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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Yazeed Alfakhri, Mohammad Nurunnabi and Demah Alfakhri

In response to the scarcity of research on Islamic corporate social responsibility (CSR), the purpose of this paper is to explore how young Saudi consumers perceive CSR

Abstract

Purpose

In response to the scarcity of research on Islamic corporate social responsibility (CSR), the purpose of this paper is to explore how young Saudi consumers perceive CSR from an Islamic perspective. The study is focused on Saudi Arabia, a Muslim country, and the largest exporter of petroleum in the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses a qualitative methodology with 34 in-depth interviews undertaken in two major Saudi cities (Tabouk and Riyadh).

Findings

Utilising social contract theory, this study contributes to the literature by developing an Islamic “CSR Treemodel (which consists of three parts: “roots”, “trunk”, and “crown”) to increase the understanding of Islamic CSR (i-CSR) and consumer behaviour. The roots are hidden, while the trunk and crown are visible. In particular, private social responsibility (the roots of the CSR Tree) incorporating Sadaqa, or values and intention, is the fundamental component on which organisations should base their CSR strategy from an Islamic perspective. The study also reveals that internal, external, and private social responsibilities are connected, and all are dependent on each other. The higher the level of private social responsibility exhibited, the higher the level of external social responsibility.

Originality/value

According to the CSR Tree model presented in this study, an organisation should avoid Riya (showing off) as this would represent shirk or idolatry, which is the opposite of Tawhid. The findings are particularly relevant for advancing the concept of i-CSR and for considering complex perspectives less travelled in the CSR literature. The study suggests that the best strategy for an organisation wishing to pursue an i-CSR agenda would be to balance internal and external responsibilities, and to bear in mind that private responsibility should be the motivation for action, and that CSR should be applied for the benefit of society.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Suthisak Kraisornsuthasinee

This paper seeks to explore an alternative direction to break the theoretical impasse in CSR.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore an alternative direction to break the theoretical impasse in CSR.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs ancient insights from the core of Buddhist teaching, featuring the Four Noble Truths and the concept of “me” and “mine”, for the modern application of CSR by investigating the crux of major related theories.

Findings

The Noble Truths emphasize that suffering should be eradicated at its root. The Buddhist model of CSR suggests that beyond doing good such as supporting philanthropy and avoiding evil as mitigating the impact of corporate malpractice, which are consistent with major CSR theories, it is also crucial to purify the hearts of stakeholders from the “self” and “what belongs to self”, the genesis of suffering. Detachment is the key.

Research implications

The shift from an institutional to an individual level, more specifically the transformation from a mindset of over‐consumption to one of conscious consumption, is an alternative direction to the progress of theory and practice in CSR.

Practical implications

Defiled by greed and profitability, consumers and investors, who provide income and funding to an organization and define its business practice, are of the highest priority among all stakeholders to start the change according to the Buddhist model of CSR.

Originality/value

This paper takes Buddhism as timeless insight, rather than a religious belief, to propose an alternative model and direction to development of CSR in theory and practice.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Syed Asim Ali Bukhari, Fathyah Hashim and Azlan Bin Amran

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants and outcomes of Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) adoption in Islamic bank branches in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants and outcomes of Islamic corporate social responsibility (ICSR) adoption in Islamic bank branches in Pakistan. The research framework examines the influence of stakeholder’s pressure on ICSR adoption. It also analyses the relationship between ICSR adoption and intangible outcomes achieved by the Islamic bank branch.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed through a mail survey to Islamic bank branches in Pakistan. The respondents of the study were the branch manager of Islamic bank branches in Pakistan. A simple random sampling technique was used and resulted in the collection of 293 usable questionnaires. SMART PLS was used to statistically analyse the data using partial least squares structural equation modelling approach. The measurement and structural models were analysed.

Findings

The results indicate a significant and positive relationship between Shariah supervisory board pressure, competitor pressure and ICSR adoption in Islamic bank branches. A moderate strength positive relationship was found out between top management pressure and ICSR adoption. Results reveal that customer pressure and community pressure have an insignificant influence on ICSR adoption. Data analysis shows that the adoption of ICSR practices have a significant and positive influence on an Islamic bank branch’s Intangible outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was relatively small because of the limited time duration.

Originality/value

The construct of ICSR has not been extensively researched upon especially through empirical studies. Limited research exists in the area of factors than can influence Islamic bank branches to adopt ICSR practices and currently no empirical research has focussed on the intangible outcomes that can be achieved through ICSR adoption by an Islamic bank branch. The limited study exists in the Pakistan context as well, which is a rapidly growing Islamic banking industry.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Valerie Priscilla Goby and Gulnara Z. Karimova

This paper aims to adopt the “simple rules” approach developed by Sull and Eisenhardt (2016) and apply it to explain how corporate social responsibility (CSR) manifests in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to adopt the “simple rules” approach developed by Sull and Eisenhardt (2016) and apply it to explain how corporate social responsibility (CSR) manifests in myriad ways depending on the particular socio-economic and geopolitical context.

