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The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) – the modern equivalent of the historic Silk Route – will connect China to multiple countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe through a…
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) – the modern equivalent of the historic Silk Route – will connect China to multiple countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe through a complex web of land and sea routes. As a pilot project of a network of this magnitude, the 62 billion dollar China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) has far-reaching implications for future bilateral agreements with other countries along the routes, and for geopolitics in the region. This chapter will analyze CPEC along the following key strands of inquiry: Pakistan’s internal political economy, her macroeconomic stability, and an analysis of the corridor’s long-term impact.
While the literature on corridors is extensive, it does not give us a unifying theory with which to gauge the effectiveness of CPEC, which is more than an economic endeavor. In order to truly understand the dynamics of the region, the authors examine the extent to which domestic support for the CPEC may impact the whole initiative, and how the deficiencies in local infrastructure may take away from its success.
Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of…
Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of cross-border mega-infrastructure development within the China–Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). It was hypothesised that these perceptions may be predictors of residents’ perceived destination image (RPDI) and pro-tourism development behaviour (PTDB).
Interviewer adopted a self-administered questionnaire method and a descriptive technique to analyse the data.
The empirical results of 800 questionnaires in SEM indicates that, perceived CPEC benefits positively effects RPDI and PTDB. Further, the perceived CPEC costs positively influenced RPDI but had a negative relationship with PTDB. Moreover, RPDI partially mediated between perceived CPEC benefits and PTDB but fully mediated between perceived CPEC costs and PTDB.
In residents’ destination image studies, there is a paucity of the application of Butlers’ TALC model. Therefore, application of Butlers’ TALC model in residents’ destination image study in the context of cross-border mega-infrastructure development project of CPEC is entirely new.
通过对800份问卷数据的结构方程分析, 发现感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益积极影响居民感知目的地形象和旅游发展前的行为。进一步, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本积极影响居民感知目的地形象但是消极影响旅游发展前的行为。而且, 居民感知目的地形象部分中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益和旅游发展前的行为, 完全中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本和旅游发展前的行为。
在居民目的地形象研究中, 很少使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型。故而, 在居民目的地形象研究中使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型, 应用在中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊这一跨国界的大型基础设施开发项目情境中, 是创新的。
目的地形象, 旅游发展前行为, 巴特勒旅游目的地生命周期模型, 利益相关者理论, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊的影响, 多群组分析
Este trabajo, basado en el modelo de CDVT de Butlers y la teoría de stakeholder, propone un modelo integrador para examinar los impactos percibidos del desarrollo transfronterizo de megainfraestructuradentro dentro del corredor económico China-Pakistán (CPEC). Se presumió que estas percepciones pueden ser predictores de la imagen de destino percibida de los residentes y del comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.
el entrevistador adoptó un método de cuestionario autoadministrado y una técnica descriptiva para analizar los datos.
Los resultados empíricos de 800 cuestionarios en el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés) indican que los beneficios percibidos del CPEC influyen positivamente en la RPDI y en el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo. Además, los costos percibidos del CPEC influyeron positivamente en la RPDI pero tuvieron una relación negativa con el desarrollo pro-turismo. Por otra parte, la RPDI media parcialmente entre los beneficios percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo, pero totalmente mediado entre los costos percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.
En los estudios de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, rara vez se aplica el Modelo del Ciclo de Vida de los Destinos Turísticos de Butlers (MCDVT). Por lo tanto, la aplicación del modelo de CDVT de Butlers en el estudio de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, en el contexto dell proyecto de desarrollo trans-fronterizo de la mega-infraestructura del CPEC, es completamente nuevo
- Residents’ destination image
- Pro-tourism development behaviour
- Perceived CPEC impacts
- Multiple group analysis
- Butlers’ TALC model
- Stakeholder theory
- Imagen de destino percibida de los residents
- Comportamiento de desarrollo proturismo
- Impacto del cpec
- Análisis multigrupo
- Modelo del Ciclo de Vida de los Destinos Turísticos de Butlers (MCDVT)
- Programas de postgrado
- La teoría de stakeholder
The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
This study reviews the available literature to assess the role of CPEC in the sustainable economic development of Pakistan.
This study indicates that CPEC is an ambitious development project because it needs a larger restructuring of the economy of Pakistan and it will be productive with the successful blend of policy changes and participation of the business community in Pakistan. This project primarily creates a huge amount of foreign direct investment for Pakistan, at the same time, it will also create greater trade opportunities to China by giving access to a new market for its trading goods.
This study established that CPEC will improve the economic growth and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people-to-people contacts in both the countries, which will further help to improve the tourism sector.
The phenomena of arbitral forum shopping to resolve a commercial investment dispute is still under development and more complicated in many states. However, for Pakistan…
The phenomena of arbitral forum shopping to resolve a commercial investment dispute is still under development and more complicated in many states. However, for Pakistan, it seems in an evolutionary phase, where the country is struggling hard to adopt the best practice of dispute resolution through forum shopping clauses. This struggle is even more inflated with huge Chinese investment through China Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC) projects in Pakistan, which come alongside with commercial investment disputes. For this purpose, the current treaty or contract-based system between China and Pakistan and litigation based domestic civil court structure look obsolete, hence, appear to require reinstatement of forum shopping clauses under concerned treaties or contracts for CPEC investment-related issues.
