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Article

Roel Gijsbers and Jos Lichtenberg

Most buildings are hardly ever technically equipped to adapt to ever changing user demands. Adaptability of building components is known as an essential technical aid to…

Abstract

Purpose

Most buildings are hardly ever technically equipped to adapt to ever changing user demands. Adaptability of building components is known as an essential technical aid to facilitate flexible use. However, for designers and developers it is very difficult to foresee how design decisions related to flexible use effect the efficiency of the technical system, especially when adaptations have to be realized in the future. Due to the large number of variables and interrelations, a structured approach is indispensable to translate (future) user demands into technical solutions for flexible use. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a novel method that can assist designers to systematically find suitable measures for flexible use. This method, named comparative selection method for adaptability measures (CSA method), is developed specifically to impartially select and compare adaptability measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The CSA method is principally based on a performance approach, where technical solutions are compared and matched to performance requirements. To accomplish that, specific tools and theories were transferred from industrial product development. The CSA method displays the benefits of lifespan-oriented design, since a distinction is made between initial, once occurring effects and the effects that come with each expected adaptation.

Findings

In contemporary building practice the initial phase is critical for decision making. By a number of case studies, the application of the CSA method reveals that tailor-made solutions with a high degree of adaptability are in fact the most efficient for the long term. Hereby the view is confirmed that a lifespan-oriented approach in design decisions is essential for a sustainable and future-proof building stock.

Originality/value

The CSA method is a newly developed and unique support tool that assists in optimizing flexible building design through the search for best fit adaptability solutions.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article

JOHN WELLENS and RICHARD PUTNAM

John Wellens writes: In INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRAINING, August 1974, Vol 6 No 8, Mike Jones and Peter Drake, both of the Engineering ITB, wrote jointly about the…

Abstract

John Wellens writes: In INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL TRAINING, August 1974, Vol 6 No 8, Mike Jones and Peter Drake, both of the Engineering ITB, wrote jointly about the importance of improving the performance of systems within organisations. Earlier, in October 1970, Vol 2 No 10, another member of EITB staff, Margaret Walker, had written an important mile‐stone article on clerical training, drawing a sharp distinction between two aspects of competence in clerical work: one, competence in the sensori‐motor skills of typing, shorthand and operating office equipment; two, the proper and accurate use of the current office procedures and systems. The point was made that, whereas effort had been put into training for the former aspect, the latter was more critical to efficient performance and had been an area of training which had been grossly neglected, not only in Britain, but almost universally.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 6 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article

Manolis Papadrakakis, Yiannis Tsompanakis, Ernest Hinton and Johann Sienz

Investigates the efficiency of hybrid solution methods when incorporated into large‐scale topology and shape optimization problems and to demonstrate their influence on…

Abstract

Investigates the efficiency of hybrid solution methods when incorporated into large‐scale topology and shape optimization problems and to demonstrate their influence on the overall performance of the optimization algorithms. Implements three innovative solution methods based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) and Lanczos algorithms. The first method is a PCG algorithm with a preconditioner resulted from a complete or an incomplete Cholesky factorization, the second is a PCG algorithm in which a truncated Neumann series expansion is used as preconditioner, and the third is a preconditioned Lanczos algorithm properly modified to treat multiple right‐hand sides. The numerical tests presented demonstrate the computational advantages of the proposed methods which become more pronounced in large‐scale and/or computationally intensive optimization problems.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article

Antoinette Pole and Archana Kumar

– The purpose of this paper is to seek to segment CSA members based on their motivations to join a CSA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to segment CSA members based on their motivations to join a CSA.

Design/methodology/approach

Data obtained from an online survey of 565 members belonging to a New York state CSA were analyzed using a combined hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis.

Findings

Based on their motivations to join a CSA results reveal four distinct types of segments among CSA members: No-Frills Member, Foodie Member, Nonchalant Member, and Quintessential Member. Results show all four clusters differ statistically across demographic characteristics including gender, political affiliation, and household income. The clusters differed across psychographic characteristics such as attitudes toward the treatment of animals, treatment of farm workers, pesticide use, the environment, food miles, and limiting factory farm purchases. Quintessential Members emerge as most concerned with food purchasing decisions while No-Frills Members are least concerned.

Research limitations/implications

The study employs a non-random purposive sample of CSAs in New York state. Respondents were recruited indirectly to participate in an online survey. The length and complexity of the survey, absence of an email address for respondents, levels of digital fluency, and technical glitches may result in lower participation rates.