Design/methodology/approach

It illustrates the implicit principle of “simple rules” through the case of a major petroleum company in the United Arab Emirates (Emirates National Oil Company [ENOC]) using content analysis to trace its interpretation and practice of CSR as transmitted via its social media platforms and stakeholder response.

Findings

ENOC’s CSR is primarily associated with two government objectives. One relates to human resource initiatives, most especially to the development of local talent in response to the government’s priority of reducing the country’s excessive reliance on expatriate labor. The second is that of preserving local heritage which is reflected in the prominence of local religious values in its posts. The prioritization of these two key themes is a manifestation of how, from the vast range of activities that can be considered as constituting CSR, an individual company chooses those that serve local and immediate intentions.

Social implications

A tight scoping of CSR within cherished national objectives appears to enhance the co-creation of shared value between company and stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study’s contribution does not so much problematize the many classifications and theories developed to account for diverse conceptualizations and implementations of CSR; rather, it proposes a “simple rules” approach as a parallel and potentially efficient, economical means to explain diversity within CSR interpretation and execution according to the specific geopolitical and socio-economic context in which it is implemented.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2016

Arch G. Woodside and Roger Baxter

This chapter points out that the use of a wide range of theoretical paradigms in marketing research requires researchers to use a broad range of methodologies. As an aid…

Abstract

This chapter points out that the use of a wide range of theoretical paradigms in marketing research requires researchers to use a broad range of methodologies. As an aid in doing so, the chapter argues for the use of case study research (CSR), defines CSR, and describes several CSR theories and methods that are useful for describing, explaining, and forecasting processes occurring in business-to-business (B2B) contexts. The discussion includes summaries of six B2B case studies spanning more than 60 years of research. This chapter advocates embracing the view that learning and reporting objective realities of B2B processes is possible using CSR methods. CSR methods in the chapter include using multiple interviews (2 + ) separately of multiple persons participating in B2B processes, direct research and participant observation, decision systems analysis, degrees-of-freedom analysis, ethnographic-decision-tree-modeling, content analysis, and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA.com). The discussion advocates rejecting the dominant logic of attempting to describe and explain B2B processes by arms-length fixed-point surveys that usually involve responses from one executive per firm with no data-matching of firms in specific B2B relationships – such surveys lack details and accuracy necessary for understanding, describing, and forecasting B2B processes.

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Stéphanie Looser and Walter Wehrmeyer

This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate, using stakeholder map methodology, showing power, urgency, legitimacy and concerns of different actors, the current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Switzerland. Previous research on CSR in Europe has made few attempts to identify stakeholders and their contribution to this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

To derive this map, publicly available documents were explored, augmented by 27 interviews with key stakeholders (consumers, media, government, trade unions, non-profit organisations [NPOs], banks, certifiers and consultants) and management of different companies (multinational enterprises [MNEs], small- and medium-sized enterprises [SMEs] and large national companies). Using MAXQDA, the quantified codes given for power, legitimacy and urgency were triangulated between self-reporting, external assessments and statements from publicly available documents and subsequently transferred into stakeholder priorities or, in other words, into positions in the map. Further, the codes given in the interviews for different CSR interests and the results from the document analysis were linked between stakeholders. The identified concerns and priorities were quantitatively analysed in regard to centrality and salience using VennMaker.

Findings

The paper identified SMEs, MNEs and cooperating NPOs as being the most significant stakeholders, in that order. CSR is, therefore, not driven primarily by regulators, market pressure or customers. Further network parameters substantiated the importance of SMEs while following an unconventionally informal and idiosyncratic CSR approach. Hence, insights into these ethics-driven, unformalised business models that pursue broader responsibility based on trust, traditional values, regional anchors and the willingness to “give something back” were formed. Examples of this strong CSR habit include democratic decisions and abolished hierarchies, handshake instead of formal contracts and transparency in all respects (e.g. performance indicators, salaries and bonuses).

Research limitations/implications

In total, 27 interviews as primary data that supplements publicly available documents are clearly only indicative.

Practical implications

The research found an innovative, vibrant and practical CSR model that is emerging for reasons other than conventional CSR agendas that are supposed to evolve. In fact, the stakeholder map and the CSR practices may point at a very different role businesses have adopted in Switzerland. Such models offer a useful, heuristic evaluation of the contribution of formal management systems (e.g. as could be found in MNEs) in comparison to the unformalised SME business conduct.

