Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Zeinab Hosseini, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mahin Ghafourzade and Abbasali Jafari Nodoushan

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central province of Iran, using mixed fungal culture.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the effluent samples from the cardboard recycling industry were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium to isolate native fungal colonies. The grown colonies were then identified using morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to choose the dominant fungi for bioremediations. The mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium digitatum were finally used for bioremediation experiments of the cardboard recycling industry. A suspension containing 1 × 106 CFU/ml of fungal spores was prepared from each fungus, separately and their homogenous mixture. Sewage samples were prepared and sterilized and used at 25%, 50% and 90% dilutions and pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 for bioremediation tests using mixed fungal spores. Following that, 10 ml of the mixed fungal spores were inoculated into the samples for decolorization and COD removal and incubated for 10 days at 30°C. The amount of COD removal and decolorization were measured before incubation and after 3, 6 and 10 days of inoculation. In this research, the color was measured by American Dye Manufacturer Institute and COD by the closed reflux method. The results of the present study were analyzed using SPSS 21 statistical software and one-way ANOVA tests at p-value < 0.05.

Findings

The results of this research showed that the mean decolorization by mixed fungal culture over 10 days at pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 were 44.40%, 45.00% and 36.84%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 71.59%, 73.54% and 16.55%, respectively. Moreover, the mean decolorization at dilutions of 25%, 50% and 90% were 45.00%, 31.93% and 30.53%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 73.54%, 62.38% and 34.93%, respectively. Therefore, the maximal COD removal and decolorization efficiency was obtained at dilution of 25% and pH 7.

Originality/value

Given that limited studies have been conducted on bioremediation of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry using fungal species, this research could provide useful information on the physicochemical properties of the effluent in this industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Banggang Wu, Xiaoyu Deng and Xuebin Cui

The existing research does not systematically explore customers' option about different payment methods, nor does it analyze how shopping channels and shopping scale…

Abstract

Purpose

The existing research does not systematically explore customers' option about different payment methods, nor does it analyze how shopping channels and shopping scale affect customers' option about different payment methods. Furthermore, there is a lack of exploration on what the relationship is, and how they are adjusted by customer purchasing experience. The authors’ research questions are: (1) when using different shopping channels in online retailing, whether customers will choose different types of payment methods? (2) Does the purchase amounts affect customers' choice of different payment methods?

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes 60,484 customers from JD.com, one of the largest B2C platforms in China, as the research object and collects the purchase data of these customers from October 01, 2012 to December 31, 2013, and analyzes them through panel data models.

Findings

Based on their purchase data, the authors find the main results by using panel data model that (1) the use of mobile channel has a positive effect on cash on delivery (COD), implying that when consumers use mobile to purchase, they have a higher possibility to use COD, (2) the order size has a positive effects on COD, that is to say, when the purchase amount increases, the possibility of using COD also increases. (3) Furthermore, when consumers' purchase experience abound, mobile channel's positive effect on COD will be decreased, but it does not affect the positive effect between order size and COD.

Originality/value

From the aspects of shopping channels, product attributes and customer purchase experience, it fills the gaps in the research on the preselection of payment methods and makes research of payment methods a complete research system. Secondly, this study adds COD to the options of payment method selection. Finally, the moderating effect of customer shopping experience from a dynamic perspective elaborates that customers can learn from multiple purchases and overcome the shopping risks brought by shopping channels, thereby reducing the probability of choosing a COD method.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Leila Hamzaoui and Dwight Merunka

The purpose of this paper is to decompose the concept of country of origin (COO) and test the influence of country of design (COD) and country of manufacture (COM) on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to decompose the concept of country of origin (COO) and test the influence of country of design (COD) and country of manufacture (COM) on consumer evaluations of bi‐national products (products designed in one country and manufactured in another). In addition to global country images, the paper aims to introduce the concept of “fit” or the logical connection between product categories and the COD or COM.

Design/methodology/approach

Relationships between constructs (perceived product quality, COD image, COM image and perceived fits) are hypothesized and data are collected via survey on the Tunisian market. Each of the 389 respondents evaluated different combinations (COD/COM) for two product categories (automobiles and television sets). All hypotheses are tested using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The paper finds that the concept of fit between country image (both COD and COM) and product category is an important determinant of product evaluations. For products with status symbolic meanings (automobiles), consumers from emerging countries are more sensitive to COD than for more private goods (television sets) for which COM and COM/product fit are important.

Research limitations/implications

This study used two informational cues (COD and COM), and fairly complex durable goods. Results need to be expanded and confirmed with other product categories on other emergent markets.