Practical implications

This paper offers recommendations to farmers for retaining and attracting different types of CSA members.

Originality/value

This is the first study that segments CSA members in the USA based on their motivations to subscribe to a CSA, and it differentiates CSA member clusters based on their demographics, psychographics, and food purchasing decisions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Anna Gekoski, Julia C. Davidson and Miranda A.H. Horvath

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from a study commissioned by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner (OCC) in England, concerning intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA)/incest. Specifically, it aims to explore what is known about the prevalence, nature, and impact of IFCSA and where the gaps in knowledge lie.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid evidence assessment (REA) was used, the function of which is to: search the literature as comprehensively as possible within given time constraints; collate descriptive outlines of the available evidence on a topic and critically appraise it; sift out studies of poor quality; and provide an overview of the evidence. Over 57,000 documents were scanned, and 296 ultimately systematically analysed.

Findings

It was found that: there is wide variation in prevalence rates between studies; girls are more likely to be victims than boys; the onset of abuse is typically school age; abuse in minority groups is under-reported; sibling abuse may be more common than that by fathers; female perpetrated abuse may be under-reported; families where abuse occurs are often dysfunctional; and IFCSA has significant adverse effects on victims.

Research limitations/implications

A REA is not a full systematic review, differing in the scope and depth of the searches and depending almost exclusively on electronic databases, not accompanied by searching journals by hand.

Practical implications

This work found numerous gaps in current knowledge about IFCSA, which the authors recommend be addressed by further research, including: the scale and nature of IFCSA in disabled victims, research on BME children’s experiences; the prevalence of abuse by stepfathers as compared to biological fathers; the experiences of male victims; the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered child victims; the short-term impact of IFCSA based on child victims’ experiences; and more widely, further research on the prevalence of abuse in clinical populations and the relationship between that and prevalence in wider society. In addition to such questions, the OCC inquiry will also investigate issues surrounding child protection and criminal justice responses to (IF)CSA and how these might be improved. The evidence base for this section of the inquiry is reported in Gekoski et al. (2016).

Originality/value

The findings of this research provide the evidence base for a new two-year inquiry into the subject of IFCSA by the OCC.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article

Nama Ajay Nagendra and Lakshman Pappula

The issues of radiating sources in the existence of smooth convex matters by such objects are of huge significance in the modeling of antennas on structures. Conformal…

Abstract

Purpose

The issues of radiating sources in the existence of smooth convex matters by such objects are of huge significance in the modeling of antennas on structures. Conformal antenna arrays are necessary when an antenna has to match to certain platforms. A fundamental problem in the design is that the possible surfaces for a conformal antenna are infinite in number. Furthermore, if there is no symmetry, each element will see a different environment, and this complicates the mathematics. As a consequence, the element factor cannot be factored out from the array factor.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper intends to enhance the design of the conformal antenna. Here, the main objective of this task is to maximize the antenna gain and directivity from the first-side lobe and other side-lobes in the two way radiation pattern. Thus the adopted model is designed as a multiobjective concern. In order to attain this multiobjective function, both the element spacing and the radius of each antenna element should be optimized based on the probability of the Crow Search Algorithm (CSA). Thus the proposed method is named Probability Improved CSA (PI-CSA). Here, the First Null Beam Width (FNBW) and Side-Lobe Level (SLL) are minimized. Moreover, the adopted scheme is compared with conventional algorithms, and the results are attained.

Findings

From the analysis, the gain of the presented PI-CSA scheme in terms of best performance was 52.68% superior to ABC, 25.11% superior to PSO, 13.38% superior to FF and 3.21% superior to CS algorithms. Moreover, the mean performance of the adopted model was 62.94% better than ABC, 13.06% better than PSO, 24.34% better than FF and 10.05% better than CS algorithms. By maximizing the gain and directivity, FNBW and SLL were decreased. Thus, the optimal design of the conformal antenna has been attained by the proposed PI-CSA algorithm in an effective way.

Originality/value

This paper presents a technique for enhancing the design of the conformal antenna using the PI-CSA algorithm. This is the first work that utilizes PI-CSA-based optimization for improving the design of the conformal antenna.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

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Article

Hussaini Bala, Noor Afza Amran and Hasnah Shaari

The literature on the influence of audit committees (ACs) and cosmetic accounting (CSA) is scarce. This paper aims to examine the influence of AC attributes on CSA and how…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on the influence of audit committees (ACs) and cosmetic accounting (CSA) is scarce. This paper aims to examine the influence of AC attributes on CSA and how this relationship is moderated by the audit price (AUPR).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used pooled logistic regressions to analyse 624 firm-year observations of listed companies in Nigeria from 2008 to 2016.