Originality/value

A rarely reported and astonishing feature of many of the very radical SME practices found in this study is that their link to commercial strategies was, in most cases, not seen. However, SMEs are neither the “poor relative” nor the abridged version of CSR, but are manifesting CSR as a Swiss set of values that fits the societal culture and the visionary goals of SME owners/managers and governs how a sustainably responsible company should behave. Hence, as a new stance and argument within CSR-related research, this paper concludes that “informal” does not mean “weak”. This paper covers a myriad of management fields, e.g. CSR as strategic tool in business ethics; stakeholder and network management; decision-making; and further theoretical frameworks, such as transaction cost and social capital theory. In other words, this research closes scientific gaps by at once applying quantitative as well as qualitative methods and by merging, for the first time, network methodology with CSR and stakeholder research.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Robert G. Magee

This paper aims to show how environment-related worldview beliefs, in addition to specific persuasion knowledge, can influence how a consumer responds to ads about…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show how environment-related worldview beliefs, in addition to specific persuasion knowledge, can influence how a consumer responds to ads about corporate social responsibility (CSR) projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments manipulated ad copy and consumers’ persuasion knowledge to examine the effects of consumers’ environmental worldview beliefs on their judgments of a firm’s CSR reforestation project.

Findings

When an ad presented ambiguous information, both consumers’ persuasion knowledge and their environmental worldview influenced the attribution of the firm’s motives. When an ad presented environment-specific information, however, consumers’ worldview did not influence their attribution of motives. Attributions, in turn, predicted attitudes toward the ad and attitudes toward the brand and were associated with intentions for information-seeking and referral behavior.

Research limitations/implications

A consumer’s core beliefs can play an important role in understanding the application of persuasion knowledge, and the reinforcement-of-meaning principle expands the persuasion knowledge model’s explanatory power.

Practical implications

Marketing communications that involve social responsibility projects must take into account how core beliefs can influence the way consumers respond to projects.

Social implications

This research demonstrates the importance of worldview beliefs in communication that takes place in the public sphere.

Originality/value

The experiments’ results contribute to a more robust understanding of the persuasion knowledge model, particularly as it applies to CSR messages and introduces the reinforcement-of-meaning principle.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2016

Abhishek Gon and Cristina Mititelu

This chapter explores the CSR conceptual framework, with a particular focus on the CSR policy diffusion and integration in the corporate banking in India. In a nutshell…

Abstract

This chapter explores the CSR conceptual framework, with a particular focus on the CSR policy diffusion and integration in the corporate banking in India. In a nutshell, the research has threefold objectives, it explores: the dynamics of the CSR conceptual development, sketching out the main contextual drivers leading to CSR policy importance in developed/developing countries; the CSR evolution in Indian scenario, pointing out India’s cultural and institutional contextual factors; and the context of banking sector regulations on CSR policy and guidelines. The analysis is supported by a comparative multiple case study analysis, on three leading public banks: State Bank of India (SBI), Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank. The rationale for case selection is based on the social and environmental implications of banking financial decisions on the matter. The banking sector is still at the initial stage of integrating CSR policies in their regulations. The findings reveal increasing attention among the banks towards the adoption of social banking regulations. There is a substantial body of empirical evidence showing that the newly CSR core values and guidelines at international level have often had little effect on CSR practice in the banking sector at the country level. The research shows that it is important to look at the CSR evolution through an integrated model of analysis, based on conceptual and empirical evidence. It pointed out an integrated model of analysis of the banking sector through the lens of comparative case studies.

Details

Accountability and Social Responsibility: International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-384-9

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Félix Orlando Martínez-Ríos, José Antonio Marmolejo-Saucedo and Gonzalo Abascal-Olascoaga

This chapter proposes a protocol based on blockchain technology applied to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The first part discusses the characteristics associated…

Abstract

This chapter proposes a protocol based on blockchain technology applied to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The first part discusses the characteristics associated with CSR actions and the main difficulties its development faces, such as transparency, security, fault tolerance, among others. Subsequently, the authors describe the characteristics and concepts related to blockchain-based developments to later describe our framework for the control and development of CSR actions based on blockchain. Herein, the authors also describe how to publicly and privately identify the participating elements of CSR and the operations and resources necessary for the implementation and operation of the proposed protocol.

Details

Strategy, Power and CSR: Practices and Challenges in Organizational Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-973-6

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2016

Sania Batool, Aroosha Butt and Beenish Niazi

This study examines different types of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices across the industries in Pakistan along with their effectiveness. The main aim of…

Abstract

This study examines different types of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices across the industries in Pakistan along with their effectiveness. The main aim of this study is to research the CSR practices and growing trends of CSR in developing countries like Pakistan. Companies adopting CSR as a vital part of their company have frequently been encouraged across the industry and by the governments of their respective countries. A total of 120 individuals from public and private sector institutions participated in this research. The findings suggest that CSR is very effective across the industry. Furthermore, the practices of CSR will result in better social welfare of society. CSR practices have worked a great deal in increasing a company’s goodwill and raising its brand name. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings have been discussed in this chapter. Lastly, this research concludes with details of top effective practices adopted by different companies within same industry as well as across different industries.

Details

Corporate Responsibility and Stakeholding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-626-0

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