Practical implications

Practical implications of the study are that, beyond country images, measurement of fit between COD or COM and the product category will help define marketing communications and product promotions by emphasizing (or de‐emphasizing) global country information, country image/product fit, or both.

Originality/value

The paper provides new insights into consumer judgements of product quality for bi‐national products.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Elke Genschow, Werner Hegemann and Christian Maschke

Investigates anaerobic two‐stage treatment of tannery wastewater. This results in a mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 60 per cent for tannery B and more than 70…

Abstract

Investigates anaerobic two‐stage treatment of tannery wastewater. This results in a mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 60 per cent for tannery B and more than 70 per cent for tanneries A and C with CODo = 5,710mg l‐1 and mean detention time held at 3.5 days. Gas production was small, rating an estimated 75 l kg‐1 CODo with CODo = 5,710mg l‐1. Tests simultaneously the influence of quality and quantity of wastewater on COD removal and gas production (multiple regression). Finds significant inhibitory effects were caused by chloride on gas volume and by sulphate on COD removal. Chromium showed no significant effect. Dosage of ferric chloride for removal of the toxic sulphide effected a decrease in gas volume and had no effect on COD removal (analysis of variance).

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Yasser Eliwa, Andros Gregoriou and Audrey Paterson

This paper aims to investigate the empirical relationship between the cost of debt (CoD) and accruals quality (AQ) of European listed firms during the period of 2005 to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the empirical relationship between the cost of debt (CoD) and accruals quality (AQ) of European listed firms during the period of 2005 to 2014. Also, it aims to test the impact of the interrelationship between the financial crisis (2008-2009) and AQ on CoD. Finally, we decompose AQ into two components; the innate (InnateAQ) and discretionary components (DiscAQ); and test their relationships with CoD.

Design/methodology/approach

To empirically examine the relationship between AQ and CoD, a sample including 15 member states of the EU is constructed. AQ proxy is based on the McNichols (2002) modification of Dechow and Dichev (2002) model. A univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis are conducted to examine the relationship between AQ and CoD after controlling for firm characteristics and institutional variables.

Findings

We find a significant negative association between AQ and CoD in a vast proportion of the 15 countries under review. Also, the results indicate that during the crisis period, creditors pay relatively more attention to the quality of accounting information than during the pre-crisis period when they determine CoD of firms. Moreover, we report a link between the magnitude of this relationship and national characteristics and provide evidence of the significant effects of national characteristics and market forces on CoD. Finally, we find that InnateAQ drives the relationship with CoD.

Practical implications

This paper provides up-to-date evidence on the economic consequences of AQ and IFRS in the capital market. The results should, therefore, be of interest to managers, creditors, regulators and standard-setters.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to investigate the effects of AQ on CoD for European listed firms. Also, it examines the impact of financial crisis on the association between AQ and CoD.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 July 2007

Leila Hamzaoui Essoussi and Dwight Merunka

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in an emerging market, the simultaneous effects of country of design (COD), country of manufacture (COM), and brand image on consumers' perceptions of bi‐national products. A comprehensive model broadens country‐of‐origin literature by incorporating brand image and the concepts of fit and congruity borrowed from brand extension research. Perceptual (in) coherences that might exist among COD, COM, and the brand are incorporated.

Design/methodology/approach

Tunisia is the emerging market studied. A total of 389 respondents evaluated different product combinations (COD/COM/brand) in two categories. Relationships between constructs are tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

Consumers are sensitive to the COD (more so for public than for private goods) and also value the COM of branded products. The transfer of the COD image to brand image is significant. It is very high for one product category (cars). Brand/COM congruity is also important since product evaluations decrease when consumers perceive incoherence in a manufacturing location.

Research limitations/implications

The paper used limited informational cues for products' descriptions and concentrate on fairly complex durable goods. Research design should be expanded.

Practical implications

Perceived COD competencies can benefit brand image through strong COD‐brand associations. In emerging markets, COD (through brand image) and COM effects are important for understanding consumers' perceptions of publicly versus privately used branded products.

Originality/value

The major contribution consists of a simultaneous examination of the effects of COD, COM, brand, and of their inter‐relationships. Investigating bi‐national products and related consumer behaviour in emerging markets is of particular interest as it corresponds to the reality of these markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Themistoklis Altintzoglou, Bjørg Helen Nøstvold, Mats Carlehög, Morten Heide, Jens Østli and Finn‐Arne Egeness

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of information on English consumers' evaluation of fresh and thawed cod fillets which in English retail stores is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of information on English consumers' evaluation of fresh and thawed cod fillets which in English retail stores is referred to as “chilled” seafood.