The authors choose a legal research method. The research design is a comparative analysis between CPEC contracts and dispute resolution mechanism between China and Pakistan and also the domestic civil court’s litigation system. This analysis selected by the authors due to inefficient bilateral investment arrangements and efficient resolution of future commercial disputes in CPEC. While the international arbitration system is included in the assessment were particular in the time and space context. The comparison comprises on dispute resolution clauses in free trade agreement (FTA) and bilateral investment treaties (BIT) between China and Pakistan and the system of resolving disputes by CPEC clauses.
The authors finds that in the absence of CPEC forum shopping clause under dispute resolution system, Pakistan is highly at risk to lose foreign investors, and therefore, set back the goal of long term economic sustainability in the region. However, China has already made its investment policies safer with establishing three international commercial courts (also referred to as Belt and Road courts), one in Xi’an for the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt, one in Shenzhen for the Maritime Silk Road and one in Beijing that will serve as the headquarters. These courts will be offering litigation, arbitration and mediation services. According to one view, China aims to have all belt and road initiative (BRI) disputes resolved by these courts. This makes Pakistan position more awkward and needs proactive measures, as CPEC investment is based on Pakistan foreign direct investment policies and legal structure. Therefore, it will be complicated and less favourable for Pakistan to deal with such cases under Chinese Courts.
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that comprehensive analysis of alternative dispute resolution mechanism between China and Pakistan over CPEC investment is inevitable. A socio-legal research combine with an examination of Singapore International Commercial Court functions and mechanism and CPEC plans further contributes to ascertain the best model of the settlement of commercial disputes under investments in Pakistan. This research paper anticipates future economic and legal problems, which Pakistan may encounter.
This study examines the new venue of moving illegal wealth from Pakistan under the umbrella of China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The study first discussed the…
This study examines the new venue of moving illegal wealth from Pakistan under the umbrella of China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The study first discussed the features of CPEC in short and how it may bring stability and a new phase of development in the region and also in Pakistan. The review of related literature has suggested that previous studies are more focused on the advantages of CPEC and are almost neglecting the cons of the said project. Later, the research puts light on the problem of money laundering from Pakistan through CPEC and related trade transactions; Walker’s Gravity model has been used to calculate the attractiveness of money laundering. It has highlighted that China’s attractiveness for moving illegal wealth from Pakistan is increased in recent years; the risk of an increase in the amount of money laundered is also analyzed through the Fan Chart technique. Attributes which are making China more attractive for Pakistani wrongdoers are also discussed. The study aims to conclude that if the problem of money laundering will be addressed properly, the CPEC will play a vital role in bringing stability in Pakistan.
This study uses a descriptive and quantitative approach. This study uses the Walker’s Gravity Model updated by Unger et al. (2006) to measure money laundering in Pakistan. A newly developed technique for forecasting that is Fan Chart has been used to predict the trend of China’s attractiveness for money laundering as a preferred destination from Pakistan.
The study finds out that China is already increasing its ranking as a favorite destination for money laundering from Pakistan. Fan Chart analysis suggests that the attractiveness score will be increased.
The study helps in highlighting the problem of increase in money laundering from Pakistan through China under the umbrella of CPEC.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no study found on the topic of the problem of money laundering linked with CPEC, and this is the first effort to point out the problem.
Security risks to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor within Pakistan.
Economic risks to Pakistan posed by the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects are widely spread throughout Pakistan with the potential to have a massive impact on Pakistan’s economic future. CPEC…
China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects are widely spread throughout Pakistan with the potential to have a massive impact on Pakistan’s economic future. CPEC projects have, therefore, made it imperative that green practices are adapted to provide sustainability to the CPEC projects. The adoption of green supply chain management (GSCM) framework will significantly increase the value attained from CPEC projects through the increased benefits to the socio-cultural and economic conditions of Pakistan without causing harm to the environment. The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the GSCM practices for implementation in the construction industry of Pakistan according to expert opinion.
This study targets the experts who are employed as supply chain managers in the different construction industries of Pakistan. The opinions of these experts have been extracted through an online questionnaire that was based on six alternatives along with four criteria. The tool of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) that is a Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) has been used to analyze the results.
Six alternatives that have been used for this study are green design, green procurement, green production, green warehousing, green transportation and green recycling. The top-ranked alternative as a practice for GSCM is green warehousing followed by green production. The lowest ranked alternative in this study is green recycling. The alternatives have been ranked on the basis of “cc” values derived through TOPSIS.
As the advancement in the construction industry will definitely going to impact the environmental sustainability of the country, the results derived through this research will assist the managers of the construction industry of Pakistan to adopt best practices among green supply chain in order to lower their impact.
Framework using TOPSIS in order to find the best GSCM practice in Pakistan has not been reported before this study.
Road and transportation has a significant role in the prosperity, economic growth and development of a region. The main purpose of this study is to conduct an in-depth…
Road and transportation has a significant role in the prosperity, economic growth and development of a region. The main purpose of this study is to conduct an in-depth analysis of local residents’ attitude towards road and transport infrastructure (China–Pakistan economic corridor, CPEC) and the wider economic, social, cultural and environmental impact on local people.
Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from the local people. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling approach were used to test the relation between the observed and latent variables.
The result discovered that road infrastructure has significant socio-economic and cultural impacts that significantly affect the local people support for CPEC development. It also revealed that more promotion and awareness regarding benefits of the project for dwellers lead to more support of the local residents in the study area.
Information provided by this study will help policymakers to gain local resident support for the project and make policies accordingly for the future projects.
This study investigated the attitude and support of the local people based on the road infrastructure’s social, economic, cultural and environmental impact, which has never been examined in the existing literature.
Threats to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.