Findings

The results show that AC financial accounting expertise, AC legal expertise and female AC membership were negatively related to CSA. The negative relationship is highly pronounced when a firm incurs higher audit fees. Results for the robustness checks were similar, even with changes to the measurements of dependent and independent variables and alternative estimation.

Practical implications

This study can benefit policymakers and regulators, enabling them to better appreciate the importance of AC attributes and AUPR in curtailing artificial manipulation and enhancing financial reporting quality.

Social implications

This study can benefit policymakers and regulators, enabling them to better appreciate the importance of AC attributes and AUPR in curtailing artificial manipulation and enhancing financial reporting quality.

Originality/value

The findings provide an initial insight into the moderating effect of AUPR on the relationship between AC attributes and CSA.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article

James Sheffield and Siobhan White

Control self‐assessment (CSA) has been discussed as an audit technique, but little practical guidance is available in the UK on the subject. A limited number of public…

Abstract

Control self‐assessment (CSA) has been discussed as an audit technique, but little practical guidance is available in the UK on the subject. A limited number of public sector organisations have implemented it. This paper describes a case study of CSA implementation in a Scottish Housing Association. The case study details the decision processes that led to the choice of CSA as a favoured audit technique, and the development of CSA skills within the organisation. This paper examines the broader benefits of a CSA approach, in terms of performance management and employee empowerment. This paper also uses a cost benefit analysis to examine the efficacy of CSA for small organisations.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article

Julia Wilpert and Ellen Janssen

This study aims to exploratively compare several characteristics of 330 offending and non-offending Dutch subjects, seeking advice/help from child sexual abuse (CSA

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to exploratively compare several characteristics of 330 offending and non-offending Dutch subjects, seeking advice/help from child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention helpline Stop it Now!-The Netherlands (SiN-NL).

Design/methodology/approach

With a retrospective cross-sectional design, SiN-NL contact logs between March 2012 and June 2016 were investigated.

Findings

Results revealed a few interesting differences and similarities. Contrary to earlier findings, attraction to minors and especially boys did not distinguish offenders and non-offenders. However, intimate partner status, suicidal tendencies and expectation of the helpline differed significantly between the study samples. Also, the relevance of several self-reported CSA promoting and impeding factors varied between groups. The non-offender group more often indicated fear of consequences and avoidance of risk situations to be constraining factors, whilst the offender group more frequently suggested benefiting from professional help and social support.

Practical implications

The results of this study might inform different forms of prevention and treatment programs aimed at similar help-seeking individuals. Because of their perceived CSA promoting potential by help seekers, access to children and substance abuse are important topics to address by operators and taken into account when assessing offending risk. In contrast to earlier findings, sexual orientation did not differentiate offenders from non-offenders and might play a less significant role. Higher rates of suicidal tendencies and need for help and therapy could imply that, compared to non-offenders, offenders require a more cautious approach and additional care.

Originality/value

To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate self-reports of offending and non-offending subjects, seeking advice/help from a CSA prevention helpline.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Content available
Article

Prasenjit Dey, Aniruddha Bhattacharya and Priyanath Das

This paper reports a new technique for achieving optimized design for power system stabilizers. In any large scale interconnected systems, disturbances of small magnitudes…

Abstract

This paper reports a new technique for achieving optimized design for power system stabilizers. In any large scale interconnected systems, disturbances of small magnitudes are very common and low frequency oscillations pose a major problem. Hence small signal stability analysis is very important for analyzing system stability and performance. Power System Stabilizers (PSS) are used in these large interconnected systems for damping out low-frequency oscillations by providing auxiliary control signals to the generator excitation input. In this paper, collective decision optimization (CDO) algorithm, a meta-heuristic approach based on the decision making approach of human beings, has been applied for the optimal design of PSS. PSS parameters are tuned for the objective function, involving eigenvalues and damping ratios of the lightly damped electromechanical modes over a wide range of operating conditions. Also, optimal locations for PSS placement have been derived. Comparative study of the results obtained using CDO with those of grey wolf optimizer (GWO), differential Evolution (DE), Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) and crow search algorithm (CSA) methods, established the robustness of the algorithm in designing PSS under different operating conditions.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. 16 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

Keywords

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