Design/methodology/approach

After the exploration of consumers' impressions of thawed fish, this study followed a pair‐wise comparison approach in a central location consumer test. Fish fillets were evaluated on liking, smell and texture by means of a questionnaire with additional behavioural and attitudinal questions.

Findings

This study showed that consumers in England may prefer thawed over fresh cod fillets without information. However, consumers' evaluations increased for labelled fresh cod fillets and decreased for thawed. Finally, consumers reported positive expectations about fillets labelled “fresh” or “frozen at sea”.

Research limitation/implications

This study involved testing cod fillets in a central location test. Consumers do not usually evaluate cod fillets in this way in their daily life. The quality of the two types of fillets made especially for this test may vary compared to the ones usually sold and consumed.

Practical implications

This study can inform producers and retailers about what to expect by means of sales of fresh and thawed cod products with or without information.

Social implications

It was shown that consumers are positively influenced by information and are willing to consume more fish if they know that the fish is fresh or thawed properly.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to present English consumers' evaluations of thawed cod.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Samuel Jebaraj Benjamin and Pallab Biswas

This study aims to examine whether CEO duality affects the association between board gender composition, dividend policy and cost of debt (COD).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether CEO duality affects the association between board gender composition, dividend policy and cost of debt (COD).

Design/methodology/approach

The S&P 1500 firms’ data for this study were collected from the Bloomberg professional service terminal for the period 2010-2015.

Findings

The results show that board gender composition positively impacts both a firm’s propensity to pay dividends and the level of payouts. However, this positive association is only present in firms with CEO duality. The authors find no significant association between board gender composition and COD, but when the authors split the sample into firms with and without CEO duality, the authors find a negative association in firms without CEO duality.

Practical implications

The empirical results highlight important issues for policymakers, managers and investors. The study provides positive feedback on corporate governance rejuvenation efforts that seek to engender and advocate the appointments of female directors to corporate boards. Market participants, such as financial analysts and lenders, could recognize the empirical specifics related to the influence of board gender composition on firms’ dividend policy and COD in the context of CEO duality.

Originality/value

This study fills an important gap in the literature on the relationship between board gender composition and its relation with dividend policy and COD.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Themistoklis Altintzoglou, Morten Heide and Mats Carlehög

The aims of this study were: to identify consumer segments in France, based on their use of and trust in information sources regarding the freshness of fish, to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this study were: to identify consumer segments in France, based on their use of and trust in information sources regarding the freshness of fish, to examine differences between the segments regarding use of and interest in information cues and objective and subjective knowledge, to compare the consumer segments regarding their fish consumption and fish storage behaviour and to discover how different consumer segments reacted to labels regarding the processing of cod fillet products.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes how French consumers (n=485) of fish were clustered in three segments based on their use of and trust in information sources regarding the freshness of fish and then compared by means of use of and interest in various information cues, knowledge, fish consumption behaviour, age and parenthood.

Findings

Information regarding thawed cod fillet products should be carefully communicated. Fresh fish remains at the top of consumers' aspirations, regarding fish. However, a short label indicating that fish was frozen directly after catch and thawed directly before they were put on the retailers' displays may lead to an improvement of the image of previously frozen cod fillet products.

Research limitations/implications

This survey based study could be confirmed in a real-life experimental setting.

Practical implications

The results can be direct advice for the development of communication strategies for the successful launching of fresh and thawed cod fillet products in the market.

Originality/value

This manuscript expands the segmentation presented by Pieniak et al. to France. Using this segmentation as a starting point, this study demonstrates the benefits of its use in the development of directed communication strategies.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 November 2018

Praveen Kumar and Mohammad Firoz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between carbon emissions and a firm’s cost of debt (COD) in the Indian context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between carbon emissions and a firm’s cost of debt (COD) in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is based on the Indian firms who disclose their emissions data under the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) during the period 2011 to 2014. The selection model is being used to remove the problem of endogeneity and sample selection bias. Further, the testing model is being used to examine the impact of carbon emissions on the COD.

Findings

The present study found that the coefficient of carbon emissions is positively and significantly associated with the COD. Moreover, the outcomes of the robustness test further show that the COD will be higher for polluting firms than environmentally friendly firms in India.

Research limitations/implications

The study has covered all the companies from India who are disclosing their emissions data under the CDP, London. The study will be most relevant for financial planning and capital structure design by the Indian companies. However, in designing the capital structure, the only COD is being covered in this study.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, the present study is a first of its kind to investigate the relationship between firms’ carbon emissions level and COD in the Indian context.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000