of product development among a number of firms also implies that various dependencies need to be dealt with across firm boundaries. How dependencies may be dealt with across firms is related to how product development is organized. The purpose of the paper is to explore dependencies and how interactive product development may be organized with regard to these dependencies.

The analytical framework is based on the industrial network approach, and deals with the development of products in terms of adaptation and combination of heterogeneous resources. There are dependencies between resources, that is, they are embedded, implying that no resource can be developed in isolation. The characteristics of and dependencies related to four main categories of resources (products, production facilities, business units and business relationships) provide a basis for analyzing the organizing of interactive product development.

Three in-depth case studies are used to explore the organizing of interactive product development with regard to dependencies. The first two cases are based on the development of the electrical system and the seats for Volvo’s large car platform (P2), performed in interaction with Delphi and Lear respectively. The third case is based on the interaction between Scania and Dayco/DFC Tech for the development of various pipes and hoses for a new truck model.

The analysis is focused on what different dependencies the firms considered and dealt with, and how product development was organized with regard to these dependencies. It is concluded that there is a complex and dynamic pattern of dependencies that reaches far beyond the developed product as well as beyond individual business units. To deal with these dependencies, development may be organized in teams where several business units are represented. This enables interaction between different business units’ resource collections, which is important for resource adaptation as well as for innovation. The delimiting and relating functions of the team boundary are elaborated upon and it is argued that also teams may be regarded as actors. It is also concluded that a modular product structure may entail a modular organization with regard to the teams, though, interaction between business units and teams is needed. A strong connection between the technical structure and the organizational structure is identified and it is concluded that policies regarding the technical structure (e.g. concerning “carry-over”) cannot be separated from the management of the organizational structure (e.g. the supplier structure). The organizing of product development is in itself a complex and dynamic task that needs to be subject to interaction between business units.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

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